Cold War: Korean and Vietnam Wars - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Cold War: Korean and Vietnam Wars PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4f3021-M2FmN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Cold War: Korean and Vietnam Wars

Description:

Cold War: Korean and Vietnam Wars Korean War American involvement in the KOREAN WAR in the early 1950s reflected the American policy of CONTAINMENT of COMMUNISM ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:313
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 39
Provided by: MeghanO2
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Cold War: Korean and Vietnam Wars


1
Cold War Korean and Vietnam Wars
2
Korean War
  • American involvement in the KOREAN WAR in the
    early 1950s reflected the American policy of
    CONTAINMENT of COMMUNISM
  • Containment ? American policy of RESISTING the
    EXPANSION of communism around the world
  • War lasted 1950-1953

3
Background
  • Japan had ANNEXED the Korean peninsula before
    WWI Japanese defeated in WWII
  • 1945 ? Allies agreed on a TEMPORARY solution
    temporary division of Korea at the 38th PARALLEL
  • SOVIET-occupied NORTHERN zone
  • AMERICAN-occupied SOUTHERN zone

4
(No Transcript)
5
  • Soon a PRO-AMERICAN government formed in SOUTH
    Korea and a COMMUNIST regime was established in
    NORTH Korea.

6
War breaks out in Korea
  • Koreans on BOTH sides of the dividing line wanted
    to UNIFY their nation
  • JUNE 1950 the Korean War broke out when NORTH
    KOREAN troops INVADED South Korea over the 38th
    parallel border ? they were determined to reunite
    Korea BY FORCE

7
U.S. response
  • 1)Pres. TRUMAN brought the issue of North Korean
    aggression to the UNITED NATIONS

8
  • 2)Truman ordered American AIR and NAVAL support
    GROUND troops to aid the South Koreans.

9
  • 4) Truman did NOT go to CONGRESS for an official
    declaration of war (as required by the
    CONSTITUTION)
  • - Article 1, Section 8 Congress maintains the
    power to DECLARE WAR

10
UN Police Action
  • The U.S. chose Gen. Douglas MACARTHUR to be the
    COMMANDER of the UN forces
  • Americans made up roughly 80 of POLICE ACTION in
    Korea
  • Police action a LOCALIZED military action
    without declaration of war

11
Waging the War
  • American military forces led a United Nations
    COUNTERATTACK that drove deep into NORTH KOREA
    itself.
  • Communist CHINESE forces came into the war on the
    side of North Korea to PUSH BACK UN forces
  • STALEMATE developed between the two sides

12
  • TRUCE signed in 1953 left Korea DIVIDED at almost
    the exact same place as before the war ? near the
    38th PARALLEL

13
Effects of Korean War
  • 1) Enormous FRUSTRATION in United States ? 54,000
    dead, 103,000 wounded for LIMITED results
  • 2) RESISTANCE of Communist forces, containment
    WITHOUT nuclear war

14
  • 3) INTEGRATION of UNITS in armed forces
  • 4) Huge INCREASE in MILITARY SPENDING
  • 5) Development of powerful MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL
    complex
  • 6) Permanent MOBILIZATION of troops

15
Vietnam War
  • American involvement in the VIETNAM WAR also
    reflected the Cold War policy of CONTAINMENT of
    communism

16
Background
  • DOMINO theory refers to the fear that if one
    SOUTHEAST ASIAN nation fell to the Communists,
    the others would also fall
  • Because of its GEOGRAPHIC location, a Communist
    TAKEOVER of Vietnam posed a THREAT to Cambodia,
    Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand

17
(No Transcript)
18
Increasing U.S. Involvement
  • Beginning in the 1950s and continuing into the
    early 1960s, the COMMUNIST government of NORTH
    Vietnam attempted to install a communist
    government in SOUTH Vietnam BY FORCE
  • The UNITED STATES helped South Vietnam RESIST

19
  • The American military BUILDUP in Vietnam began
    under Pres. EISENHOWER and Pres. John F. KENNEDY
  • After Kennedys ASSASSINATION in 1963, the
    military buildup was INTENSIFIED under Pres.
    Lyndon JOHNSON

