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World War II Prelude to Global War


World War II Prelude to Global War World War II Although times were hard in the United States throughout the Great Depression they were worse in other countries. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War II Prelude to Global War

World War II Prelude to Global War
World War II
  • Although times were hard in the United States
    throughout the Great Depression they were worse
    in other countries.

  • Dictators rose to power throughout Europe
  • Totalitarian- a form of government that controls
    every aspect of its citizens lives
  • Example Soviet Union, Germany, Italy
  • Fascism- Philosophy which places importance of
    the nation above the value of the individual
  • Example Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy)
  • Fascism allows private business unlike communism
    but individual rights and freedoms are lost

Benito Mussolini
  • Rose to power in Italy after WWI and called
    himself Il Duce the leader.
  • Organized a fascist group throughout Italy
  • Threatened to march into Rome and the king
    appointed him Prime Minister out of fear.

Mussolini continued
  • Mussolini outlawed elections and political
    parties while establishing a dictatorship.
  • Mussolini proclaimed the fascist slogan The
    country is nothing without conquest.
  • 1935- Mussolini invaded Ethiopia
  • 1936- East African Nation was in Italian hands

Adolf Hitler
  • Leader of the Nazi party Germany.
  • A charismatic powerful public speaker
  • 1923- tried to overthrow German government and
    went to jail for five years
  • Wrote autobiography called Mien Kampf while in
    jail about his plans for Germany
  • he believed in a purifying race Aryan race
    (blond hair blue eyes).

Europe Goes to War
  • German troops moved into Rhineland (West Germany)
    which violated the treaty of Versailles
  • Hitler got away with it which made him more eager
    to expand
  • Hitler signed an alliance with Mussolini and
    created Axis power between Rome and Berlin.
  • Japan later joined the Axis power with Germany
    and Itlay

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German Empire Expanding
  • 1938- Hitler annexed Austria (Britain and France
  • Britain and France appeased (giving into
    someone's demands) with Germany b/c they were not
    ready for war and thought he might finally be
    satisfied with land.
  • Britain and France chose dishonor over war which
    in turn became a war
  • 1939- Hitler invaded Poland and the WAR BEGAN

Germans Expansion
  • Invasion of Poland took one month (West Poland)
  • Blitzkrieg- lightening War tactic. Tanks,
    artillery, and soldiers (moving by foot) struck
    deep into enemy territory before they had time to
  • Sitzkrieg- sit-down war quiet time for seven
    months after Poland Fell

German continues to expand
  • Germany launched an attack on Denmark and Norway,
    then proceeded into France and France surrendered
    on June 14, 1940.
  • Great Britain stood alone in the Allies of the
  • Germany launched an air assault on Great Britain
    (largest the world had ever seen). This became
    known as the battle of Britain and by 1941 German
    raids ended with a loss for Germany

Londons St. Pauls Cathedral survived the German
Bombing in 1940-1941
Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of London, and
his wife
  • Ruins after the German attack in London.

Dark Green Allies before the attack on Pearl
Harbor Light Green Allied countries that
entered the war after the Japanese attack on
Pearl Harbor. Orange Axis Powers
Japanese Expansion
  • Japan along with Germany and Italy was not happy
    with their situation in Asia. Japan too was going
    through a Great Depression.
  • 1931 Japan seized Manchuria (region in china)
  • Japan soon controlled most of eastern China
  • By 1941 Japan was ready to challenge Europeans
    and Americans for supremacy in Asia

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American Involvement Grows
  • Americans build up naval fleets from San Diego
    to Pearl Harbor
  • Americans remain neutral and declared the
    Neutrality acts. These included the US would
    withhold weapons and loans from all nations and
    required cash and carry policy, (goods sold to
    nations at war would be paid for in cash and
    transported by the purchaser.
  • Lend-Lease Act- FDR passed to aid any nation
    whose defense was vital to American security

Attack on Pearl Harbor
  • US cut off all trade with Japan but still hoped
    for peace
  • December 7, 1941 Japan attacked Pearl harbor a
    day which will live in infamy

FDRs entering into war
  • FDR asked congress to declare war the next day.
  • Three days later Germany and Italy declared war
    on the United States

World War II The Road to Victory in
Europe Section 2
  • Chapter 24

Americans Prepare for War!
  • Churchill and FDR allied and wrote an agreement
    of goals called the Atlantic Charter. They
    pledged a peace that will afford all nations the
    means of dwelling in safety inside their own
  • GIs- government issued clothes, shoes, weapons
    provided by the military. Soldiers are GIs!

Diversity in American Troops!
  • Mexican Americans- 300,000
  • Native Americans-25,000 (Navajo code talkers)
  • Japanese Americans (not accepted until 1943 after
    released from internment camps in the United
  • African Americans- 1 million joined the army
  • Women-350,000 joined in all areas except combat.
    WASP (women air force service pilot) and WAVES
    (women accepted for volunteer emergency service)

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Fighting in North Africa and Italy
  • The battle of the Atlantic- German Submarines
    attacking Great Britain in the Atlantic Ocean.
    Sonar (underwater sound equipment) was used to
    attack and locate enemy submarines.
  • US had convoys so Great Britain receive food and
  • Germans used Wolf Packs (30 submarines) to
    attack their enemy. German submarines were
    successful sinking 175 ships in 1942!

