Rebuilding Japan After WWII, The Korean War, and The Vietnam War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Rebuilding Japan After WWII, The Korean War, and The Vietnam War


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Title: Rebuilding Japan After WWII, The Korean War, and The Vietnam War

Rebuilding Japan After WWII, The Korean War, and
The Vietnam War
Rebuilding Japan After World War II
Japan Surrenders
  • In 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs
    on two Japanese cities- Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • The Japanese finally admitted defeat and
  • Japanese farms and industries had been destroyed,
    the government was in a shambles, and the
    Japanese people no longer saw their emperor as a
    god-like hero.

Japans Post-War Infrastructure
  • Much of Japans infrastructure had been
    completely destroyed by battle and atomic bombs.
  • infrastructure- the basic structures or features
    of a city or nation transportation,
    communication, sewage, water, and electric
    systems are all a part of infrastructure.

  • Atomic bombs
  • were dropped on
  • Hiroshima and
  • Nagasaki by the
  • U.S. in August
  • 1945.

Hiroshima Before the Bomb
Hiroshima After the Bomb
  • Nagasaki before
  • and after the
  • atomic bomb

U.S. Occupation of Japan
  • The U.S. was put in charge of helping to rebuild
  • Japan was now controlled by a U.S. army
    occupation led by General Douglas MacArthur.
  • MacArthurs job was to rebuild Japan in a way
    that would guarantee that it would not pose a
    military threat to other countries in the future.

U.S. Occupation of Japan
  • Previously, Japanese society had been heavily
    focused on the military and warring.
  • The U.S. wanted Japan to become a peaceful,
    democratic nation.

Rebuilding Japan
  • The U.S. believed the social, political, and
    economic conditions that led to this heavy
    military focus had to be destroyed and the
    Japanese mindset changed.
  • Business leaders who had been tied to the old
    militaristic Japan were stripped of their power.
  • Transportation systems, industry, urban
    infrastructure, and businesses had to be rebuilt.

Rebuilding Japan
  • A land reform program was started.
  • Labor unions were created.
  • Japan got to keep its home islands, but had to
    give up control of all its overseas possessions.
  • Japan gave Manchuria back to China and gave up
  • In general, the Japanese people were happy with
    these political and economic changes.

Japans New Constitution
  • General MacArthur wanted Japan to have a
    democratic government, but he also appreciated
    the important place the Japanese emperor held in
    Japanese culture.
  • He decided Japan would become a Constitutional
  • He wrote a constitution for Japan that is still
    called the MacArthur Constitution today.

Japans New Constitution
  • The constitution created a two-house parliament
    called The Diet.
  • Everyone over the age of 20 could vote for
    members of the Diet.
  • The constitution also included a Bill of Rights
    and guaranteed basic freedoms.
  • The emperor remained as a symbol of the country,
    but was stripped of his power.

Japans New Constitution
  • The constitution stated that Japan could never
    again declare war on another country.
  • Japan is allowed to fight only if it is attacked
  • Japan could not use its land, sea, or air forces
    to settle international disputes.
  • Today, the Japanese government is one of the
    strongest in the world.

Nagasaki Today
Hiroshima Today
Tokyo, Japan
The Cold War Heats Up
American Involvement
  • Containment-
  • The US policy to stop Communism from spreading to
    other countries
  • Domino Theory-
  • The belief that if one country fell to Communism,
    other countries would follow

This map is from an American magazine from 1950.
This shows how much the US feared communism in
the far east.
The Truman Doctrine
  • The Truman Doctrine stated that the USA would
    lend aid to any country not wishing to be
    suppressed by the political ideals (communism) of
    any other country.

United Nations
  • It would fight with the South Korean army.
  • Commanded by an American General Douglas
  • MacArthur was later fired by Truman for getting
    the Chinese involved in the war. MacArthur wanted
    to use nuclear weapons on the Chinese.

Soviet Union
  • Soviets sold Chinese military equipment,
    including artillery and MIG fighter planes.
  • The USSR also provided advisers and military
    hardware to the North Koreans.
  • Soviet pilots flew MIGs against US planes.
  • However, Stalin was unwilling to become involved
    with the United States in a war over Korea.