20
Gulf of Tonkin
  • August 1964 Johnson announced that North
    Vietnamese TORPEDOES had attacked U.S. destroyers
    in the GULF of TONKIN (INTERNATIONAL waters)
  • Johnson asked CONGRESS for authority to take
    ACTION against North Vietnam ? Congress passed
    the Gulf of Tonkin RESOLUTION

21
Fighting the War
  • Nearly 3 MILLION Americans served in the Vietnam
    War
  • Battlefield conditions were DIFFICULT
  • Viet Cong (Communist guerillas in South Korea)
    were familiar with LANDSCAPE
  • South Vietnamese seemed INDIFFERENT
  • Couldnt TRUST anyone
  • Intense HEAT, jungle climate

22
Ground War
  • Viet Cong lacked sophisticated equipment, so they
    used GUERILLA warfare tactics
  • Worked in small groups to launch SNEAK attacks
  • Hid in elaborate underground TUNNELS
  • Set BOOBY traps like camouflaged PITS and LAND
    MINES

23
(No Transcript)
24
Air War
  • SATURATION bombing huge B-52 American bombers
    dropped thousands of tons of EXPLOSIVES over
    large areas
  • Chemical weapons
  • NAPALM a destructive CHEMICAL, splattered and
    burned uncontrollably when dropped from
    airplanes, including on human FLESH

25
AGENT ORANGE ? HERBICIDE that killed leaves and
undergrowth to expose Viet Cong hiding places
also killed CROPS and caused HEALTH problems
26
  • Despite the LARGE United States presence in South
    Vietnam (536,000 by end of 1968), Communist
    forces INTENSIFIED their efforts

27
  • Tet Offensive
  • Major offensive launched by VIET CONG and NORTH
    Vietnamese on January 30, 1968
  • Communists were extremely BRUTAL, killing anyone
    they labeled an enemy
  • Viet Cong won PSYCHOLOGICAL victory

28
Massacre at My Lai
  • March 1968 U.S. infantry company entered MY LAI
    (small village that was supposedly sheltering
    Viet Cong)
  • U.S. soldiers found only WOMEN, CHILDREN, and OLD
    MEN in the village ? the U.S. soldiers massacred
    these civilians
  • More than 400 INNOCENT Vietnamese died until a
    U.S. HELICOPTER crew stepped in to halt the
    slaughter

29
Political Divisions
  • The country became BITTERLY DIVIDED over the
    Vietnam War.
  • Some Americans SUPPORTED the American military
    and the war effort, hoped for military victory
  • Other Americans believed the war was MORALLY
    WRONG, urged immediate withdrawal

30
Student Activism
  • Active opposition to the war occurred especially
    on COLLEGE campuses
  • Students were among the first to speak out
    against the Vietnam War
  • TEACH-INS
  • DRAFT RESISTANCE
  • PROTESTS

31
Nixon and Vietnamization
  • After Johnson declined to seek re-election,
    President NIXON was elected on his pledge to
    bring the war to an HONORABLE END.
  • He instituted the policy of VIETNAMIZATION ?
    WITHDRAWING American troops and replacing them
    with South Vietnamese soldiers, while maintaining
    military aid to the South Vietnamese

32
End of the War
  • January 1973 U.S., South Vietnam, North Vietnam,
    and Viet Cong signed FORMAL PEACE AGREEMENTS
  • Nixon FORCED out of office by the WATERGATE
    scandal (1972-1974)
  • Break-in at Democratic National Convention
    headquarters
  • Nixon part of illegal cover-up
  • Nixon impeached, then resigned

33
(No Transcript)
34
  • Ultimately Vietnamization FAILED when South
    Vietnamese troops were UNABLE to resist INVASION
    by the Soviet-supplied North Vietnamese Army
  • April 30, 1975 ? North Vietnam completed its
    CONQUEST of South Vietnam
  • North and South Vietnam MERGED under communist
    control

35
Impact of Vietnam War
  • More than 58,000 Americans dead
  • 300,000 Americans wounded
  • More than 2,500 MIA (MISSING IN ACTION) and POWs
    (PRISONERS OF WAR)

36
  • LONGEST and LEAST successful war in American
    history
  • United States spent at least 150 billion on the
    Vietnam War
  • MORE bombs dropped on Vietnam than on all the
    Axis powers in WWII
  • DIVIDED the nation more than any other war
    besides the Civil War

37
Vietnam War Memorial in Washington, D.C.
38
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com