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THE UNITED STATES

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THE UNITED STATES & VIETNAM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ur9qVP2As3Y Before WWII Vietnam was part of the French empire During WWII Vietnam was overrun by the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE UNITED STATES


1
THE UNITED STATES VIETNAM http//www.youtube.com
/watch?vUr9qVP2As3Y
2
The Situation
  • Before WWII Vietnam was part of the French empire
  • During WWII Vietnam was overrun by the Japanese
  • After WWII France was given back control of South
    Vietnam, but North Vietnam formed its own
    government, led by Ho Chi Minh

3


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4
Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969)
5
The French in Vietnam
  • In 1946, the French began to reclaim North
    Vietnam
  • Ho Chi Minh and his Viet Minh guerillas fought to
    retain their independence
  • Growing opposition to French control

6
The French in Vietnam
  • By 1950, the Viet Minh were supported by China
    and the Soviet Union
  • In late 1953, French troops sent into Dien Bien
    Phu were defeated by the Viet Minhs guerilla
    tactics
  • France left Vietnam in 1954
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vtG3mifrpGp0feature
    related

7
Viet Minh Dien Bien Phu
8
The Geneva Peace Accords (1954)
  • Vietnam split at the 17th Parallel with pressure
    from the USSR US
  • Ngo Dinh Diem was given charge of South Vietnam,
    Ho Chi Minh was given charge of North Vietnam

9
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10
Friction between the North and South
  • US supported Ngo Dinh Diem who opposed communism
    but ruled as a dictator
  • The North Vietnamese, supported by China and the
    Soviet Union, spread communism to their oppressed
    neighbors to the South

11
Friction between the North and South
  • In 1956, the Viet Minh formed the North
    Vietnamese Army and fought in the South
  • The Viet Cong, South Vietnamese communists, used
    guerilla warfare in the South

12
Americas Domino Theory
  • The US wanted to contain communism in North
    Vietnam, fearing its spread to the South then to
    surrounding nations
  • The US sent increasing numbers of special forces
    to train the South Vietnamese to fight the Viet
    Cong
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vv_RL7vwl_T4feature
    endscreenNR1
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vQP9QDRDLw6c

13
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14
America steps up its involvement
  • In 1963, Diem was overthrown and killed by the
    South Vietnamese army
  • In 1964, an American destroyer was attacked by
    North Vietnamese gunboats in the Gulf of Tonkin

15
America steps up its involvement
  • The US Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin
    Resolution which allowed the president to take
    "all necessary steps" to protect the United
    States and its allies
  • No formal declaration of war was ever made

16
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17
Peak American Involvement
  • At the wars peak, 500,000 American troops were
    stationed in Vietnam
  • American troops tended to be drafted and were
    trained conventionally
  • Draftees were typically from low-income families,
    unable to get deferments for going to college
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v_HO06__Z_So

18
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19
Peak American Involvement
  • Viet Cong continued to use guerilla warfare
  • Shoot and run
  • Booby traps
  • Blend in with the civilian population
  • 1968 Tet Offensive VC changed strategies and
    attacked directly
  • Sparks massive American protests and causes LBJ
    to not seek reelection

20
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21
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vAqQGQwBi5ag
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vO_Sji9OhAuI
22
Tet Offensive (1968)
23
Changing American Strategy and Attitudes
  • Nixon wins election in 1968 hoping for peace
    with honor
  • Vietnamization training and equipping South
    Vietnamese to assume combat role in place of
    Americans
  • Gradual reductions in US troop numbers from 1969
    to 1973

24
  • Invasion of Cambodia wanting to prevent attacks
    by North Vietnamese on South Vietnam from
    neighboring Cambodia
  • Restarts mass protests against war effort,
    including deadly protests at Kent State
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vpr-zRI7Gu-Ufeature
    related

25
  • Renewed shifts of opinion against the war
  • Congress revokes authority of Gulf of Tonkin
    Resolution
  • Pentagon Papers excerpts of Defense Dept.
    documents showing govt. justifications by war
    published by New York Times in 1971
  • My Lai Massacre killing of over 300 unarmed
    South Vietnamese civilians, with military
    personnel put on trial
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vq3wKQLE7nks

26
End of American Involvement and the Fall of Saigon
  • Negotiations restart in 1972, Nixon drops
    demands for full North Vietnamese withdrawal
  • Both secret and public negotiations near
    completion before the 1972 election, then break
    down
  • Christmas bombings massive bombing of North
    Vietnamese cities in late December 1972

27
  • Paris Accords peace agreement reached on January
    27, 1973
  • Cease fire between North and South Vietnam
  • Return of American POWs

28
  • North Vietnamese launch attack on South Vietnam
    in March 1975 with no American intervention
  • Saigon, the capitol of Vietnam was captured and
    renamed Ho Chi Minh City in 1975
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v3AiyFF9qOls

29
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