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World War II

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World War II US Involvement: Beginning to Peace Election of 1960 Nixon (Rep) vs. Kennedy (Dem) Close popular vote electoral 303 to 219 Kennedy became youngest and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War II


1
World War II
  • US Involvement Beginning to Peace

2
Events Leading to WWII
  • 1918 Germany surrenders ending WWI
  • 1919 Treaty of Versailles
  • 1922 Mussolini becomes Italys dictator
  • 1923 - Hitler writes Mein Kampf
  • 1924 Stalin rises to power

3
Events Leading to WWII
  • 1929 World Wide Depression leads to rise of
    dictators
  • 1930 Japan invades Manchuria
  • 1932 Japan invades Shanghai
  • US condemns (Open Door Policy) but stays isolated

4
Events Leading to WWII
  • 1933 Hitler gains power in Germany
  • Begins operation of Dachau
  • 1935 Italy invades Ethiopia gt US passes 1st
    Neutrality Act
  • Hitler rearms the Rhineland
  • Axis Powers formed (Germany / Italy)
  • 2nd Neutrality Act passed by the US

5
Events Leading to WWII
  • 1937 Japan invades China gt US issues 3rd
    Neutrality Act
  • 1938 Germany annexes Austria gt Munich Pact is
    signed (appeasement towards Hitler)
  • Neville Chamberlain 'Peace for Europe' - CBC
    Archives

6
Events Leading to WWII
  • 1939 Hitler invades Poland start of WWII
  • 1940 Japan joins Axis powersgt US starts draft
  • 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor gt US enters war

7
Allies
8
Allied Leaders
  • US FDR / Truman / MacArthur / Eisenhower
  • Great Britain Winston Churchill
  • USSR Josef Stalin
  • France Charles de Gaulle

9
Axis Powers
10
Axis Powers Leaders
  • Germany Hitler
  • Italy Mussolini
  • Japan Emperor Hirohito / General Tojo

11
Major Events in Europe
  • 1939 Germany invades Poland with blitzkrieg
  • 1940 France falls to Nazis. Battle of Britain
    air raids known as the blitz
  • 1941 Germany invades the Soviet Union breaks
    the non-aggression pact

12
Major Events in Europe
  • 1942-43 Battle of Stalingrad turning point
    because Russian soldiers start marching west
  • 1943 Allied troops defeat Axis armies in North
    Africa (Called Operation Torch)
  • July 1943 Italy invaded by Allies

13
Events in Europe
  • June 6, 1944 Allied invasion of Normandy France
    . The largest such invasion in history
  • Over 150,000 soldiers
  • Designed by General Eisenhower
  • Known as D-Day
  • Over 11,000 casualties
  • August , 1944 Paris was liberated and Allies
    begin their push towards Germany

14
D-Day (Operation Overlord)
15
Events in Europe
  • December 1944 Last German offensive called
    Battle of the Bulge
  • April 12, 1945 FDR dies
  • April 1945 Allied troops meet at the Elbe River
    in Germany Hitler commits suicide
  • May 8, 1945 V-E Day
  • Victory in Europe

16
Problems with Japan
  • The U.S. and Japan had been competing for trading
    rights and resources in the South Pacific.
  • Japan imported much of its steel and oil from the
    U.S.
  • The US cut these supplies off(Embargo) to Japan
    as a protest to the Japanese invasion of China-
    also sinking of USS Panay

17
Events in the Pacific
  • December 7, 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor
  • Dec 8, 1941 US declares war on Japan and enters
    WWII
  • FDR describes it as A day that will live in
    infamy.

18
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19
Pearl Harbor
20
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21
Events in the Pacific
  • 1941-42 Japan seizes the Philippines
  • MacArthur vows I shall return
  • 1942 Battle of Midway
  • 1944-1945 Iwo Jima and Okinawa

22
Events in the Pacific
  • US Island Hopping to main island of Japan
  • Truman told there would be a possiblity the US
    would lose 1 million troops with a land invasion
    of Japan
  • Aug 6, 1945 US drops bomb on Hiroshima (Enola
    Gay Little Boy) estimated 100,000 killed
    instantly
  • Aug 9, 1945 Bombed dropped on Nagasaki (Fat Man)
    estimated 80,000 killed instantly

