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The United States and the Vietnam War

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Title: The United States and the Vietnam War


1
The United States and the Vietnam War
  • By Jennavieve Peck and Jane Westfall

2
1945
  • Ho Chi Minh declares independence of Vietnam,
    while the French continue to control the country

3
1950
  • June- French receive U.S. military aid for
    conflict in Vietnam

4
1954
  • July- Peace conference at Geneva leads to signing
    of Geneva Accords
  • July- Vietnam divided, on a temporary basis, into
    Communist North Vietnam and anti-Communist South
    Vietnam

5
1955
  • Ngo Dinh Diem elected president of South Vietnam,
    refuses to run elections and declares himself the
    President

6
1957
  • Civil War Breaks out in South Vietnam between
    government troops and communist guerrillas

7
1962
  • U.S. involvement in Vietnam increases

8
1964
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gives U.S. president
    (Lyndon B. Johnson) the power to engage U.S.
    combat troops in Vietnam without a formal
    declaration of war

9
1965
  • March- First U.S. combat troops arrive in Vietnam
  • July- Johnson commits to full military presence
    in Vietnam

10
1967
  • October- Demonstrations against American
    involvement in Vietnam erupt across the United
    States

11
1968
  • January- North Vietnam launches Tet Offensive
  • June- American troop withdrawal begins in Vietnam

12
1973
  • January- Paris Peace Agreement allows U.S. to
    withdraw from Vietnam

13
1974
  • South Vietnamese government launches offensive
    against Communist guerrillas in South Vietnam

14
1975
  • January- North Vietnam begins final offensive
    against South Vietnam
  • Saigon, the capitol of South Vietnam, falls to
    the Communists
  • Vietnam unites under the rule of Communism,
    declared the Socialist Republic of Vietnam

15
The Beginning
  • 1887- Vietnam becomes French Indochina, and
    though Vietnam declared independence after WWII,
    France ruled until they were defeated in 1954 by
    Ho Chi Minh and his communist forces. Vietnam was
    separated into a Communist North and an
    anti-Communist South at the Geneva Convention in
    1954. Millions, especially Roman Catholics, fled
    South, encouraged by Americans and their
    propaganda. Operation Passage To Freedom was a
    93 million relocation program, in which the U.S.
    Navy helped transport refugees.

16
Truman
  • Increases military spending, anti- Communist
    expansion
  • Refuses Ho Chi Minhs request for help simply
    because of his communist leanings
  • Containment- Communism could be contained at
    Soviet origins (Cold War)

17
Vietnam and Eisenhowers Administration
  • Domino Theory If one country falls to Communism,
    others will fall like a trail of dominoes
    (Containment, but even stronger)

18
President Kennedys Part in the Vietnam War
  • First real American involvement in the war
  • Sent military advisors to South Vietnam to train
    South Vietnamese soldiers (failed)
  • Media coverage became noticeably negative, rather
    than previous optimistic reports (the beginnings
    of media today critical and scrutinizing)

19
Lyndon B. Johnson Expands the War
  • Johnson inherited a very hard situation in
    Vietnam, and the U.S. government was in shambles.
    At the beginning of his term, he honored
    Kennedys limited troop commitment, but after his
    reelection, he indeed escalated the war. He
    argued that Communism was escalating and the
    incident at the Gulf of Tonkin only helped him
    with his argument.

20
Nixon
  • Started withdrawing troops, but increased number
    and intensity of air-strikes
  • Scandals- Pentagon Papers, Watergate, bombing of
    Laos and Cambodia
  • Henry Kissinger made cease-fire negotiations with
    North
  • Nixon Doctrine withdraw overseas troops, but
    keep Communism in check by forging alliances
    with neighboring countries (China)

21
Opposition to the War
  • Hippies, huge protests
  • 1967
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