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Wheels, Deals and Automobiles: The Industrial Revolution

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Title: Wheels, Deals and Automobiles: The Industrial Revolution Author: Beth Bradley Last modified by: chammond Created Date: 10/11/2004 10:05:50 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wheels, Deals and Automobiles: The Industrial Revolution


1
Wheels, Deals and Automobiles The Industrial
Revolution
  • 1750-1848

2
Traditional Farming Methods
  1. List all of the MACHINES in the picture.
  2. How many POWER SOURCES are in the picture?
  3. What SOCIAL CLASSES are represented here?
  4. Using the picture, write a sentence describing
    life before industrialization.

3
How did the world go from this?
4
To this?
5
What triggered the Industrial Revolution?
  • Agricultural Revolution
  • new inventions (seed drill) put small farmers
    out of work migrated to towns
  • Also people lived longer created a large work
    force
  • Population Explosion 1800s
  • Energy Revolution
  • Water mills/windmills, steam engines

6
A New Agricultural Revolution
Improved Methods of Farming Enclosure Movement Population Explosion
Dikes for land reclamation Fertilizer Seed Drill Jethro Tull Crop rotation Rich landowners fenced in land formerly shared by peasant farmers. Output rose with fewer workers Tenants displaced Moved to cities Britains population rose from 5 million in 1700 to 9 million in 1800. Declining death rates Reduced risk of famine.
7
James Watts Steam Engine World Changing
Invention
  • James Watt's improvements in 1769 and 1784 to
    the steam engine converted a machine of limited
    use, to one of efficiency and many applications.

8
James Watts Steam Engine World Changing
Invention
  • Watts improved steam engine was the foremost
    energy source in the emerging Industrial
    Revolution, and greatly multiplied its productive
    capacity.

9
James Watts Steam Engine World Changing
Invention
  • Watt was a creative genius who radically
    transformed the world from an agricultural
    society into an industrial one. Through Watts
    invention of the first practical steam engine,
    our modern world eventually moved from a 90
    rural basis to a 90 urban basis.

10
James Watts Steam Engine World Changing
Invention
  • Improved steam engines led to improved systems
    for transporting people and factory goods.

11
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
  • Economic
  • New technologies, trade huge divide between
    industrialized and non
  • industrialized world
  • Political
  • Aristocracy remains but has less power
  • Social
  • social status becomes based on wealth (not
    birth)
  • Growth of cities (urbanization)
  • Growth of isms

12
Urbanization
  • In the mid 1700s, more than half the population
    of Britain lived and worked on farms.
  • Between 1750 and 1851, displaced farming families
    moved to the cities to work in the new factories.

13
Urban Living Conditions
  • Factory owners rushed to build housing
  • Back to back row houses
  • Several people in very small spaces
  • Poor sanitation
  • High disease rates
  • Crime
  • Massive pollution

14

Industrialization
  • Factory system
  • Rigid schedule 12-16 hours
  • Workers exposed to dangers
  • Parents accepted idea of child labor

15
Urban Living Conditions
Average Age at Death for Different Classes
CITY GENTRY TRADESPEOPLE LABORERS
Rutland 52 41 38
Truro 40 33 28
Derby 49 38 21
Manchester 38 20 17
Bethnal Green 45 26 16
Liverpool 35 22 15
Rutland agricultural area in central England
Other locations major industrial centers
Truro tin mining center
16
Working Conditions and Wages
  • Common working day 12 14 hours
  • One short break for lunch
  • Work week 6 days per week
  • 80 degree heat
  • Workers were beaten if they did not perform well.
  • Hot, polluted factory air.
  • Workers risked losing limbs from the machines.
  • Low wages.

17
Child Labor
  • Children shifted from farm work to factory work.
  • 12 14 hour days
  • 6 day weeks
  • Lower wages than adults.
  • Began at age 5.
  • Mining work deformed bodies.

18
Child Labor
  • As concerns about the welfare of children rose in
    mid 1800s, Parliament held investigations into
    working conditions.
  • New laws and new labor unions improved conditions.

19
New Technologies and World Economy
Steamships Telegraph cables Steel Electricity Chem
ical industries Railroad
20
World Trade
  • Great Britain first to industrialize
  • By 1890 Germany and U.S. surpassed G.B. as
    worlds leading industrial powers
  • Industrialized nations mass produced consumer
    goods while the non-industrial areas provided raw
    materials

21
World Economy
World became prey to sudden swings in business
cycle because of ever-changing supply and demand
22
Environmental effects
RR ate land Tropical forests cut for plantations
23
Growth of Isms
  • Capitalism
  • Economic system in which the means of production
    are privately owned and operated for profit.
  • Socialism
  • Economic factors determine course of history and
    the struggle between the classes is caused by who
    benefits from surplus

24
Communism Karl Marx
  • Scientific socialism
  • Economics really a struggle between the haves
    (upper class and merchants bourgeoisie) and the
    have nots (proletariat working class.)
  • Advocated a workers revolution to replace
    private ownership of property with cooperative
    ownership.
  • Workers of the world unite you have nothing to
    lose but your chains

25
UTILITARIANISM
  • Greatest happiness for the greatest number
  • Any action is right if it produces happiness
  • Jeremy Bentham
  • John Stuart Mill advocated government help for
    poor

26
Utopianism
  • Self-sufficient communities all work was shared
    and all property was owned in common
  • Does this work?

27
Economists of the Industrial Revolution
  • Adam Smith advocated laissez- faire economics.
    No government regulation of business. A free
    market will produce more goods at lower prices,
    making them affordable by everyone. The basis of
    Capitalism.
  • Thomas Malthus Population will outpace the food
    supply
  • David Ricardo Poor having too many children,
    thus leading to a high labor supply and lower
    wages.

28
The Industrial Revolution
Economic Effects
Social Effects
  • New inventions and development of factories
  • Rapidly growing industry in the 1800s
  • Increased production and higher demand for raw
    materials
  • Growth of worldwide trade
  • Population explosion and a large labor force
  • Exploitation of mineral resources
  • Highly developed banking and investment system
  • Advances in transportation, agriculture, and
    communication
  • Long hours worked by children in factories
  • Increase in population of cities
  • Poor city planning
  • Loss of family stability
  • Expansion of middle class
  • Harsh conditions for laborers
  • Workers progress vs. laissez-faire economic
    attitudes
  • Improved standard of living
  • Creation of new jobs
  • Encouragement of technological progress

Political Effects
  • Child labor laws to end abuses
  • Reformers urging equal distribution of wealth
    (i.e. Karl Marx)
  • Trade unions
  • Social reform movements, such as utilitarianism,
    utopianism, socialism, and Marxism
  • Reform bills in Parliament

29
Industrial Revolution Vocabulary
  • Bourgeoisie Merchant Class
  • Proletariat Workers
  • Factory system Rigid Schedule 12-14 hrs./day
  • Domestic system Make goods at home
  • Capital Land/money which produces
  • Laissez-faire hands off policy toward business
  • Capitalist Profit
  • Communism everyone owns equally
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