The fight goes on
  • General Eisenhower (United States) helped general
    Montgomery (Britain) defeat Germany in Northern
    Africa (Egypt) in the important battle El Alamein
  • General Patton attacked Sicily, Italy and
    Mussolini was over thrown. German troops
    remained in Italy to defend the land and for four
    months fighting continued and over 72,000
    Americans died.
  • Battle of Anizo was won by US and Rome was

War in the Soviet Union
  • Hitler wanted to Expand into the USSR 1941-42 and
    3.6 million German soldiers enter USSR through
    the Baltic and Black sea
  • Battle of Stalingrad- turning point in the War
    when USSR defeated German army
  • General George Marshall pushed the president to
    prepare for war and called for the invasion of
    western Europe. When the war ended he resigned
    and soon after became secretary of state and
    created the Marshall plan!
  • Carpet Bombing- technique used by Britain in
    which they dropped large numbers of bombs over a
    wide area and German cities suffered heavy

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  • June 6th, 1944-largest landing by sea in history
    D-DAY (code name for the day the invasion
  • 4,600 warships and invasion crafts slipped out of
    the harbor in England and pounded the German
    defenses at Normandy (region in France)! 1,000
    RAF bombers also attacked German defenses.
    Normandy was not an ideal place to attack so it
    caught the German troops off guard.
  • 23,000 airborne British and American soldiers
    were dropped behind enemy lines in the night.
  • Five beaches were attacked (UTAH, OMAHA, GOLD,

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Clenching the Victory
  • Fighting followed as US, British, and Canadian
    troops pushed through France and liberated Paris
  • US and Canadian troops then freed Brussels and
    Antwerp and Holland
  • Germany launched a counter attack in Luxembourg
    and Belgium called the BATTLE of the BULGE
  • US troops were not looking that good until
    General Patton moved 250,000 soldiers from
    western France to help stop the German advance
  • Battle of the Bulge was the largest battle fought
    during WWII. 600,000 GIs involved and 80,000
    were killed, wounded or captured!

War Ends in Europe!
  • Yalta Conference- Plan for post war world between
    Churchill, Stalin, and FDR! Met in February
    although war was not yet complete!
  • Soviet troops attacked Berlin and Hitler refused
    to flee and then committed suicide on May 1st
  • Then Germany surrendered May 8th 1945!
  • 27,000,000 Soviets died throughout the War!
  • Americans celebrated V-E Day (Victory in Europe!
    But Japan was not yet defeated!

World War II The War in the Pacific Section 3
The War in the Pacific
  • There was also fighting in the Pacific along with
  • Bataan Death March- Brutal death march of
    American and Filipino prisoners by Japanese
  • Battle of the Coral Sea- Battle between Japanese
    and American Aircraft (1st ever to be completely
    carried out in air)

Battles in the Pacific between US and Japan
  • Battle of Midway- TURNING POINT in the war also
    fought entirely in the air and US destroyed
    Japanese offenese!
  • Battle of Guadalcanal- US now in control and
    forced Japanese into the Jungle
  • Kamikaze- Japanese suicide planes used in the
    battle of Leyte Gulfa
  • Battle of Iwo Jima- Bloodiest battle for volcanic
    island, bombs and shells used to destroy the
  • Battle of Okinawa- last obstacle to an allied
    invasion into their homeland

Manhattan Project
  • Secret American program to develop an atomic bomb
  • Albert Einstein (Jewish Physicist)-refuge from
    Germany and the Nazi party, wrote FDR a letter to
    suggest a new bomb that could be built!
  • Tested bomb in New Mexico desert!

Decision to Drop the Bomb!
  • Unanimous decision with an advisory group of
    scientist, military leaders, and government
    officials called the Interim Committee.
  • August 6th, 1945 bomb dropped on Hiroshima, a
    army base (140,000 deaths)
  • August 9th, 1945 a second bomb dropped on
    Nagasaki, which produced similar numbers
  • August 14th Japan surrenders to US troops

World War II The Holocaust Section 4
  • Chapter 24

Hitlers Holocaust
  • Holocaust- Nazi Germanys Systematic murder of
    European Jews!
  • Anti-Semitism- hostility toward Jews
  • 1930s Nazi party tells people to stop
    patronizing Jewish business
  • Nuremburg laws- stripped Jews of citizenship and
    forbidden marriage between Jews and non-Jews
  • Jews were given middle names Sarah and Israel
    as well as identity cards with j on them

Nazis Take Action
  • SS (Secret State Police) or Gestapo was formed
    and Concentration Camps (places for prisoners of
  • Nazis placed the undesirable in these camps as
  • Kristallnacht- (night of the broken glass)
    Organized attacks on Jews

Murder to Genocide
  • Einsatzgruppen- mobile killing units (not deemed
    good enough by Hitler)
  • Wannsee Conference- plan for the final solution
    to the Jewish question!
  • Death Camps-extermination centers for Jews.
  • Auschiwitz concentration camp- 1 death camp
    murdering 1.5 million ppl

American Involvement
  • 1944 FDR created War Refugee Board- to help
    people threatened with murder by the Nazis.
    (somewhat successful but more needed to be done!)