United States
  • The US provided the majority of the UN military
    forces which drove the North Koreans out of South
    Korea and still stand guard along the border.
    The US moved their troops into South Korea
  • The US and the Soviets agreed to divide Korea
    temporarily to avoid long term decisions
    regarding Korea's future.
  • Although the United States took the lead in the
    Korean action, it did so under the order of the
    United Nations.

Why did China enter the war?
  • UN forces pushed north to China
  • Crossed 38th parallel
  • Yalu River and border with China
  • Mao Zedong already made it clear that China would
    not tolerate foreign forces on border

What happens next?
  • October 14 to November 1, 1950
  • Chinese send 180,000 of the Peoples Volunteer
    Army to cross Yalu River
  • They pushed the American forces back
  • November 2
  • UN realizes that the attack was done by Communist

Home-by-Christmas offensive
  • November 24 MacArthur launches offensive attack
  • Chinese army retaliates with full force
  • American and South Korean units retreat
  • Ends January 1951

The Korean War Armistice
  • It was signed on July 27,1953
  • Covered issues such as
  • exchange of prisoners of war
  • - location of a Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
  • Intended as a temporary measure, but the 38th
    parallel remains standing even today.

Map of Korea
  • After three years, July 27, 1953- ceasefire
    stopped the fighting
  • Although there was no declared winner, South
    Korea never succumbed to a communist rule.

  • Korea is still split up into North Korea
    (communist) and South Korea (non-communist)
  • The border between the two countries has remained
    one of the most heavily-armed stretches of land
    on Earth

Vietnam War
Vietnam Under the French
  • French missionaries were the first to come into
  • France began to establish trading posts along the
    Mekong River
  • The colony was formally declared French territory
    in 1887

Leader of Vietnamese Independence
  • Ho Chi Minh
  • Resisted French rule and declared Vietnams
    Independence on September 2, 1945.
  • Adopted Communism because of its revolutionary

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End of French Involvement
  • The Viet Minh guerillas fought for nearly 10
    years against the French
  • The French were still badly hurt politically and
    economically from WWII and were unprepared for
    the long war
  • The French were defeated by the Vietnamese on May
    7, 1954 at Dien Bien Phu.

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American Involvement
  • The Geneva Convention
  • Divided Vietnam into North and South
  • North Communist, controlled by Ho Chi Minh
  • Supported by China and the USSR
  • South non-Communist, controlled by Ngo Dinh Diem
  • Supported by the US
  • Would allow the Vietnamese people to vote on
    which government they wanted
  • The US was greatly concerned whether or not
    Vietnam would fall to Communism

American Involvement
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964)-
  • The North Vietnamese allegedly attacked US Navy
    ships in the Gulf of Tonkin
  • President Lyndon Johnson received full support
    from Congress to increase US involvement
  • 1965 US ground troops sent into Vietnam

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US Difficulties in Vietnam
  • Ho Chi Minh Trail-
  • The supply line used by Ho Chi Minh and his
  • The US was never able to stop the supply line
  • Viet Cong-
  • The Communist forces in South Vietnam that fought
    against the US and the South Vietnamese
  • The CNN Effect
  • For the first time Americans could watch news
    cover of the war from their homes, caused a loss
    of support from the general public

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The End of US Involvement
  • Lost the support of the American public
  • Counter-Culture movement
  • Anti-war groups, hippies, flower children, etc
  • The Tet Offensive (1968)-
  • Large assault by the North Vietnamese Communist
  • Vietnamization-
  • The process of the US turning over control to the
    South Vietnamese Government while the US withdrew

The End of US Involvement
  • Paris Peace Accord (1973)
  • US troops pulled out of Vietnam

End of the War
  • The war ended in 1975 when the South Vietnamese
    surrendered to the North
  • 1976- North and South Vietnam were united into
    the Socialist Republic of Vietnam

  • What was the role of the United States in the
    rebuilding of Japan after WWII?
  • What are the reasons for foreign involvement in
    Korea and Vietnam in terms of containment of
  • What were the results of the Korean and Vietnam
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