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Prologue: Psychology

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Prologue: Psychology s Roots Definition of Psychology The science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Prologue: Psychology


1
Prologue Psychologys Roots
  • Definition of Psychology
  • The science of behavior (what we do) and mental
    processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams,
    thoughts, beliefs, and feelings)

2
Psychologys Roots
  • Prescientific Psychology

In India, Buddha wondered how sensations and
perceptions combined to form ideas.
3
Prescientific Psychology
  • Confucius (551-479 B.C.)

In China, Confucius stressed the power of ideas
and the importance of an educated mind.
4
Prescientific Psychology
  • Hebrew Scriptures

Hebrew scriptures linked mind and emotion to the
body.
5
Prescientific Psychology
  • Socrates (469-399 B.C.) and Plato (428-348 B.C.)

Socrates
Plato
Socrates and his student Plato believed the mind
was separate from the body, the mind continued to
exist after death, and ideas were innate.
6
Prescientific Psychology
  • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)

Aristotle suggested that the soul is not
separable from the body and that knowledge
(ideas) grow from experience.
7
Prescientific Psychology
  • Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

Descartes, like Plato, believed in soul
(mind)-body separation, but wondered how the
immaterial mind and physical body communicated.
8
Prescientific Psychology
  • Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

Bacon is one of the founders of modern science,
particularly the experimental method.
9
Prescientific Psychology
  • John Locke (1632-1704)

Locke held that the mind was a tabula rasa, or
blank sheet, at birth, and experiences wrote on
it.
10
Prescientific Psychology
  • What is the relation of mind to the body?

Mind and body are connected Mind and body are distinct
The Hebrews Socrates
Aristotle Plato
Augustine Descartes
11
Prescientific Psychology
  • How are ideas formed?

Some ideas are inborn The mind is a blank slate
Socrates Aristotle
Plato Locke
12
Prologue Psychologys Roots
  • Psychological Science
  • Is Born
  • Empiricism
  • Knowledge comes from
  • experience via the senses
  • Science flourishes
  • through observation
  • and experiment

13
Wilhelm Wundt
14
Psychological Science is Born
  • Structuralism-uses introspection to study
    structure of the mind

Titchner (1867-1927)
Wundt (1832-1920)
Wundt and Titchener studied the elements (atoms)
of the mind by conducting experiments at Leipzig,
Germany, in 1879.
15
Psychological Science is Born
  • Functionalism-study how mind and behavior
    function-how organisms adapt to environment

James (1842-1910)
Mary Calkins
Influenced by Darwin, William James established
the school of functionalism, which opposed
structuralism.
16
Prologue Psychologys Roots
  • Functionalism focused on how behavioral processes
    function- how they enable organism to adapt,
    survive, and flourish

17
Psychological Science is Born
  • The Unconscious Mind

Freud (1856-1939)
Sigmund Freud and his followers emphasized the
importance of the unconscious mind and its
effects on human behavior.
18
Psychological Science Develops
  • Behaviorism

Skinner (1904-1990)
Watson (1878-1958)
Watson (1913) and later Skinner emphasized the
study of overt (observable) behavior as the
subject matter of scientific psychology.
19
William James
20
Psychological Science Develops
  • Humanistic Psychology

Maslow (1908-1970)
Rogers (1902-1987)
Maslow and Rogers emphasized current
environmental influences on our growth potential
and our need for love and acceptance.
21
Other Pioneers
  • John B. Watson (18781958)
  • psychologists should study overt behavior
    Father of Behaviorism
  • B. F. Skinner (19041990)
  • American psychologist at Harvard
  • studied learning and effect of reinforcement
  • Father of Operant Conditioning

22
John B. Watson (18781958)
23
B. F. Skinner (19041990)
24
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25
Psychological Associations Societies
  • The American Psychological Association is the
    largest organization of psychology with 160,000
    members world-wide, followed by the British
    Psychological Society with 34,000 members.

26
Psychologys Three Main Levels of Analysis
27
Prologue Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychologys Big Issues
  • Stability vs. Change
  • Do our individual traits persist as we age?
  • Do we become older versions of ourselves?

28
Prologue Contemporary Psychology
  • Rationality vs. Irrationality
  • Rationality reasonableness, good sense of equity
    and proportion
  • Irrationality not reasonable in thinking or
    behaving, distorted perception of reality

29
Philosophical Developments
BIG
  • Another Question
  • Nature vs. Nurture
  • the relative contribution that genes and
    experience make to development of psychological
    traits and behaviors
  • Are abilities determined by our genes or our
    experiences?
  • What are the interactions between genetics and
    environment?
  • What effect does it have on behavior?

30
Prologue Contemporary Psychology
  • John Locke
  • empiricist believed that knowledge is acquired
    solely through life experiences. Tabula Rasa
    blank tablet
  • Claimed each of us is born a blank slate on
    which are written the life experiences we acquire
    through our senses.
  • (Plato believed just the opposite)

31
Prologue Contemporary Psychology
  • Rene Descartes
  • rationalist insisted we should doubt everything
    that is not proved by our own reasoning. True
    knowledge comes through correct reasoning and it
    is inborn.

