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Title: WORLD WAR 1 Author: Ashita Last modified by: Administrator Created Date: 11/20/2006 10:24:36 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (16:9) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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World War I
  • The War was also known as THE GREAT WAR and
    famously THE WAR TO END ALL WARS
  • It was a global military conflict that took place
    mainly in Europe between 1914 1918.
  • It was a total war which left great devastation,
    millions dead and shaped the modern world.
  • World War I created a decisive break with the old
    world order that had emerged after the Napoleonic
    Wars. The results of World War I would be
    important factors in the development of World War
    II 21 years later.

Long-Term Causes
  • 1870-1904

Long-term Causes Why did the war break out?
  • Napoleon Bonaparte and the Rise of Nationalist
  • Colonial Expansion
  • Anglo-German Naval Race
  • Tension in the Balkans
  • Ascension of Kaiser Wilhelm II
  • Web of alliances

  • Militarism
  • Alliances
  • Imperialism
  • Nationalism

These background causes were building for
40-50 years before the actual outbreak of WWI.
Cause 1 Militarism
  • Militarism building up armed forces in
    preparation for war
  • Characteristics
  • Army and military forces are given a high profile
    by the government
  • Increased military spending and production
  • Implementation of the draft
  • Led to an arms race
  • The armies of both France and Germany had more
    than doubled between 1870 and 1914 and there was
    fierce competition between Britain and Germany
    for naval superiority.
  • The British had introduced the 'Dreadnought', an
    effective battleship, in 1906. The Germans soon
    followed suit introducing their own battleships.

European Military Spending
1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914
94 130 154 268 289 398
Millions of
Britain maintained a large lead over Germany in
all categories of warships. Both nations
believed that command of the seas was vital to a
great nation.
The naval strength of the powers in 1914

Country Soldiers Large Naval Vessels Tonnage Size/Carrying Capacity
Russia 54,000 4 328,000
France 68,000 10 731,000
Britain 209,000 29 2,205,000
TOTAL 331,000 43 3,264,000
Germany 79,000 17 1,019,000
Austria-Hungary 16,000 3 249,000
TOTAL 95,000 20 1,268,000

Cause 2 Alliances
  • An alliance is an agreement made between two or
    more countries to give each other help if needed.
  • A number of alliances had been signed by
    countries between the years 1879 and 1914.
  • These alliances meant that some countries had no
    option but to declare war if one of their allies
    declared war first

Formation of the WWI Alliances
  • In 1879 Germany and Austria- Hungary agreed to
    form a Dual Alliance.
  • This became the Triple Alliance when in 1882 it
    was expanded to include Italy. The three
    countries agreed to support each other if
    attacked by either France or Russia. It was
    renewed at five-yearly intervals.
  • France felt threatened by this alliance. Britain
    was also concerned by the growth in the Germany
    Navy and in 1904 the two countries signed the
    Entente Cordiale (friendly understanding). The
    objective of the alliance was to encourage
    co-operation against the perceived threat of
  • Three years later, Russia who also feared the
    growth in the German Army, joined Britain
    France to form the Triple Entente.
  • The Russian government was also concerned about
    the possibility of Austria Hungary increasing the
    size of its empire. It therefore made promises to
    help Serbia if it was attacked by members of the
    Triple Alliance
  • The formation of the Triple Entente in 1907 by
    Britain, France and Russia reinforced the need
    for the Triple alliance.

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Cause 3 - Imperialism
  • Due to industrialization, countries needed new
    markets resources ? Imperialism!
  • Imperialism establishing political, economic and
    military dominance over weaker nations
  • By 1900, all large European powers had colonies
    in Africa or Asia (not Austria-Hungary)

  • Imperialist rivalries formed as countries
    competed and fought over new territories and
  • The great powers had come into conflict over
    spheres of influence in Asia (Open Door Policy
    China Japan) and over territories in Africa
    (Moroccan Crisis)
  • Germany embarked late, but aggressively, on
    colonial expansion under Emperor Wilhelm II

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Cause 4 Nationalism
  • The French Revolution resulted in chaos and the
    ascent of Napoleon to power. Napoleon's armies
    marched all over Europe, bringing not only French
    control, but French ideas.
  • The rise of ideas of nationalism, devotion and
    pride for one's common people and ethnicity,
    increased in popularity during the Napoleonic
  • Napoleon encouraged the spread of nationalism,
    which he saw in his troops, to better the French
    war machine.
  • The French people began to feel pride in their
    culture and ethnicity. The world watched
    nationalism for the first time and saw the power
    the French gained from it.
  • Following the Napoleonic Wars, all of Europe was
    sharing these ideas
  • There were two types of nationalism that emerged
    during the era
  • Desire for dominance desire for independence

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  • In your opinion, which of the four background
    causes (militarism, alliances, imperialism,
    nationalism) was the biggest cause of WWI?

