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Title: RTI and the Special Education Teacher Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org


1
RTI and the Special Education Teacher Jim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
2
RTI the Special Education TeacherWorkshop
Agenda
3
PPTs Handouts from This Workshop Available at
  • http//www.jimwrightonline.com/RCSD.php

4
Bringing Special Education IEPs into Alignment
with RTI Expectations of the CSE
  • At future Annual Review meetings, the Committee
    on Special Education will apply the same
    standards when evaluating the quality of the
    special education programs of IEP students as
    those used under RTI to judge the quality of
    general education. In particular, special
    educators will be asked to provide a description
    of how the student program on the IEP is
    delivered in a manner consistent with RTI
    principles.

5
Bringing Special Education IEPs into Alignment
with RTI Expectations of the CSE (Cont.)
  • At the Annual Review, the special education
    teacher will be expected to demonstrate how he or
    she
  • Defined the student academic or behavioral
    challenge in clear, specific, measurable terms.
  • Selected an evidence-based intervention practice
    or program to address the identified student
    concern.
  • Selected one or more methods to assess the
    students progress during the intervention
    calculated the students baseline performance
    level set a goal for improvement.
  • Collected progress-monitoring data on the student
    at least weekly to judge whether the intervention
    was effective.
  • Collected information on the integrity, or
    quality, with which the intervention was
    implemented.

6
RTI A Brief Review of the Model
7
RTI Assumption Struggling Students Are Typical
Until Proven Otherwise
  • RTI logic assumes that
  • A student who begins to struggle in general
    education is typical, and that
  • It is general educations responsibility to find
    the instructional strategies that will unlock the
    students learning potential
  • Only when the student shows through
    well-documented interventions that he or she has
    failed to respond to intervention does RTI
    begin to investigate the possibility that the
    student may have a learning disability or other
    special education condition.

8
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
9
Five Core Components of RTI Service Delivery
  1. Student services are arranged in a multi-tier
    model
  2. Data are collected to assess student baseline
    levels and to make decisions about student
    progress
  3. Interventions are evidence-based
  4. The procedural integrity of interventions is
    measured
  5. RTI is implemented and developed at the school-
    and district-level to be scalable and sustainable
    over time

Source Glover, T. A., DiPerna, J. C. (2007).
Service delivery for response to intervention
Core components and directions for future
research. School Psychology Review, 36, 526-540.
10
The Purpose of RTI in Schools What Students
Should It Serve?
11
Complementary RTI Models Standard Treatment
Problem-Solving Protocols
  • The two most commonly used RTI approaches are
    (1) standard treatment and (2) problem-solving
    protocol. While these two approaches to RTI are
    sometimes described as being very different from
    each other, they actually have several common
    elements, and both fit within a problem-solving
    framework. In practice, many schools and
    districts combine or blend aspects of the two
    approaches to fit their needs.

Source Duffy, H. (August 2007). Meeting the
needs of significantly struggling learners in
high school. Washington, DC National High School
Center. Retrieved from http//www.betterhighschool
s.org/pubs/ p. 5
12
RTI Interventions Standard-Treatment vs.
Problem-Solving
There are two different vehicles that schools can
use to deliver RTI interventions Standard-Protoco
l (Standalone Intervention). Programs based on
scientifically valid instructional practices
(standard protocol) are created to address
frequent student referral concerns. These
services are provided outside of the classroom. A
middle school, for example, may set up a
structured math-tutoring program staffed by adult
volunteer tutors to provide assistance to
students with limited math skills. Students
referred for a Tier II math intervention would be
placed in this tutoring program. An advantage of
the standard-protocol approach is that it is
efficient and consistent large numbers of
students can be put into these group
interventions to receive a highly standardized
intervention. However, standard group
intervention protocols often cannot be
individualized easily to accommodate a specific
students unique needs. Problem-solving
(Classroom-Based Intervention). Individualized
research-based interventions match the profile of
a particular students strengths and limitations.
The classroom teacher often has a large role in
carrying out these interventions. A plus of the
problem-solving approach is that the intervention
can be customized to the students needs.
However, developing intervention plans for
individual students can be time-consuming.
13
Tier I Instruction/Interventions
  • Tier I instruction/interventions
  • Are universalavailable to all students.
  • Can be delivered within classrooms or throughout
    the school.
  • Are likely to be put into place by the teacher at
    the first sign that a student is struggling.
  • All children have access to Tier 1
    instruction/interventions. Teachers have the
    capability to use those strategies without
    requiring outside assistance.
  • Tier 1 instruction/interventions encompass
  • The schools core curriculum and all published or
    teacher-made materials used to deliver that
    curriculum.
  • Teacher use of whole-group teaching
    management strategies.
  • Teacher use of individualized strategies with
    specific students.
  • Tier I instruction/interventions attempt to
    answer the question Are classroom instructional
    strategies supports sufficient to help the
    student to achieve academic success?

