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United States History Unit 6 The 1960

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Title: United States History Unit 6 The 1960


1
United States HistoryUnit 6The 1960s Civil
Right, Vietnam and Watergate
2
Brown v. Board of Education1954
  • Supreme Court overturned Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Integrated Schools
  • Pres. Eisenhower used the national guard to force
    Little Rock schools to comply

3
Montgomery Bus Boycott
When Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up
her seat to a white person on a city bus Martin
Luther King led the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
African Americans refused to ride the busses
which cost the bus companies money. After about
a year this nonviolent protest was successful and
the Montgomery busses were integrated.
4
After the Supreme Court declared all segregation
on busses that crossed state lines was illegal,
the Freedom Riders put that to the test by riding
busses into the south. They were met with
violence in the South when they refused to be
segregated on the busses and bus terminals.
5
Violent reactions to non-violent Civil rights
protests shown on TV disturbed Americans and the
world.
6
The March on Washington in Aug. 1963 is where MLK
gave his I Have a Dream Speech. The purpose of
the march was to put pressure on Congress to pass
the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which when passed
ended all segregation in public places
throughout the U.S.
7
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 ended all literacy
tests requirements to vote throughout the U.S.
8
De jure segregation is segregation by law. It
CAN be changed by changing laws. De facto
segregation is segregation by fact. It CANNOT be
changed by changing laws.
9
New Amendments to the Constitution to
remember 22nd Amendment ratified in 1951, it
limits the amount of time a person can serve
as president. No one can serve more than a total
of 2 terms with a maximum of 10 years. THIS
WAS PASSED AFTER THE FDR ADMINISTRATION. 24th
Amendment ratified in 1964, prohibited poll
taxes to vote, THIS WAS PASSED DUE TO THE CIVIL
RIGHTS MOVEMENT. 25th Amendment ratified in
1967, officially establishes a line of
succession for the presidency if the president
dies or becomes incapacitated. THIS WAS PASSED
AFTER THE JFK ASSASSINATION.
10
The Presidential Debate-1960
JFK won the first televised presidential election
in 1960 which may have caused him to ultimately
win the election of 1960.
http//www.museum.tv/debateweb/html/history/1960/v
ideo.htm
11
JFK received a lot of criticism for oking the
Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba. It involved the
U.S. aiding the invasion of Cuba by anti-castro
Cubans in order to overthrow Castro. It failed.
12
The Berlin Wall was built during the JFK
administration to prevent eastern Germans and
other Eastern Europeans from escaping to the west
via West Berlin.
13
When the U.S. discovered the USSR was installing
nuclear missiles in Cuba, which would put the US
in danger of nuclear attack without warning, JFK
blockaded the island of Cuba to prevent the
Soviets from bringing in the materials needed to
complete the missile sites. After a 2-week
standoff which almost resulted in a nuclear war,
the USSR removed the missiles.
14
Great Society Programs
After JFK was assassinated Lyndon Johnson became
the president and won his own election in 1964.
LBJ wanted to end poverty and racism in America.
His program to do this was called THE GREAT
SOCIETY.
  • Civil Rights
  • War on poverty
  • Education
  • Medicaid/Medicare

15
The Supreme Court led by Chief Justice Earl
Warren was known for its decisions supporting
civil rights. Some major cases included Brown
v. Board of Education desegregation of
schools Gideon v. Wainwright defendants
accused of felonies must be provided with
counsel Escobedo v. Illinois defendants can
receive counsel before being questioned Miranda
v. Arizona defendants must be informed of these
rights.
16
After World War II the U.S. began to follow a
policy of CONTAINMENT designed to contain
communism. The basis of the idea was the DOMINO
THEORY. If one country (domino) is allowed to
fall to communism then it will continue to spread
like falling dominos.
17
After World War II the U.S. followed the foreign
policy of CONTAINMENT of communism. When Vietnam
declared independence from France under the
leadership of Ho Chi Minh, a communist, we
supported the French in their quest to maintain
their colony due to our containment policy.
Ho Chi Minh
18
  • After a 9-year war the French surrendered and the
    Vietnam problem was turned over to the UN which
    passed the Geneva Accords. The Geneva Accords
  • Split Vietnam at the 17th parallel with Ho Chi
    Minh leading North Vietnam and Ngo Dinh Diem
    leading South Vietnam
  • Two years later the Vietnamese were to vote on
    who they wanted to lead a united Vietnam

