The Road to U.S. Involvement in World War II - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Road to U.S. Involvement in World War II

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Title: The Road to U.S. Involvement in World War II


1
The Road to U.S. Involvement in World War II
  • 1918 1941

2
Legacy of the 1st World War
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Germany severely punished and most of Wilsons 14
    points left out
  • League of Nations
  • U.S., U.S.S.R., Germany never join
  • Helped settle disputes with small powers
  • Less success with major powers
  • Could not stop Japanese, Italian, or German
    aggression in the 1930s

3
U.S. returns to Isolationism
  • Washington Disarmament Conference (1921 1922)
  • Five Power Treaty meant to reduce the navy power
    of the U.S., Japan, Britain
  • U.S. basically lets Japan get a naval advantage
    in the Pacific
  • Locarno Pact (1926)
  • Western European nations agree to existing
    boarders
  • spirit of Locarno would mean no more war
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) a.k.a. Paris Pact
  • 62 nations war illegal except for defensive
    purposes
  • No enforcement mechanism

4
War Debt, Reparations, the Great Depression
  • U.S. a creditor nation after WWI (Allies owe 16
    billion)
  • High U.S. tariffs hurt European economies
  • Dawes Plan (1924)
  • U.S. banks loaned Germany , Germany paid Gr.
    Britain France, who paid the U.S.
  • Hoover debt moratorium (1931)
  • U.S. policies seen as harboring ill-will during
    the 1930s
  • World wide Great Depression
  • Germany has 50 unemployment and huge inflation
  • Japan exports fall by 50, blame western trade
    policies
  • What effect did this have in these countries in
    the 1930s?

5
U.S. changes policy in Latin America
  • Clark Memorandum (1928) reverses the Big
    Stick policy
  • FDRs Good Neighbor policy
  • By 1934, U.S. had removed all troops from
    Nicaragua, Haiti, Cuba (repealed Platt Amendment)
  • Stayed out of Mexican oil nationalization (which
    hurt U.S. oil companies)

6
U.S. and the World
  • U.S. avoided London Economic Conference (1933)
    Isolationism
  • FDR (Sec. of State Cordell Hull) begins to lower
    tariffs and to open free trade agreements with 21
    nations
  • FDR recognized the U.S.S.R. (1933)
  • Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934) free the
    Philippines after 10-year period of economic and
    political tutelage

7
Totalitarian States
  • Fascism
  • Italy Mussolini (1922)
  • Germany Hitler (1933)
  • Militarism
  • Japan Military Dictatorship (early 1930s)
  • Communism
  • U.S.S.R. ruthless leadership under Stalin (1924)

8
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9
Fascism and Nazism
  • Totalitarian
  • Fascism glorify the state and expand
  • Benito Il Duce Mussolini Controls Italy
  • The Blackshirts (fascists) restore glory of the
    Roman Empire
  • Becomes Dictator (1922)
  • 1935 Invades Ethiopia
  • Adolf Hitler Rules Germany
  • Hitler joins National Socialist German Workers
    Party (Nazis Party)
  • Attempted to take over Germany in 1923
  • Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
  • Blamed Jews for Germanys problems
  • Encouraged increase in military
  • Aryan race
  • Der Fuhrer (the leader)
  • Nazi party gains strength during the Great
    Depression
  • Hitler become dictator (1933)

10
Germany Expands
  • 1933 Germany withdrawals from the League of
    Nations
  • Invades the Rhineland (1936)
  • Testing if anyone would stop them
  • The German Empire Grows
  • March 1938, Austria annexed
  • Sudetenland (Czechoslovakian border)
  • Munich Conference
  • France and Britains appeasement
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Peace agreement with Soviet Union
  • Poland
  • September 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland
  • Britain and France declare war on Germany
  • September 5, 1939 FDR declares U.S. Neutral