  • In one sentence, explain how each of the
    short-term effects increased hostilities between
    the European Powers
  • First Moroccan Crisis
  • Bosnian Crisis
  • Second Moroccan Crisis
  • First Balkan War
  • Second Balkan War
  • THINKER Every one of the short-term causes made
    a future war more likely, but why didnt any of
    these conflicts lead to an actual war? How did
    European powers avoid war following these

Europe in 1914
  • By 1914 Europe was divided in a power-struggle
    for the top place in the world economic market.
  • At the start of the Great War in 1914, Germany
    was a relatively young power, only coming into
    existence following a series of wars in 1871.
    Germany's Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, aimed to
    maintain peaceful ties with Russia.
  • When Kaiser Wilhelm II came to power, he quickly
    retired Bismarck, and upset the Chancellor's
    delicate balance of power by refusing to renew
    Germany's friendship with Russia.
  • Germany soon found itself as a minority. Its only
    European ally was the weakest of the European
    powers, Austria-Hungary.

Short-Term Causes
  • 1905-1913

Moroccan Crisis 1905
  • In 1904 Morocco had been given to France by
    Britain, but the Moroccans wanted their
    independence. In 1905, Germany announced her
    support for Moroccan independence. War was
    narrowly avoided by a conference which allowed
    France to retain possession of Morocco. However,
    in 1911, the Germans were again protesting
    against French possession of Morocco. Britain
    supported France and Germany was persuaded to
    back down for part of French Congo.
  • Why did Germany interfere in Morocco in both
    1905 and 1911?

Bosnian Crisis 1908
  • In 1908, Austria-Hungary took over the former
    Turkish province of Bosnia.
  • This angered Serbians who felt the province
    should be theirs. Serbia threatened
    Austria-Hungary with war, Russia, allied to
    Serbia, mobilized its forces. Germany, allied to
    Austria-Hungary mobilized its forces and prepared
    to threaten Russia.
  • War was avoided when Russia backed down.
  • There was, however, war in the Balkans between
    1911 and 1912 when the Balkan states drove Turkey
    out of the area. The states then fought each
    other over which area should belong to which
  • Austria-Hungary then intervened and forced Serbia
    to give up some of its acquisitions.
  • Tension between Serbia and Austria-Hungary was

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International Situation by 1913
  • Increased division between the two alliances
  • Increased militarism (arms race, conscription)
  • Increased nationalism
  • Literature, press education prepared public for
  • Was war inevitable at this point?

German War Plans
  • What was the goal of Germanys Schlieffen plan?
    Was this plan a success?

French War Plans
  • What was Frances war plan?

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Russian War Plans
  • Invade Central Powers!!!!!

How did the short-term causes effect alliances?
Serbian Nationalism
  • Nationalism means being a strong supporter of the
    rights and interests of one's country. The
    Congress of Vienna, held after Napoleon's exile,
    aimed to sort out growing problems in Europe.
  • Delegates from Britain, Austria, Prussia and
    Russia (winners in Napoleonic Wars) decided upon
    a new Europe that left both Germany and Italy as
    divided states.
  • Strong nationalist elements led to the
    Re-unification of Italy in 1861 and Germany in
  • Large areas of both Austria-Hungary and Serbia
    were home to differing nationalist groups, all of
    whom wanted freedom from the states in which they

Kaiser Wilhelm II
  • Last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia,
    ruling the German Empire from 15 June 1888 to 9
    November 1918.
  • He was a grandson of the British Queen Victoria
    and related to many monarchs and princes of
  • Launched Germany on a "New Course" in foreign
    affairs that culminated in his support for
    Austria-Hungary in 1914.

  • What was the Black Hand? What was their objective
    in the assassination?
  • After the assassination, why was Austria-Hungary
    hesitant to declare war on Serbia? What changed
  • Summarize the Kaisers blank cheque to Austria
    (28). What did this promise?
  • After the assassination, it seemed like this
    would just be another short term conflict, so why
    was this conflict impossible to contain in the
  • THINKER Do you think countries should be
    required to take the blame for starting war? If
    so, should they be punished following the war?
    Why or why not?