Ngo Dinh Diem who led South Vietnam and was
supported by the U.S. (NOT a communist!) was a
corrupt leader. Realizing he would not win the
elections that were scheduled against Ho Chi Minh
he cancelled the elections. This action was
approved by the US.
Ngo Dinh Diem
19
We continued to support South Vietnam during the
Eisenhower (1950s) administration and the JFK
(early 1960s) administration with money and
military advisors.
20
In 1964, the GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION gave LBJ
the authority to use all necessary measures
against North Vietnam when US destroyers were
fired upon by North Vietnamese Patrol Boats in
the Gulf of Tonkin. This is the official
beginning of the Vietnam War for the US
21
The War in South Vietnam was essentially a Civil
War between those who did and those who did not
support Ho Chi Minh. Ho Chi Minhs supporters
in the South (Vietcong) used guerrilla warfare
against the South Vietnamese. These guerrilla
fighters were supplied by Ho Chi Minhs North
Vietnamese government via the HO CHI MINH TRAIL.
22
(No Transcript)
23
In 1968, the Vietcong launched the Tet
(Vietnamese New Year) offensive. Although the
South Vietnamese and US armies ultimately won,
the Tet offensive convinced many Americans that
this war could not be won.
24
The Vietnam War was the TV WAR. Many believe
that the unedited media coverage caused the
homefront to loose faith about our ability to win
and question whether the U.S. should be in
Vietnam.
25
In 1968, LBJ who many blamed for the Vietnam War
announced he would not run for reelection in 1968.
26
The 1968 presidential election was won by Richard
Nixon (Republican) who promised Vietnamization of
the war (get out of Vietnam and let them conduct
their own Civil War.
27
When the Nixon administration approved the
invasion of Cambodia to stop the supplies
traveling along the Ho Chi Minh trail it was
viewed as an expansion of the war. Student
protests intensified against the government
especially at Kent State University where 4 were
killed in a protest on campus.
28
In 1973, Congress passed the WAR POWERS ACT which
allows the president to send in troops for a
maximum of 90 days without Congressional
approval. Congressional approval does not mean
the Congress has to declare war, however.
Cartoon Caption Imagine! Congress trying to
curb may right to conduct unconstitutional war!
Why, thats unconstitutional.
29
In 1973, U.S. forces withdrew from Vietnam.
30
In 1975, North Vietnam invaded South Vietnam and
united the country under a communist dictatorship.
31
Betty Freidan wrote The Feminine Mystique which
started a feminist movement in the . In 1966,
Friedan founded and was elected the first
president of the National Organization for Women
or NOW, which aimed to bring women "into the
mainstream of American society now in fully
equal partnership with men".
32
The EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT or ERA was passed by
Congress in 1972 but was ratified by only 35 of
the necessary 38 states to become an amendment to
the constitution. The text of the ERA is as
follows The Equal Rights Amendment Section
1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be
denied or abridged by the United States or by any
state on account of sex. Section 2. The
Congress shall have the power to enforce, by
appropriate legislation, the provisions of this
article. Section 3. This amendment shall take
effect two years after the date of ratification.

33
Phyllis Schlafly is an American politically
conservative activist who opposes the Equal
Rights Amendment. She argues the ERA
would -take away dependent wife benefits under
Social Security -exemption from the
draft -result in the requirement for unisex
bathrooms and locker rooms
34
Cesar Chavez was a Mexican American labor
activist and leader of the United Farm Workers.
During the 20th century he was a leading voice
for migrant farm workers (people who move from
place to place in order to find work). His
tireless leadership focused national attention on
these laborers' terrible working conditions,
which eventually led to improvements.
35
1972, 5 burglers broke into the Democratic
National Committee Headquarters located at the
Watergate building.
36
Jan 1973, when the burglars were tried James
McCord (burglar) informed the judge of White
House involvement
James McCord
37
May 1973, when the Senate began hearings on the
Watergate" matter they discovered Nixon had
taped conversations in the Oval Office Jul 24,
1974, after Nixon refused to hand over the tapes
based on executive privilege the Supreme Court
ordered him to release the tapes Jul 27, 1974,
the House Judiciary Committee recommended
Nixon's impeachment Aug 5, 1974, Nixon released
the tapes with 18 minutes erased
38
Aug 9, 1974, Nixon resigned and his VP, Gerald
Ford became president
39
1972, Nixon recognized and visited Red China
40
1972, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. agreed to the
SALT I Treaty which froze the total number of
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs), but
allowed the replacement of old missiles with new
ones.
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