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Chapter 12 The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism


Chapter 12 The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism 1812-1824 The American Continents are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 12 The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism

Chapter 12 The Second War for Independence and
the Upsurge of Nationalism
  • 1812-1824
  • The American Continents are henceforth not to be
    considered as subjects for future colonization by
    any European Power. James Monroe (2 December

  • c. Explain major reasons for the War of 1812 and
    the wars significance on the development of a
    national identity.
  • d. Describe the construction of the Erie Canal,
    the rise of New York City, and the development of
    the nations infrastructure.
  • e. Describe the reasons for and importance of the
    Monroe Doctrine.

Review Madison succeeds Jefferson
James Madison
  • Democratic Republican
  • Jeffersons Secretary of State
  • 4th President (1813-1821)
  • Inherited feud between France England
  • His decisions and circumstance brought about the
    War of 1812

Tecumseh and the Prophet
  • War Hawks within the DR Party
  • Heard stories of their fathers from 1776
  • Also wanted to wipe-out the Indian threat in the
    West (OH, IN, IL, etc.)
  • Shawnee chiefs Tecumseh (left) and his brother
    The Prophet resisted the white mans

Planned Indian Confederacy Squashed
  • William Henry Harrison was governor of the
    Indiana Territory
  • At the Battle of Tippecanoe, he led US army in a
    defeat of the Prophet and Shawnee
  • Harrison becomes a nationally recognized war hero

Standard Notes
  • Describe the resistance of the Native Americans
    to Westward-moving settlers.

Inching closer to war
  • President Madison was being pushed towards a
    clash with Britain by the members of his own
    party (War Hawks)
  • Britain was still supplying Indians with weapons
    (remember Jays Treaty?)
  • Hiding behind Napoleon?
  • Madison believed that the only way to prove
    America as a legitimate country (and that
    republicanism could work) was to show that we
    could defeat a world superpower.

A War on 2 Fronts
  • War support was sectionalized and partisan.
  • DR strongholds in the South and DRs in middle
    states (MD, PA, VA) supported Madison.
  • Federalists also opposed the war New England was
    their stronghold
  • Remember Federalists ? Britain DR ?
    France..Why fight your friends?
  • Fighting two enemies at once Old England and
    New England

Standard Notes
  • Explain how the War of 1812 was sectionalized
    and partisan.

Chapter 12 Onward to War The Canadian Theatre
  • British forces weakest in Canada, US talked of
  • Take out Montreal, the rest would fall
  • Planned invasion did not work

Standard Notes
  • Explain the importance of Canada in the War of

The Chesapeake Theatre
  • British advancement towards D.C.
  • Capitol, White House burned
  • Dolly Madison (left) rescues portrait of
    Washington from burning White House

The Star-Spangled Banner
  • Francis Scott Key
  • Witness to British bombardment on Fort McHenry,
  • Penned Star Spangled Banner

USS Constitution
  • War of 1812 fought predominately on sea.
  • Navy performed better than Army

Andrew Jackson and the Battle of New Orleans
  • British attempt to conquer essential port city
  • Andrew Jackson led US troops to victory

Standard Notes
  • Describe the rise of an American Identity as
    seen through the actions of Dolly Madison,
    Francis Scott Key, the U.S.S Constitution and
    Andrew Jackson.

Treaty of Ghent (1814)
  • Russia wanted the British to abandon war effort
    in America to focus on Napoleon.
  • Britain, America agree to an Armistice promise
    to stop fighting neither side victorious
  • Not One Inch of Territory Ceded or Lost

The Federalists and the Hartford Convention
  • December 1814
  • Delegates from MA, NH, VT, RI, and CT convene to
    discuss secession
  • After win at New Orleans, Conventions complaints
    lost relevance
  • North speaks of secession decades before South

Rise of Patriotic Nationalism
  • War of 1812 was small, indecisive
  • Power of the Republic, Navy to resist
  • Federalist Party weakened by opposition to war,
    Hartford Convention, etc.
  • Native Americans supported British, conceded
    more lands to America
  • War cause fueled self-reliance in industry,
    brought in new finances
  • Growth/restructure of Army, Navy

Standard Notes
  • Explain how the American victory in the War of
    1812 exacerbated American nationalism.

Henry Clay (1777-1852)
  • Kentucky Senator some historians declare him
    the greatest statesman to never ascend to the
  • Creator of the American System

Components of the American System
  • 1) Strong banking system provide easy and
    abundant credit
  • 2) Protective tariffs taxing imported goods led
    to a rise in sell of domestic goods
  • 3) Network of canals and roads improvement of
    transportation prevalent in Ohio River Valley
    (West) ties country together economically and

Erie Canal
  • Completed in 1825
  • Connected New Yorks Hudson River to Lake Ontario
  • Access to Great Lakes from Eastern seaboard (New
    York City)

Standard Notes
  • Analyze how the American System created by Henry
    Clay brought different sections of the country
    closer economically and politically.

James Monroe
  • Democratic-Republican
  • 5th President
  • Death of Federalist party
  • Era of Good Feelings

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Panic of 1819
  • Economic panic bubble burst on American
  • Overspeculation of Western Lands cheap lands
    basically we were moving West too quickly
  • Debtor prisons

Growing Pains of the West
  • Westward boom
  • Land exhaustion in tobacco states (VA, NC)
  • Cheap land
  • Defeat of Native Americans (Harrison, Jackson)
  • Steam ships
  • Cumberland Road (MD to IL)
  • Spain gives up Florida

Slavery and the Missouri Compromise
  • Westward expansion also saw the expansion of
  • Missouri appealed to Congress for admission as a
    slave state
  • Population/economic growth of North forcing South
    to lose Congressional Power
  • Balance of power in Senate (free vs. slave state)
    MO would be 12 slave, 11 free.
  • Did not resolve slavery issue, only ducked the

Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • MO admitted as slave state.
  • Maine admitted as free state.
  • 12 free/12 slave
  • Slavery prohibited in LA Purchase north of 36-30

Standard Notes
  • Describe how the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was
    indeed a compromise.

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John Marshall and his war against states rights.
  • Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Federalist
    appointed by John Adams Midnight Judges
  • McCulloch v. Maryland attempt of MD to destroy
    branch of national bank in its state
  • Cohens v. Virginia National Supreme Court could
    review/reverse State Supreme Court decisions
    involving federal govt
  • Gibbons v. Ogden right of federal government to
    control interstate commerce, not the states
  • Through him the conservative Hamiltonians partly
    triumphed from the tomb. (p. 250)

Monroe Doctrine
  • John Quincy Adams (left) son of John Adams
  • Monroes Secretary of State
  • Defeat of Napoleon led Europe back to days of
    monarchy and conservatism
  • Revolt of South American countries against Spain

Monroe Doctrine
  • President Monroe concluded two distinct policies
    1) non-colonization and 2) non-intervention
  • Russia to the Northwest, Britain to Cuba, Spain
    in South America
  • Warned Europe and their monarchies to stay out of
    Western Hemisphere
  • Doctrine was just as big as the nations forces
    and no bigger

Standard Notes
  • How did the nationalism nurtured during and after
    the War of 1812 lead to the Monroe Doctrine?