32
Charles Darwin
33
Prologue Contemporary Psychology
Charles Darwin
  • Natural selection
  • principle that those inherited trait variations
    contributing to survival will most likely be
    passed on to succeeding generations

34
Psychologys Current Perspectives
Perspective Focus Sample Questions
Neuroscience How the body and brain enables emotions? How are messages transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?
Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits the promotes the perpetuation of ones genes? How does evolution influence behavior tendencies?
Behavior genetics How much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences? To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment?
35
Psychologys Current Perspectives
Perspective Focus Sample Questions
Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts? How can someones personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?
Behavioral How we learn observable responses? How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say to lose weight or quit smoking?
36
Psychologys Current Perspectives
Perspective Focus Sample Questions
Cognitive How we encode, process, store and retrieve information? How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Problem solving?
Social-cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures? How are we as Africans, Asians, Australians or North Americans alike as members of human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ?
37
Psychologys Subfields Research
Psychologist What she does
Biological Explore the links between brain and mind.
Developmental Study changing abilities from womb to tomb.
Cognitive Study how we perceive, think, and solve problems.
Personality Investigate our persistent traits.
Social Explore how we view and affect one another.
38
Approaches to Psychology
Biological
Behavioral
Psychoanalytic
Humanistic
Cognitive
Sociocultural
39
Biological Perspective
  • Study the physiological mechanisms in the brain
    and nervous system that organize and control
    behavior
  • Focus may be at various levels
  • individual neurons
  • areas of the brain
  • specific functions like eating, emotion, or
    learning
  • Interest in behavior distinguishes biological
    psychology from many other biological sciences

40
Evolutionary Perspective
  • Influenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate,
    adaptive behavior patterns
  • Application of principles of evolution to explain
    behavior and psychological processes

41
Behavioral Perspective
  • View of behavior based on experience or learning
  • Classical conditioning-- Pavlov
  • Operant conditioning-- Skinner

42
John B. Watson
43
The Behavioral Approach
44
Psychodynamic Perspective
  • View of behavior based on experience treating
    patients
  • Psychoanalytic approach (Sigmund Freud)
  • both a method of treatment and a theory of the
    mind
  • behavior reflects combinations of conscious and
    unconscious influences
  • drives and urges within the unconscious component
    of mind influence thought and behavior
  • early childhood experiences shape unconscious
    motivations

45
Sigmund Freud
46
Cognitive Perspective
  • How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered,
    and used to guide behavior?
  • Influences include
  • Piaget studied intellectual development
  • Chomsky studied language
  • Cybernetics science of information processing

47
Humanistic Perspective
  • Developed by Abraham Maslow
  • Carl Rogers
  • behavior reflects innate actualization
  • focus on conscious forces and self perception
  • more positive view of basic forces than Freuds

48
The Humanistic Approach
49
Carl Rogers (19021987)
Abraham Maslow (19081970)
50
Developmental Psychology
  • Interaction between heredity and environment
  • We undergo predictable patterns of change
    throughout our lives
  • Studies change across the lifespan
  • Infancy through adulthood

51

The Sociocultural Approach
Psychoanalytic
Cognitive
52
Cross-Cultural Perspective
  • The study of psychological differences among
    people living in different cultural groups
  • How are peoples thoughts, feelings and behavior
    influenced by their culture?
  • What are the common elements across culture? Are
    these innate?

53
Psychologys Subfields Research
Data APA 1997
54
Psychologys Subfields Applied
Psychologist What she does
Clinical Studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
Counseling Helps people cope with academic, vocational, and marital challenges.
Educational Studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings
Industrial/ Organizational Studies and advises on behavior in the workplace.
55
Psychologys Subfields Applied
Data APA 1997
56
Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry
  • A clinical psychologist (Ph.D.) studies,
    assesses, and treats troubled people with
    psychotherapy.
  • Psychiatrists on the other hand are medical
    professionals (M.D.) who use treatments like
    drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically
    diseased patients.

57
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58
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59
Prologue Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychologys Subfields
  • Basic Research-- laboratory
  • Biological psychologists explore the links
    between brain and mind
  • Developmental psychologists study changing
    abilities from womb to tomb
  • Cognitive psychologists study how we perceive,
    think, and solve problems

60
Prologue Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychologys Subfields
  • Basic Research
  • Personality psychologists investigate our
    persistent traits
  • Social psychologists explore how we view and
    affect one another

61
Prologue Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychologys Subfields
  • Applied Researchface to face
  • Industrial/organizational psychologists study and
    advise on behavior in the workplace
  • Clinical psychologists study, assess, and treat
    people with psychological disorders

62
Prologue Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychiatry
  • A branch of medicine dealing with psychological
    disorders
  • Practiced by physicians who sometimes use medical
    (for example, drug) treatments as well as
    psychotherapy

63
Close-up
Your Study of Psychology Survey, Question, Read,
Review and Reflect (SQ3R)
  • Survey What you are about to read, including
    chapter outlines and section heads.
  • Question Ask questions. Make notes.
  • Read Make sure you read outlines, sections and
    chapters in entirety.
  • Review Margin definitions. Study learning
    outcomes.
  • Reflect On what you learn. Test yourself with
    quizzes.

64
Close-up
Additional Study Hints
  • Distribute your time.
  • Listen actively in class.
  • Overlearn.
  • Be a smart test-taker.
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