The Vietnam War Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon Concerns about the spread of communism led the United States to become increasingly involved in Vietnam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Vietnam War Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon Concerns about the spread of communism led the United States to become increasingly involved in Vietnam PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 7a4903-NzdiO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Vietnam War Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon Concerns about the spread of communism led the United States to become increasingly involved in Vietnam

Description:

The Vietnam War Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon Concerns about the spread of communism led the United States to become increasingly involved in Vietnam – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:226
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 18
Provided by: crad151
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Vietnam War Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon Concerns about the spread of communism led the United States to become increasingly involved in Vietnam


1
The Vietnam War Lyndon Johnson and Richard
Nixon Concerns about the spread of communism
led the United States to become increasingly
involved in Vietnam
2
Western imperialism in SE Asia was brief, but it
left a problematic legacy. The introduction by
the colonials of Western-style bureaucracies,
education and capitalism led to the demise of
older monarchical forms of authority and the rise
of Western-educated elites
3
A Brief History (Views of Vietnam)
  • Truman extension of the Cold War struggle
    against the USSR (Containment)
  • Eisenhower if S. Vietnam falls, all Southeast
    Asia will fall to communism (Domino Theory)
  • Geneva Accords general elections in July 1956
    would reunify the country
  • The U.S. never fully supported the peace
    agreements fearing that Ho Chi Minh and the
    Communists would win the nationwide election
  • We supported Diem in the south first with
    advisors then with troops and weapons

4
An illustration of what Eisenhower called the
Falling Domino Principle in an interview in
1954. The Domino Theory justified American
involvement in Southeast Asia.
5
  • Diems opponents in South Vietnam began to
    revolt.
  • North Vietnam supplied weapons to Vietminh
    (communist) rebels in South Vietnam.
  • They formed the National Liberation Front and
    called their military forces the Vietcong (VC).
  • Diem is overthrown (1963)
  • The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is passed after the
    USS Maddox is fired upon (1964)
  • Allows LBJ to take all necessary measures and
    the escalation begins

6
  • Operation Rolling Thunder to bomb roads,
    bridges, bases and the Ho Chi Minh Trail that
    supplied the Viet Cong in South Vietnam
  • Agent Orangedefoliant, or chemical, that
    destroys vegetation
  • Napalmjellied form of gasoline used to create
    firebombs

7
(No Transcript)
8
Opposition to the War in the U.S.
  • TV news brings the war to living rooms (first
    news reports were positive then negative)
  • Escalating costs 600 - 700 billion (total) and
    500,000 soldiers (1,200 dying/month)
  • Public opinion was divided
  • Hawks believed in containment
  • Doves believed the US action immoral and futile
  • Credibility Gap- difference between the reality
    of the war and Johnsons portrayal of it
    (underscored with the Pentagon Papers leak)

9
More Protests
  • Opposition grew after the Tet Offensive and when
    Americans learned about the My Lai massacre and
    the Pentagon Papers.
  • Tet (1968) was an unsuccessful offensive by the
    N. Vietnamese that turned public opinion against
    the war even more
  • Also in 1968, troops under Lt. William Calley
    killed at least 450 men, women, and children in
    the village of My Lai while on a
    search-and-destroy mission.
  • Campus violence at Kent State University in May,
    1970 (4 students killed and 9 injured) and
    Jackson State College in Mississippi (2 killed,
    9 wounded)
  • Remembering Kent State and Ohio

10
The Pentagon Papers
  • In 1971, Daniel Ellsberg, former Department of
    Defense official leaked a top-secret study known
    as the Pentagon Papers.
  • This study revealed how previous administrations
    deceived Congress and the public about Vietnam.
  • Congress stopped the publication of the papers
    but it was brought to trial
  • In New York Times Co. vs United States free
    speech won and the papers were published.

11
Nixon and his National Security Advisor Henry
Kissinger devised plans to end the war.
  • Vietnamization
  • Turn over more of the fighting to the
    S.Vietnamese and bring U.S. forces home
  • Nixon Doctrine (the U.S. will expect its Asian
    allies to tend to their own military defense)
  • Antiwar activists called for an immediate not a
    gradual reduction and end
  • Nixon hoped for Peace with Honor with the
    backing of the silent majority
  • Laos and Cambodia
  • However, Nixon was secretly expanding the war by
    bombing Cambodia along the Ho Chi Minh trail.
  • Concealed the air strikes from the American
    people and members of Congress
  • Sent troops into Cambodia and Laos to destroy
    North Vietnamese army bases (thats what sparked
    KSU)
  • Renewed bombing of North Vietnam to force them to
    seek peace.

12
  • In 1972 Nixon stressed law and order at home and
    told voters he would end the war.
  • Henry Kissinger (Nat. Sec. Advisor) announced a
    breakthrough in the peace talks just weeks
    before the election.
  • The announcement helped Nixon win by a landslide.

13
(No Transcript)
14
Finally the End
  • Officials from North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and
    the United States finally reached an agreement in
    January 1973.
  • The U.S. agreed to withdraw all troops.
  • All prisoners of war were to be released
  • Toll 58,000 Americans were killed 600 were held
    as POWs 2,500 soldiers reported MIA 300,000
    wounded

15
  • Two years after U.S. troops were withdrawn, N.
    Vietnamese troops invaded S. Vietnam.
  • After a short amount of fighting, South Vietnam
    surrendered.
  • The U.S. military rushed to evacuate Americans
    still working in Saigon.
  • After two decades of temporary division,
    Vietnam was reunited under a Communist
    government.
  • In 1975, Communist forces called the Khmer Rouge
    gained control of Cambodia.

16
The Legacy of Vietnam
  • Veterans experienced a negative reception upon
    return and had trouble readjusting to civilian
    life
  • Some suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Spent more than 600 billion on the war
  • Changed how many Americans viewed government
  • Congress passed the War Powers Act in 1973.
  • The President can only send combat troops into
    battle or into areas where ''imminent''
    hostilities are likely, for 60 days without
    either a declaration of war by Congress or a
    specific Congressional mandate.
  • Avoids the problems of the Gulf of Tonkin
    Resolution which allowed LBJ to escalate the
    American presence in Vietnam without a formal
    declaration of war

17
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com