11
Japan Expands
  • 1931 Japan invades Manchuria (China)
  • 1934 ends Washington Naval Treaty (1922)
    begins a massive naval buildup
  • 1936 Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany
    (anti-communism/U.S.S.R.)
  • Why?
  • Needed raw materials, needed new markets, needed
    space for population (U.S. anti-Asian immigrant
    policy), wanted more respect from the worlds
    powers

12
U.S. remains Isolated
  • American people concerned with own economic
    conditions and not rising totalitarianism
  • Nye Committee
  • Concluded that U.S. involvement in WWI was to
    help banks and munitions makers
  • Neutrality Acts (1935, 1936, 1937)
  • U.S. would not trade weapons or grant loans to
    belligerent nations at war
  • No travel on vessels of nations at war (no
    Lusitania this time)
  • Cash and Carry Policy for non-military goods
  • U.S. navy loses relative strength (idea that
    strong navies cause war)

13
Europe Goes to War
  • Blitzkrieg (lighting war)
  • Stalin takes half of Poland for the Soviet Union
  • Sitzkrieg (sit-down war)
  • French build up the Maginot Line
  • April 9, 1940 Hitler attacks Denmark and Norway
  • May Germany attacks Netherlands, Belgium, and
    Luxembourg
  • Fall of France (June, 1940)
  • The Battle of Britain
  • 1st of Hitlers fatal mistakes
  • (June, 1941) Hitler invades the Soviet Union
    (German need for Lebensraum)
  • 2nd of Hitlers fatal mistakes

14
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15
Japan Continues to Expand
  • 1937 Japan launches full scale war on southern
    China
  • Ends Open Door
  • Panay Incident (12/12/1937)
  • Japan bombs a U.S. gunboat 3 Standard Oil
    tankers on the Yangtze River (2 killed, 30
    wounded)
  • Japan apologizes and promised no further attacks
  • 1940 Tripartite Pact Rome Berlin Tokyo
    Axis

16
U.S. response to Expansion
  • 1937 FDRs Quarantine speech
  • Must quarantine expansions through economic
    sanctions
  • 12/29/1939 FDRs Arsenal of Democracy speech
  • Conflict in Europe is a threat to U.S.
    independence (Nazis want to take over the world)
  • Congress approves 37 billion for 2-ocean navy
    and huge air force
  • Sept. 1940 Selective Service and Training Act
  • 21 to 35 registered for a year of military
    training
  • 1st ever peace-time draft

17
Isolationists vs. Internationalism
  • America First Committee
  • U.S. protect its own shores if Germany defeats
    England
  • Charles Lindbergh
  • Most famous of isolationists
  • Fortress America
  • Senator Robert A. Taft defense not intervention
  • Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
  • Use all methods short of war to defeat Hitler
  • Destroyer-Bases Deal
  • 9/2/1940 FDR trades 50 destroyers to Britain for
    8 bases in the Western Hemisphere

18
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19
Election of 1940
Democrats FDR for a 3rd Term Republican Wendell L. Willkie
Keep U.S. out of war Defend New Deal Aid to Allies Keep U.S. out of war New Deal spends too much Strengthen U.S. defenses
449 Electoral Votes 82 Electoral Votes
20
FDR moves the U.S. to intervene
  • 1/6/1941 Four Freedoms Speech
  • Speech Expression, Religion, from Want, from
    Fear
  • 4/1941 American Neutrality Patrol
  • Patrol Atlantic for German U-boats
  • 8/1941 Atlantic Charter
  • Secret meeting between FDR Churchill
  • Basis of alliance (later endorsed by Stalin)
  • Basis of the United Nations
  • 9/4/1941 Shoot-on-sight Policy
  • End of neutrality, American ships lost and U.S.
    begins to occupy lands for their protection
    (Greenland Iceland)

21
Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor
  • U.S. warns Japan about further movements in Asia
  • Embargo 1940, 1941
  • Japanese-U.S. negotiations
  • Hideki Tojo
  • December 7, 1941 a date which will live in
    infamy
  • U.S. declares war on Japan
  • U.S. enters World War II
  • Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S.
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