14
Tier 1 Classroom-Level Interventions
  • Decision Point Student is struggling and may
    face significant high-stakes negative outcome if
    situation does not improve.
  • Collaboration Opportunity Teacher can refer the
    student to a grade-level, instruction team, or
    department meeting to brainstorm ideas OR
    teacher seeks out consultant in school to
    brainstorm intervention ideas.
  • Documentation Teacher completes Classroom
    Intervention Form prior to carrying out
    intervention. Teacher collects classroom data.
  • Decision Rule Example Teacher should refer
    student to the next level of RTI support if the
    intervention is not successful within 8
    instructional weeks.

15
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16
Tier 2 Supplemental (Standard-Protocol Model)
Interventions
  • Tier 2 interventions are typically delivered in
    small-group format. About 15 of students in the
    typical school will require Tier 2/supplemental
    intervention support.
  • Group size for Tier 2 interventions is limited
    to 4-6 students. Students placed in Tier 2
    interventions should have a shared profile of
    intervention need.
  • The reading progress of students in Tier 2
    interventions are monitored at least 1-2 times
    per month.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
17
Tier 2 Supplemental Interventions
  • Decision Point Building-wide academic screenings
  • Collaboration Opportunity After each
    building-wide academic screening, data teams
    meet (teachers at a grade level building
    principal reading teacher, etc.) At the meeting,
    the group considers how the assessment data
    should shape/inform core instruction.
    Additionally, the data team sets a cutpoint to
    determine which students should be recruited for
    Tier 2 group interventions. NOTE Team may
    continue to meet every 5 weeks to consider
    student progress in Tier 2 move students into
    and out of groups.
  • Documentation Tier 2 instructor completes a Tier
    2 Group Assignment Sheet listing students and
    their corresponding interventions.
    Progress-monitoring occurs 1-2 times per month.
  • Decision Rules Example Student is returned to
    Tier 1 support if they perform above the 25th
    percentile in the next school-wide screening.
    Student is referred to Tier 3 (RTI Team) if they
    fail to make expected progress despite two Tier 2
    (group-based) interventions.

18
Scheduling Elementary Tier 2 Interventions
Option 3 Floating RTIGradewide Shared
Schedule. Each grade has a scheduled RTI time
across classrooms. No two grades share the same
RTI time. Advantages are that outside providers
can move from grade to grade providing push-in or
pull-out services and that students can be
grouped by need across different teachers within
the grade.
Anyplace Elementary School RTI Daily Schedule
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade K
900-930
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 1
945-1015
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 2
1030-1100
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 3
1230-100
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 4
115-145
Grade 5
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
200-230
Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Routledge.
19
Tier 3 Intensive Individualized Interventions
(Problem-Solving Model)
  • Tier 3 interventions are the most intensive
    offered in a school setting. About 5 of a
    general-education student population may qualify
    for Tier 3 supports. Typically, the RTI
    Problem-Solving Team meets to develop
    intervention plans for Tier 3 students.
  • Students qualify for Tier 3 interventions
    because
  • they are found to have a large skill gap when
    compared to their class or grade peers and/or
  • They did not respond to interventions provided
    previously at Tiers 1 2.
  • Tier 3 interventions are provided daily for
    sessions of 30 minutes. The student-teacher ratio
    is flexible but should allow the student to
    receive intensive, individualized instruction.
    The academic or behavioral progress of students
    in Tier 3 interventions is monitored at least
    weekly.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
20
Tier 3 RTI Team
  • Decision Point RTI Problem-Solving Team
  • Collaboration Opportunity Weekly RTI
    Problem-Solving Team meetings are scheduled to
    handle referrals of students that failed to
    respond to interventions from Tiers 1 2.
  • Documentation Teacher referral form RTI Team
    minutes form progress-monitoring data collected
    at least weekly.
  • Decision Rules Example If student has failed
    to respond adequately to 3 intervention trials of
    6-8 weeks (from Tiers 2 and 3), the student may
    be referred to Special Education.

