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The Road to War Underlying Causes of World War Two


Title: How War Came - a Timeline Author: OCDSB Last modified by: Customer Created Date: 11/30/2004 1:13:51 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Road to War Underlying Causes of World War Two

The Road to WarUnderlying Causes of World War
1. The Treaty of Versailles
  • Harsh terms intended to make Germany powerless
  • accept total blame for WW1
  • reduced military
  • reparations of 33 billion
  • loss of territory

Territorial Disputes After WWI
  • Many German people were living in new countries
    such as Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Austria.
  • Germany lost territory to several countries,
    leading to grievances.

2. Rise of Fascism
  • Fascism
  • A system of government in which
  • Nationalism is promoted
  • Labour and industry are regulated by a strong
    national government
  • All opposition is suppressed

Italian Fascism
  • The political ideology of fascism
  • originated with Benito Mussolini, who
  • became dictator of Italy in 1922

1922- March on Rome Mussolinis blackshirts
destroyed Italys government
Benito Mussolini
  • Called Il Duce meaning The Leader
  • Created a totalitarian dictatorship by
  • banning opposing political parties unions
  • censoring newspapers
  • creating a secret police force

Rise of Adolph Hitler
  • 1923 Hitler, leader of Nazi party, conducts an
    armed revolt in Munich
  • the Beer Hall Putsch
  • Hitler thrown in prison
  • Wrote Mein Kampf (my struggle) while in prison

Rise of Fascism in Germany
  • 1933 -Hitler is elected Chancellor of Germany,
    becoming Fuhrer (leader)
  • organized opposition was violently suppressed by
    the brownshirts
  • Hitlers policy of Lebensraum (living room)
  • take over German-speaking territories in
    neighbouring countries such as Austria, Poland,
  • defeat Soviet communism and expand German
    territory to the east into the U.S.S.R.,
    expelling non-German people

Anti-Semitism in Germany
  • Blamed Germanys problems on scapegoats such as
    Jews, blacks, Gypsies, homosexuals and the
    mentally ill.

Nazi party policy very racist and anti-Semitic
Widespread discrimination against Jews in
3. Failure of the League of Nations
  • The League of Nations was established in 1920 to
    prevent war, but its decisions were not legally
  • Non-intervention is when one does not involve
    themselves with foreign affairs.
  • Appeasement is the act of giving into, or
    satisfying ones demands.
  • Canada and most other countries followed a policy
    of non-intervention and appeasement

The Manchurian Crisis
  • Sept. 1931 Japan invaded Chinese province of
    Manchuria on the pretext that China attacked
    Japanese-owned South Manchurian Railroad

Manchurian Crisis (cont)
  • China applied to the League of Nations for help
  • The League condemned Japans actions, but there
    was little support for economic sanctions due to
    Great Depression

Limited Membership
  • The United States never joined the League
  • The Soviet Union joined only in 1934, and was
    expelled in 1939
  • Germany and Japan both withdrew in 1933

Spanish Civil War
  • In 1936 a Spanish civil war breaks out between
  • New Republic government led by communists
  • vs.
  • Fascists led by Francisco Franco

Response to Spanish Civil War
  • MacKenzie-Papineau Battalion made up of
    Canadian supporters of communism - over half of
    volunteers die
  • Britain, France and Canada maintain official
    policy of non-intervention
  • Germany and Italy support the fascists with arms,
    equipment, and money

Italian Invasion of Abyssinia
  • Border clash between Abyssinian troops (Africa)
    and neighboring Italian Somaliland
  • Mussolini launched full-scale attack against
  • League of Nations imposes boycott against Italy,
    but little world enthusiasm for sanctions
  • England and France took no action against Italy,
    allowing Italian ships through the Suez canal

5. Formation of Axis Powers
  • In 1937 Germany and Italy made a pact not to go
    to war with each other, later joined by Japan
  • They became known as the Axis Powers during
    World War Two

Hitler with Mussolini