23
Little Boy
24
Distance from Ground Zero (km) Killed Injured Population
0 - 1.0 88 6 30,900
1.0 - 2.5 34 29 27,700
2.5 - 5.0 11 10 115,200
Total 22 12 173,800
25
Fat Man
26
Distance from Ground Zero (km) Killed Injured Population
0 -1.0 86 10 31,200
1.0 - 2.5 27 37 144,800
2.5 - 5.0 2 25 80,300
Total 27 30 256,300
27
Atomic Bomb
  • Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Reenactment - Video

28
World War II Diplomacy
  • Atlantic Charter (1941) peace after the war
    (Churchill and FDR)
  • Casablanca (1942) victory on all frontsgt only
    unconditional surrender (Churchill and FDR)
  • Cairo (1943) planning Normandy
  • Teheran Conference (1943) FDR, Churchill, Stalin
    gtinvasion of Germany
  • Yalta (1945) FDR, Churchill, Stalin gt division
    of Germany
  • Potsdam (1945) warning Japan to surrender to
    prevent utter destruction

29
Home front During WWII
  • US was an arsenal of democracy
  • Blackout drills/rations
  • Were afraid of attacks on the US
  • US was trying to adjust to a war time economy
  • Needed supplies for the war

30
Home front During WWII
  • War Bonds gt people would support the war by
    giving the govt loans
  • In return you got a certificate and a promise to
    from govt to pay back loan with interest

31
Home front During WWII
  • War Production Board / War Labor Board gt govt
    agencies to keep production going
  • Women
  • Found jobs gt not forced to return to the home
    after the war
  • Rosie the Riveter
  • Women chose to return home after the war (Baby
    Boom Era)

32
Home front During WWII
  • Also found jobs in the workforce gt need to keep
    production high for the war effort
  • Faced discrimination in both the North and South

33
Home front During WWII
  • Seen as spies
  • Executive Order 9066gt100,000 moved to internment
    camps
  • Korematsu vs. United States
  • SC ruled FDR had the right to contain
    Japanese-Americans due to national emergency of
    WWII and to protect national security

34
Results of the War
  • US and USSR become world powers Cold War
  • Atomic Age gt threat to world peace
  • Nuremberg Trails
  • 1945 1946
  • 25 high level Nazis for crimes against humanity
    (Holocaust)
  • 3 acquitted and 12 executed
  • UN
  • Peace keeping / human rights protection
  • NYC
  • Security Council / General Assembly
  • US does join


35
US After WWII
  • WW II brought the US out of the Great Depression
  • Several works stoppages after WW II gthad to
    adjust to soldiers coming home and a peace time
    economy
  • As a way to help these veterans adjust to
    civilian life the government created the
    GI Bill of Rights- buying homes/ college
  • Taft Hartley Act gt US govt could get a court
    injunction to delay a strike for 80 days if it
    endangered health or safety of the public

36
US After WW II
  • Election of 1948
  • Truman (Democrat) vs. Thomas E. Dewey
    (Republican)
  • Truman wins in an upset
  • Trumans Fair Deal and New Society
  • Extension of the New Deal
  • Established low-income housing, raised minimum
    wage, increased the of people under the Social
    Security Act

37
Extension of Civil Rights and Truman
  • National Security Act of 1947
  • Form an Air Force
  • Increased dept of Defenses power
  • Joint Chief of Staff
  • CIA
  • Segregation and discrimination throughout the US
    and WWII gt Jim Crow laws in the South and de
    facto segregation in the North
  • Change was coming
  • Jackie Robinson, 1947 gt 1st African American to
    play Major League Baseball
  • Presidents Commission on Civil Rights gt informs
    the public
  • Executive Order banning segregation in the
    military
  • Investigated businesses with contracts with the
    govt that practice segregation

38
Objectives of US After WWII
  • Protect US interests abroad
  • Avoid nuclear war
  • Help other nations (social and economic)
  • Promote democracy
  • Stop communist expansion (Containment)
  • NATO
  • April, 1949 gt 12 nations
  • an attack on one would be considered an attack
    on all
  • Member nations would act together in common
    defense
  • Anti-communism

39
Policies created as part of Containment
  • Truman Doctrine- USA will aid any nation in
    Europe to stop the spread of communism.
  • Marshall Plan USA gives 13B aid to Western
    Europe to rebuild after war, to stop the spread
    of communism.
  • Central Intelligence Agency- collects
    intelligence / information about other
    nations-Spying

40
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41
US After WWII
  • Warsaw Pact
  • Communist Answer to NATO
  • 8 nations
  • 1955

Warsaw Pact Communist answer to NATO 8
nations 1955
42
Churchill claims people in Eastern Europe are
forced to live behind an Iron Curtain
43
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44
War Department becomes Defense Department
45
US Foreign Policy During Cold War 1946-1991
  • Containment-
  • Stopping the spread of Communism

46
First Hot Spot of Cold War
  • Berlin 1948- USSR closes rail and roads into
    Berlin.
  • The U.S. airlifts supplies for 321 days the USSR
    ends the blockade in 1949.
  • This would not be the last time Berlin would be a
    hot spot during the Cold War.

