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The Vietnam Era

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8th Grade United States History Some considered it a Civil War between the Vietnamese Believed the cost of war was hurting domestic programs Viewed South Vietnam as a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Vietnam Era


1
The Vietnam Era
  • 8th Grade United States History

2
Kennedys Foreign Policy
  • Essential Question
  • What were the key foreign policy challenges the
    United States faced during the Kennedy
    administration?

3
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4
Kennedys Foreign Policy
  • 1961 Cold War continued to deepen
  • President Kennedy continues anti-communist
    campaign
  • Throughout the world, communist groups fought to
    take control of national government
  • Kennedy introduced a plan
  • called flexible response in
  • response to guerilla warfare
  • Green Berets

5
Strength Through Aid
  • Communist promises of economic equality was
    attractive
  • Latin America, Asia, Africa
  • Kennedy provided aid to those countries to weaken
    the appeal of communism
  • Executive order created the Peace Corps to aid
    countries in need
  • Volunteers worked as teachers and health workers
  • Advisers for government, farming and industry

6
Cuba
  • 1959 Fidel Castro seizes power and sets up a
    Communist dictatorship
  • Ally of the Soviet Union
  • CIA plans to overthrow Castro by recruiting Cuban
    refugees in USA to spark uprising in Cuba
  • Bay of Pigs
  • Many mistakes made in the beginning of invasion
  • Kennedy refused air support
  • Kennedy took blame for the failure

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8
Effects of the Bay of Pigs
  • Kennedy never completely trusted military and
    intelligence advice
  • Nations in Latin America lost trust in Kennedy
  • Soviet leader Khrushchev saw Kennedy as a weak
    leader

9
The Berlin Wall
  • Khrushchev built the Berlin Wall in 1961
  • Keep western troops out of East Berlin following
    WWII
  • Prevent refugees seeking freedom from East Berlin
    from entering West Berlin
  • Cut communications between the two parts of the
    city
  • Wall came to symbolize Communist repression

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11
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 1962 American spy plane took photographs
    revealing Soviets building launching sites for
    nuclear weapons in Cuba
  • Could reach U.S. in minutes
  • Kennedy ordered blockade of Cuba until missiles
    were removed
  • Kennedy warned that a nuclear attack from the
    Soviets would result in a nuclear attack by the
    U.S.
  • After 5 days, Soviets removed missiles
  • Two nations started to work together to avoid
    nuclear war

12
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13
Rivalry in Space
  • 1961 Kennedy commits U.S. to landing on the
    moon by the end of the decade
  • NASA expands
  • July 20, 1969 The Eagle lands on the surface of
    the moon
  • Neil Armstrong
  • Thats one small step for a man, one giant leap
    for mankind.

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15
Making Connections
  • What motivated the Soviet Union to build the
    Berlin Wall?
  •  
  • How did the United States attempt to contain
    communism during the Kennedy administration?
  • Answer the Essential Question What were the key
    foreign policy challenges the United States faced
    during the Kennedy administration?

16
War in Vietnam
  • Essential Question
  • How and why did American involve itself in the
    war in Vietnam?

17
Vietnam
18
Origins of the War
  • After WWII, Vietnamese Communist leader, Ho Chi
    Minh, declared independence from the French
  • French were unwilling to give up their Indochina
    colony
  • Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam
  • Rice, rubber and tin
  • Ho Chi Minh defeated French forces in 1954

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20
The Geneva Accords
  • 1954 U.S., France, Great Britain, Soviet Union,
    China and Vietnam meet in Geneva, Switzerland
  • Decided Vietnam would be temporarily divided
  • Ho Chi Minh Communist North Vietnam
  • United States would support non-Communist South
    Vietnam
  • United States emphasized that it would act if the
    Communist North moved against the South

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22
The Geneva Accords
  • South Vietnamese leader Ngo Dinh Diem refused to
    hold elections and cracked down on Communism in
    the South
  • Communists set up the Vietcong (National
    Liberation Front) in response
  • Began a war against Diem regime