21
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22
Advancing Through RTI Flexibility in the Tiers
  • For purposes of efficiency, students should be
    placed in small-group instruction at Tier 2.
  • However, group interventions may not always be
    possible because due to scheduling or other
    issuesno group is available. (For example,
    students with RTI behavioral referrals may not
    have a group intervention available.)
  • In such a case, the student will go directly to
    the problem-solving process (Tier 3)typically
    through a referral to the school RTI Team.
  • Nonetheless, the school must still document the
    same minimum number of interventions attempted
    for every student in RTI, whether or not a
    student first received interventions in a group
    setting.

23
What previous approach to diagnosing Learning
Disabilities does RTI replace?
  • Prior to RTI, many states used a Test-Score
    Discrepancy Model to identify Learning
    Disabilities.
  • A student with significant academic delays would
    be administered an battery of tests, including
    an intelligence test and academic achievement
    test(s).
  • If the student was found to have a substantial
    gap between a higher IQ score and lower
    achievement scores, a formula was used to
    determine if that gap was statistically
    significant and severe.
  • If the student had a severe discrepancy gap
    between IQ and achievement, he or she would be
    diagnosed with a Learning Disability.

24
Target Student
Dual-Discrepancy RTI Model of Learning
Disability (Fuchs 2003)
25
NYSED RTI Guidance Memo April 2008
26
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27
The Regents policy framework for RtIDefines
RtI to minimally include Appropriate
instruction delivered to all students in the
general education class by qualified personnel.
Appropriate instruction in reading means
scientific research-based reading programs that
include explicit and systematic instruction in
phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary
development, reading fluency (including oral
reading skills) and reading comprehension
strategies.Screenings applied to all students
in the class to identify those students who are
not making academic progress at expected rates.
28
Instruction matched to student need with
increasingly intensive levels of targeted
intervention and instruction for students who do
not make satisfactory progress in their levels of
performance and/or in their rate of learning to
meet age or grade level standards.Repeated
assessments of student achievement which should
include curriculum based measures to determine if
interventions are resulting in student progress
toward age or grade level standards.The
application of information about the students
response to intervention to make educational
decisions about changes in goals, instruction
and/or services and the decision to make a
referral for special education programs and/or
services.
29
Written notification to the parents when the
student requires an intervention beyond that
provided to all students in the general education
classroom that provides information about the
-amount and nature of student performance data
that will be collected and the general education
services that will be provided-strategies for
increasing the students rate of learning
and-parents right to request an evaluation for
special education programs and/or services.
30
The Regents policy framework for RtIDefines
RtI to minimally include Requires each school
district to establish a plan and policies for
implementing school-wide approaches and
prereferral interventions in order to remediate a
students performance prior to referral for
special education, which may include the RtI
process as part of a districts school-wide
approach. The school district must select and
define the specific structure and components of
its RtI program, including, but not limited to
the -criteria for determining the levels of
intervention to be provided to students, -types
of interventions, amount and nature of student
performance data to be collected, and -manner
and frequency for progress monitoring.
31
Activity NYSED Expectations for RTI
  • Review the NYS Ed Dept RTI guidelines.
  • Based on these guidelines or any of the other
    introductory RTI content covered in this
    workshop, what questions do you have about RTI as
    a special educator?

32
Instruction and Interventions Within Response to
InterventionJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.o
rg
33
Intervention Research Development A Work in
Progress
34
Schools Need to Review Tier 1 (Classroom)
Interventions to Ensure That They Are Supported
By Research
  • There is a lack of agreement about what is meant
    by scientifically validated classroom (Tier I)
    interventions. Districts should establish a
    vetting processcriteria for judging whether a
    particular instructional or intervention approach
    should be considered empirically based.

Source Fuchs, D., Deshler, D. D. (2007). What
we need to know about responsiveness to
intervention (and shouldnt be afraid to ask)..
Learning Disabilities Research Practice,
22(2),129136.
35
RTI Intervention Key Concepts
36
Essential Elements of Any Academic or Behavioral
Intervention (Treatment) