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United States History From WWII to the present

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Title: United States History From WWII to the present


1
United States HistoryFrom WWII to the present
2
THE POST-WAR WORLDForeign Policy
3
1. Cold War Begins
  • Political and military rivalry between
    superpowers US and Soviet Union (USSR).
  • Lasted from 1945-1990
  • led to hot wars around globe
  • in Korea, Vietnam

4
2. U.S. vs. USSR (Soviet Union)
  • U.S. U.S.S.R
  • Capitalism Communism
  • Private property State owns
  • Democratic Totalitarian

5
3. FIGHTING COMMUNISM
  • CONTAINMENT POLICY The U.S. would work to stop
    the spread of communism.
  • 1. Truman Doctrine
  • 2. Marshall Plan
  • 3. NATO and other alliances

6
4. The Truman Doctrine Domino Theory
  • Truman Doctrine U.S. would aid countries around
    the world who are fighting communism (like Greece
    and Turkey).
  • Domino Theory If the U.S. doesnt fight
    communism, then countries will fall to communism
    like dominos.

7
5. The Marshall Plan 1948
  • Plan to aid Europein ruins
  • Prevent countries from falling to communists
  • Aid American business
  • 17 billion to 16 countries in Europe (not Soviet
    Union)

8
6. NATO vs. WARSAW PACT
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization defense
    alliance among U.S. and Europe against the Soviet
    Union. Still exists.
  • Warsaw Pact Defense alliance among Soviet Union
    and its satellite governments in Eastern Europe.

9
7. Postwar Germany
  • Nuremburg Trials for war crimes
  • Divided into 4 zones
  • West Germany U.S., Britain, and France
  • East Germany- Soviets
  • Capitol city of Berlin divided into 4 zones (in
    East Germany)
  • Berlin Airlift In 1948-49, the U.S. and Europe
    flew food and supplies to save West Berlin,
    until Soviets reopened roads.

10
8. Post War Japan
  • U.S. occupied under General MacArthur
  • New constitution
  • Democracy with Emperor as figurehead
  • Rebuild economy
  • Abolished army and navy
  • Tokyo trials convicted war criminals

11
9. The Red Scare
  • Intense fear of Communists taking over U.S.
  • China became a Communist country in 1949.
  • Soviets developed an atomic bomb in 1949.
  • Rosenbergs convicted of selling atomic secrets to
    Soviet Union. Executed 1953.

12
10. McCarthyism
  • In 1950, Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy of
    Wisconsin claimed that he had lists of
    communists in the U.S. government.
  • Falsely accused hundreds of people of being
    active Communists, ruining lives.
  • When hearings were televised, people saw that
    McCarthy was wrongly accusing many people.
  • Censured (punished) by Senate.

13
11. Korean War, 1950-53
  • Divided north and south at 38th parallel at end
    of WWII.
  • In 1950, Communist North Korea invaded South
    Korea.
  • The U.S. and United Nations, aided the South
    China aided the North Koreans.
  • Treaty signed in 1953, keeping dividing line at
    38th parallel (still today).
  • 33,000 American soldiers died, 100,000 wounded.

14
12. Space Race
  • Began when Soviets beat the U.S. into space
  • Soviet satellite Sputnik launched in 1957
  • Explorer I, the first U.S. satellite, was
    launched in 1958.
  • The National Defense Act of 1958 approved federal
    funding of education in math, science and foreign
    languages.
  • Reforms in education

15
13. Nuclear Arms Race
  • Hydrogen bomb invented both U.S. and Soviets
    had them
  • 1,000 times more powerful than atomic
    bombvaporized an island.
  • Dangers of fallout and radiation
  • Many built
  • bomb shelters!!

16
POST-WAR AMERICA

17
14. Economic Boom in the 1950s
  • Permanent military economy, with the government
    spending heavily on defense.
  • Created an economic boon in the 1950s
  • Suburban growth middle class moving out of
    cities 1/3 of populationtract housing as in
    Levittown, PA
  • --GI Bill of Rightseducation, loans
  • --Interstate Highway Act
  • --televisions, automobiles

18
15. BABY BOOM
  • As the country returned to normal, there was a
    huge increase in births, lasting from 1946-1960.
  • Largest population group ever, now retiring.
  • Rock and Roll music became popular.

19
16. Election of 1948
  • Democrats President Truman
  • Republican - Thomas Dewey of NY
  • Dixiecrats Strom Thurmond
  • Southern Democrats
  • who left party after Truman
  • desegregated the military.
  • Dewey predicted to win! Truman won with 49 of
    the popular vote

20
17. Elections of 1952 and 1956
  • Republican General Dwight D. Eisenhower WWII
    hero won over Democrat Adlai Stevenson.
    Eisenhower promised to end the war in Korea and
    to resist communism.
  • Most Americans wanted a change
  • Democrats had been in power
  • for 20 years!

21
Whats the answer?
  • 1. Political and military rivalry with Soviet
    Union?
  • 2. Intense fear of Communist takeover in the
    United States?
  • 3. Hot war in Asia from 1950-53?
  • 3. Senator who falsely accused many people of
    communism?
  • 4. Increased birth rate from 1946 to 1960.
  • 5. Republican who won the presidency in 1952?
  • 6. Southern Democrats who broke off from
    Democratic Party over civil rights?

22
  • The
  • Civil
  • Rights
  • Movement

23
18. The Civil Rights Movement 1945-1970
  • End segregation in schools and public places (Jim
    Crow) and ensure full voting rights in the South.
  • After WWII, movement picks up speed
  • -Executive Order 9981-Truman desegregates
    military
  • NAACPNational Association for Advancement of
    Colored People1909used courts to attack
    segregation.
  • SCLCSouthern Christian Leadership
    Conferenceblack ministers
  • SNCCStudent Nonviolent Coordinating
    Committeeblack college students

24
19. Education
  • 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson separate but equal
    okdoesnt violate equal protection of the laws.
  • 1954 Brown v. Bd. of Ed. of Topeka, Kansas
    Separate but equal IS unconstitutional. Suit
    brought by NAACP argued by Thurgood Marshall.
  • 1955 Federal courts order Southern states to
    desegregate with all deliberate speed. Whites
    resisted, even closing schools.
  • 1957Pres. Eisenhower uses National Guard to
    force Arkansas to admit the Little Rock Nine, 9
    black students, to Central High School.

25
20. Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • 1955--Rosa Parks arrested in 1955 for refusing to
    give up seat on bus to white person.
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. of the SCLC led boycott
    against city buses.
  • Court holds segregated buses unconstitutional
    bus company goes bankrupt for lack of black
    riders.
  • King writes Letter from a Birmingham Jail to
    white ministers, explaining why nonviolent
    protest is necessary.

26
21. Sit-ins
  • Greensboro, NC
  • Lunch counters were segregated
  • Students from SNCC used non-violence sit-ins.
  • White violence caught on television.

27
22. Freedom Riders (CORE)
  • Black and white students rode buses together to
    desegregate public buses.
  • Whites burned buses and beat riders in Alabama
    President Kennedy has to step in to protect them.
    Televised!

28
23. 1963 March on Washington demonstrated public
support for Civil Rights laws
  • Idea of A. Phillip Randolph in 1940s
  • Dr. King delivered
  • his I Have a
  • Dream speech to 250,000 marchers
  • Led to Civil Rights Act of 1964--banned
    discrimination in places where you eat, sleep or
    are entertained.
  • --Also protected women and minorities.

29
White Violence Increases
  • 1963Medgar Evars, NAACP official assassinated
  • 1963--church bomb kills 4 girls
  • 19643 civil rights workers murdered
  • 1965march on Selma turns into Bloody Sunday

30
24. Black Groups and Movements
  • Nation of Islam Malcolm X, separation of races,
    black nation.
  • Black Power Movement Stokely Carmichael, black
    pride
  • Black Panther party --militant demand for
    changesocial programs.

31
25. King Assassinated
  • Dr. King, desire to unite all races, desire for
    Vietnam war funds to be used to fight poverty.
  • On April 4, 1968, King was assassinated in
    Memphis by James Earl Ray.

32
The 1960s and 1970s
33
26. Election of 1960
  • Republican Richard Nixon, former Vice-President,
    ran against Democrat John F. Kennedy, a young
    Irish Catholic.
  • First televised presidential debates, which
    helped Kennedy.
  • Ask not what your country can do for you ask
    what you can do for your country!

34
27. The Bay of Pigs
  • 1959 Fidel Castro takes over Cuba
  • established ties with the Soviet Union90 miles
    from U.S.
  • In 1961, U.S. backed 1500 Cuban refugees (trained
    by CIA) in an attack at the last moment, JFK
    withdrew direct air/naval support.
  • Rebellion fails
  • have to pay 50 million in supplies/cash to
    ransom 1200 survivors.

35
28. Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
  • CIA discovers Soviet weapons in Cuba pointed at
    U.S.
  • US makes naval blockade and demanded removal of
    the weapons.
  • Very tense 7 days.
  • Closest we have ever come to nuclear war.
  • Finally, Khrushchev, Russian leader, agrees to
    remove if we will not attack.

36
29. JFK Assassinated
  • Dallas, Texas Nov. 22, 1963
  • Lee Harvey Oswald shot by Jack Ruby
  • Warren Commission Report
  • Oswald acted alone
  • Lyndon Baines Johnson becomes president.

37
30. 1964LBJ Administration
  • Reelected and continues
  • Kennedys policies
  • Great Society and War on PovertyMedicare/Medicaid
  • Voting rights act of 1965
  • Eliminates poll tax, literacy tests, grandfather
    clauses
  • supervision of elections in South.

38
31. Vietnam War
  • 1950scivil war between North and South Vietnam
  • US sends supplies and advisors to South Vietnam
  • Domino theoryUS sent advisors and supplies to
    South Vietnam to stop spread of communism or
    Southeast Asia would fall
  • North led by Ho Chi Minh, communist leader
  • 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  • LBJ used to engage in full scale war.
  • massive bombing and draft.
  • TET offensive in 1968shows US not winning the
    war LBJ doesnt run again.

39
32. Vietnam War Protest
  • 1968 ElectionNixon wins and uses
    Vietnamization
  • bombing and turning war over to South Vietnam
  • ends in 1973 when South Vietnam falls to the
    Communists.
  • 60,000 US soldiers died longest and most costly
    of wars.
  • PROTEST--A powerful antiwar movement slowly
    mounted within the U.S. burn draft cards, draft
    evaders, protests.

40
33. Counterculture hippies!!
  • Rejected traditional values
  • square
  • Long hair, wild clothes,
  • drugs, sex
  • College campuses
  • protest, sit-ins, rallies
  • Communes
  • Woodstock, 1969
  • Summer of love

41
34. Man on the Moon
  • July 20, 1969 Apollo 11
  • Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the
    moon! Thats one small step for man, one giant
    leap for mankind.

42
35. Important Court Cases
  • The Warren Court, 1953-1969important cases
    involving individual rights
  • Brown v. Board of Education
  • Miranda v. United Statesrights of person under
    arrest must be clearly explained in order to be
    valid (You have the right to remain silent . . .
    )
  • The Burger Court, 1969-1986
  • Bakke v. Regents (1978)racial quotas for
    admission were unconstitutional (leads eventually
    to end of affirmative action)

43
36. 1972 Election
  • Pres. Nixon wins in a landslide
  • Silent majority middle class voters
  • restore law order.
  • Foreign Policy Nixon visited China in 1972 and
    improved relations with Communists
  • 26th Amendment had passed in 1971
  • 18 year olds can vote in all states.
  • Equal rights amendment for women, passed
  • by Congress in 1972, but not ratified.

44
37. Watergate
  • 5 men arrested attempting to place wiretaps in
    Democratic headquarters during 72 campaign.
  • did Nixon know? Clear he covered up.
  • Story broke when two Washington Post reporters
    used source Deep Throat for information.
  • Congress began investigating in televised
    hearingstop White House officials went to jail.
  • Facing impeachment, he resigned. Gerald Ford
    becomes President (never elected) pardons Nixon.

45
38. Environmental Movement
  • Rachel Carson, The Silent Springdangers of
    pesticides launches environmental movement
    concerned about pollution, recycling, composting.
  • Earth Day
  • Clean Air Act
  • Clean Water Act
  • Water, concerned with pollution, recycling,
    composting.
  • 1973 Arab oil embargo led to an energy crisis.

46
39. Carter Administration
  • Foreign Policy emphasized moral principles and
    respect for human-rights
  • Boycott 1980 Olympics to protest Soviet invasion
    of Afghanistan
  • Worked for peace in the Middle East
  • Iranian hostage crisis53 Americans for more than
    a year rescue failed.

47
The 1980s through the Present
48
40. Ronald Reagan, 1981-89
  • New Right elected Reagan
  • Pro-life movementreligious movement to protest
    the Roe v. Wade decision that stated women had a
    privacy right to an abortion during the first
    trimester of pregnancy.
  • Reaganomics economic program
  • tax cuts to wealthy to trickle down to poor
  • cut government regulation of some industries
  • Iran-Contra illegally sold weapons to Iran, and
    used secret money to fund anticommunists in
    Nicaragua.
  • GlasnostCold War is ending Soviet Union breaks
    apart West and East Germany reunited after
    Berlin Wall falls.

49
41. Bill Clinton, 1993-2001
  • Democrat, with Republican led Congress
  • Series of scandalsWhitewater, Monica Lewinski
  • North American Free Trade Agreement
    (NAFTA)eliminated import taxes on most goods
    sold between Canada, Mexico, and the U.S.
  • Series of terrorist attacks World Trade
  • Center (1993), Oklahoma City (1995), and
  • USS Cole.

50
42. George Bush, 2001-present
  • Bush v. Gore Gore wins popular vote, but loses
    electoral vote due to Supreme Courts decision on
    Florida election Bush was denied equal
    protection if different methods were used to
    count votes in different states
  • Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center bombed again
  • Led to War against terrorism in Afghanistan
    (sponsored Al Quaeda) and Iran (weapons of mass
    destruction)
  • War protest movement

51
43. Five declared Wars
  • War of 1812
  • Mexican War
  • Spanish-American War
  • WWI
  • WWII
  • Iraq and VietnamCongress authorized actions but
    no formal declaration of war

52
Practice Questions
  • US History Test 4
  • http//www.cowetaschools.org/nhs/testing/utest/ush
    istory4/ushistory4.htm
  • US History Test 5
  • http//www.cowetaschools.org/nhs/testing/utest/ush
    istory5/ushistory5.htm
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