47
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48
Looking for Commie Spies
49
Executing Spies
50
The Korean War 1950-1953
  • Korea was divided at the 38th Parallel after WW2-
    North Communist- South Democratic
  • June 1950- North invades South
  • As part of its Containment Policy the U.S. and
    United Nations troops attempt to Stop the spread
    of communism.
  • The goal was to keep the nation divided at the
    38th parallel, and not to involve the Chinese or
    Russians.

51
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52
Truman Fires MacArthur
53
  • U.S./U.N. troops push North Korean troops across
    the 38th and close in on the Chinese border,
    causing the Chinese to attack.
  • Chinese troops push U.S./U.N. troops back across
    38th and for 3 years fighting occurs around 38th.
  • A truce is signed in 1953 ending the war
  • Communism was Contained.

54
Eisenhowers Election
  • Elected as 1st republican since 1928 gt Nixon was
    his VP

55
Domestic Policies
  • Growth of Suburbs
  • TV Becomes popular source of entertainment
  • under God added to the pledge gt importance of
    religion
  • Ending Segregtaion
  • Attacking separate but equal
  • Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
  • Brown denied admission to an all white schoolgt
    violation of 14th admendment
  • Supreme Court ruled that separate but equal had
    no place in public education
  • Overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson

56
School Integration
  • Governor of Arkansas uses National Guard to stop
    integration at Little Rock High School
  • Eisenhower took over the National Guard
    (Commander-in-Chief) and allowed 9 students into
    high school

57
School Integration
58
More Civil Rights Events
  • Dec 1955 gt Rosa Parks bus integration
  • Martin Luther King, Jr gt civil disobedience
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

59
The Warren Court
  • Appointed by Eisenhower, Chief Justice Earl
    Warren was in power during many landmark(very
    important) decisions in the 50s and 60s
  • Brown v. Board of Ed
  • Miranda v. Arizona
  • Gideon v. Wainwright
  • Escobedo v. Illinois
  • Tinker v. Des Moines

60
Foreign Policy
  • Continues the policy of Containment- and added
    the
  • Eisenhower Doctrine- pledge to aid nations
    fighting communism in the Middle East.
  • Domino Theory - if one nation fell to communism
    all the nations around it would fall-especially
    in South East Asia/Vietnam

61
Foreign Policy
62
Foreign Policy
  • New aggressive policies/threats begin
  • Brinkmanship- U.S. was willing to go to the
    brink/edge of nuclear war to show its strength
  • Massive Retaliation- U.S. would use all its
    nuclear weapons at once if attacked w/just one.
  • Arms Race this led to both sides building up
    large nuclear arsenals-
  • Mutually Assured Destruction-both sides had
    enough of these weapons to destroy each other,
    hoping the other wouldnt use them-Deterrent

63
New Weapons
  • Hydrogen Bomb- over 1,500xs more powerful than
    the bombs used on Japan.
  • Inter Continental Ballistic Missiles Nuclear
    weapons that travel across continents

64
Cold War continues
  • 1957- Soviets Launch Sputnik- a satellite that
    orbited the earth-This led to a new emphasis on
    math and science in American schools.
  • - Us puts Explorer I in orbit in Jan 1958
  • The U.S. and U.S.S.R. realized how dangerous the
    situation had become, there was an easing of
    tensions/Thaw-1958-1960-both sides agreed to stop
    testing nuclear weapons.
  • U-2 Incident-the thaw ended when a U.S. spy plane
    was shot down over the U.S.S.R.
  • The Cold War was back!

65
U-2 Incident
  • U-2 Incident-the thaw ended when a U.S. spy plane
    was shot down over the U.S.S.R.
  • The Cold War was back!

66
Election of 1960
  • Nixon (Rep) vs. Kennedy (Dem)
  • Close popular vote gt electoral 303 to 219
  • Kennedy became youngest and 1st Catholic to be
    elected President
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