23
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24
A Growing American Role
  • Eisenhower and Kennedy supported South Vietnam in
    the form of economic aid and training of troops
  • Diem was urged to made reforms that would weaken
    the appeal of Communism but few reforms were made
  • Took rights away from Buddhist population
  • South Vietnamese overthrew Diem with support of
    the United States

25
The Conflict Deepens
  • 16,000 American troops were in Vietnam at the
    time of Kennedys assassination
  • Vietcong attacks caused Americans to get more
    involved
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  • North Vietnamese patrol boats allegedly attacked
    American destroyers near Gulf of Tonkin
  • Congress gave President Johnson the ability to
    take all necessary measures to repel any armed
    attack against the forces of the United States
  • 1965 500,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam
  • 1965-1968 - U.S. Bombing campaign

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28
Fighting the War
  • Fighting a ground war was difficult
  • Dense jungles
  • Muddy trails
  • Swampy rice paddies
  • Guerilla warfare
  • Search and destroy missions
  • Planes bombed areas of South Vietnam to drive
    guerillas out of the jungle
  • Napalm
  • Agent Orange

29
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30
Frustration Grows
  • No matter how many Vietcong and North Vietnamese
    troops were destroyed, they were always replaced
  • Soldiers became frustrated
  • Opposition to U.S. involvement in Vietnam began
    to grow at home

31
Making Connections
  • What was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and why
    was it important?
  •  
  • Why was it difficult for U.S. soldiers to fight
    in Vietnam?
  • Answer the Essential Question How and why did
    American involve itself in the war in Vietnam?

32
The Vietnam Years at Home
  • Essential Question
  • How did the Vietnam War affect the political and
    social climate in the United States?

33
Protest
  • The war divided the nation
  • Generation gap
  • Doves and hawks

34
Increased Opposition to War in Vietnam
  • Some considered it a Civil War between the
    Vietnamese
  • Believed the cost of war was hurting domestic
    programs
  • Viewed South Vietnam as a corrupt dictatorship
    that was not worth assisting
  • Loss of countryside
  • Loss of Lives

35
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36
Counterculture
  • Challenge to traditional middle class values
  • Challenge to customary social roles of work and
    family
  • Reject competition for material goods and
    personal success

37
Counterculture
38
Opposition to the Draft
  • Student protests targeted the selective service
    system
  • Sought to halt the supply of soldiers needed to
    fight the war
  • Argued that deferments discriminated against poor
    and working class families
  • Conscientious Objectors

39
The Tet Offensive
  • January 31, 1968 North Vietnamese and Vietcong
    launched attacks
  • Military bases
  • South Vietnams cities
  • United States embassy in Saigon
  • U.S. pushed back all communist forces
  • Many Americans began to turn against the war and
    President Johnson
  • Concerned that an enemy they were assured was so
    close to defeat could launch such a large attack
  • People began to distrust the Johnson
    administration

40
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41
The President Responds
  • American commander in Vietnam requested more
    troops
  • Johnson ordered a reevaluation of the war
  • 1968 Johnson stated that no more bombs would be
    dropped on N. Vietnamese cities
  • Asked for peace talks
  • Informed the nation that he would not seek a
    second term

42
Violence Erupts
  • April 4, 1968 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is
    assassinated
  • Riots erupt all over the country
  • June 1968 Robert Kennedy is assassinated

43
Violence Erupts
  • Protestors flocked to Chicago to protest the
    presidential nomination of Democratic Senator
    Hubert Humphrey
  • Humphrey favored Johnsons Vietnam policy
  • Protestors threw bottles and sticks at police
  • Police threw tear gas, beat protesters with night
    sticks and arrested many
  • Republican Richard Nixon wins the election of
    1968

44
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45
Making Connections
  • What were draft deferments and who benefited from
    them?
  • What was the Tet Offensive and why was it
    significant to the course of the war?
  • Answer the Essential Question How did the
    Vietnam War affect the political and social
    climate of the United States?
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