Immediate Cause of WWI
  • The assassination of Ferdinand and the outbreak
    of war

The Black Hand
  • In May 1911, ten men in Serbia formed the Black
    Hand Secret Society.
  • Early members included Colonel Dragutin
    Dimitrijevic, the chief of the Intelligence
    Department of the Serbian General Staff.
  • The main objective of the Black Hand was the
    creation, by means of violence, of a Greater
    Serbia. Its stated aim was "To realize the
    national ideal, the unification of all Serbs.
    This organization prefers terrorist action to
    cultural activities it will therefore remain

The Black Hand
  • By 1914 there were around 2,500 members of the
    Black Hand. The group was mainly made up of
    junior army officers but also included lawyers,
    journalists and university professors.
  • Three senior members of the Black Hand group,
    Dragutin Dimitrijevic, Milan Ciganovic, and Major
    Voja Tankosic, decided that Archduke Franz
    Ferdinand should be assassinated.
  • The political objective of the assassination was
    to break off Austria-Hungary's south-Slav
    provinces so they could be combined into a
    Greater Serbia or a Yugoslavia.

The People chosen for the task
  • Gavrilo Princip, Nedjelko Cabrinovic and Trifko
    Grabez from Serbia made plans to assassinate him.

Assassination at Sarajevo
  • On 28 June 1914, the Archduke Franz-Ferdinand and
    his wife visited Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia,
    to review the troops.
  • It was also Serbia's National Day - the
    anniversary of the battle, in 1389, when Serbia
    had been conquered by the Turkish Ottoman Empire,
    yet at which a Serb hero, Milos Obilic, had
    assassinated the Ottoman Sultan. This day was
    inextricably linked with Serbian nationalism, and
    with the assassination of foreign rulers.
  • Waiting for Franz Ferdinand, lined up along the
    Appel Quay, Sarajevo's main road, were six young
    men. They were armed with pistols and bombs
    supplied by the Black Hand.  They were going to
    try to murder Franz Ferdinand

  • Austrian spies in Serbia had reported that there
    was going to be an assassination attempt.
    Panicked, the Prime Minister of Serbia, had also
    told the Austrian government that there was going
    to be trouble.
  • Franz Ferdinand ignored these warnings. Only 120
    policeman were on duty in Sarajevo, and they were
    so excited that they forgot to watch the crowds,
    and looked at the procession instead.
  • Franz Ferdinand was disguised in the uniform of
    an Austrian cavalry general.
  • To reach the Town Hall the procession had to
    drive along the Appel Quay.   The six
    conspirators had posted themselves along the
    route the Appel Quay was a regular avenue of
  • At 10.10 am, as the procession drew near the
    Cumuria Bridge.

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  • Near the Cumuria bridge
  • 1st  Mehmed Mehmedbasic told a friend that he
    could not get a clear opportunity and that a
    policeman had approached him just as he was to
    throw the bomb.
  • 2nd Vaso Cubrilovic told investigation that
    felt sorry for the Duchess said that he was
    badly placed.
  • 3rd   Nedeljko Cabrinovic threw a bomb.  
    Wearing a long black coat and a black hat, he
    asked a policeman to tell him which car the
    Archduke was in seconds later he had knocked the
    cap off a hand grenade against a metal lamp-post
    and aimed it at the Archduke seated in the open
    car.   Franz Ferdinand later claimed that he had
    knocked away the bomb with his hand witnesses at
    the trial, however, all agreed that the bomb had
    bounced off the folded-back hood of the
    Archduke's car.   It blew up the car behind,
    killing two officers and injuring about twenty
    people.   Cabrinovic swallowed poison, but it
    failed to work.   After stopping to see what had
    happened, Franz Ferdinand's car sped to the Town
  • 4th (landward side) Cvetko Popovic told a
    friend that could not see which was Franz
    Ferdinand because he was short-sighted told the
    trial the lost his nerve.
  • In order to avoid the city center, the royal car
    traveled straight along the Appel Quay and took a
    right turn into Franz Joseph Street.

  • One of the conspirators, Gavrilo Princip, was
    standing on the corner at the time. An advisor
    immediately realized the driver had taken the
    wrong route and shouted "What is this? This is
    the wrong way! We're supposed to take the Appel
  • The driver put his foot on the brake, and began
    to back up. In doing so he moved slowly past the
    waiting Gavrilo Princip.
  • The assassin stepped forward, drew his gun, and
    at a distance of about five feet, fired several
    times into the car. Franz Ferdinand was hit in
    the neck and Sophie in the abdomen.
  • Princip's bullet had pierced the archduke's
    jugular vein but before losing consciousness, he
    pleaded "Sophie dear! Sophie dear! Don't die!
    Stay alive for our children!
  • Franz Urban drove the royal couple to Konak, the
    governor's residence, but although both were
    still alive when they arrived, they died from
    their wounds soon afterwards.

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Princip Bridge sight of Archduke Ferdinands
Nedjelko Cabrinovic, statement in court
(23rd October, 1914)
  • We did not hate Austria, but the Austrians had
    done nothing, since the occupation, to solve the
    problems that faced Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Nine-tenths of our people are farmers who suffer,
    who live in misery, who have no schools, who are
    deprived of any culture.
  • We sympathized with them in their distress. We
    thought that only people of noble character were
    capable of committing political assassinations.
    We heard it said that he (Archduke Franz
    Ferdinand) was an enemy of the Slavs. Nobody
    directly told us "kill him" but in this
    environment, we arrived at the idea ourselves.
  • I would like to add something else. Although
    Princip is playing the hero, and although we all
    wanted to appear as heroes, we still have
    profound regrets. In the first place, we did not
    know that the late Franz Ferdinand was a father.
    We were greatly touched by the words he addressed
    to his wife "Sophie, stay alive for our
    children." We are anything you want, except
  • In my name and in the name of my comrades, I ask
    the children of the late successor to the throne
    to forgive us. As for you, punish us according to
    your understanding. We are not criminals. We are
    honest people, animated by noble sentiments we
    are idealists we wanted to do good we have
    loved our people and we shall die for our

Name Sentence
Gavrilo Princip 20 years
Nedjelko Cabrinovic 20 years
Trifun Grabež 20 years
Vaso Cubrilovic 16 years
Cvjetko Popovic 13 years
Lazar Ðukic 10 years
Danilo Ilic Death by hanging (executed 3 February 1915)
Veljko Cubrilovic Death by hanging (executed 3 February 1915)
Nedjo Kerovic Death by hanging commuted to 20 years in prison by Kaiser Franz-Joseph based on Finance Minister's recommendation
Mihaijlo Jovanovic Death by hanging (executed 3 February 1915)
Jakov Milovic Death by hanging commuted to life in prison by Kaiser Franz-Joseph based on court's and Finance Minister's recommendation
Mitar Kerovic Life in prison
Ivo Kranjcevic 10 years
Branko Zagorac 3 years
Marko Perin 3 years
Cvijan Stjepanovic 7 years
Time to play a game

Who is to blame for starting WWI?
  • You will be assigned a group, and each group will
    be responsible for blaming a different country
    for their involvement in WWI.
  • In your group you must prepare a
    speech/presentation to present to an
    International Tribunal which will decide.. Who
    is to blame?
  • Take into consideration
  • Their involvement in short/long term causes,
    responsibility for the beginning of the war,
    their acts of aggression, lack of prevention of
    war, and historians arguments

  • Matt, Sarah, Courtney, Andres, Sophia, Afrooz
  • Joseph, Cassie, Nate, Kim, Lauren, Genevieve
  • Ayham, Rachel, Coleman, Calli, Cezanne, Bridgette
  • Liam, Hannah, Hunter, Katja, Chandni

  • Which countries were bound to each other by which
  • How did imperialism contribute towards Germanys
    increasing anger with Britain and France?
  • Why was nationalism an important factor?
  • Describe the part played by Germany in increasing
    European militarism.
  • What links were there between the two crises and
  • Alliances
  • Imperialism
  • Militarism
  • Nationalism

BELLWORK - 13 March 2013
  • Time to review over the background causes of WWI!
    For each of the four causes, explain how and why
    that cause created problems/tensions in Europe
    and pushed them closer to war.
  • Militarism
  • Alliances
  • Imperialism
  • Nationalism
  • THINKER In your opinion, which of the four
    causes had the biggest impact or created the most
    problems eventually leading to WWI?
  • Explain the Bosnian Crisis.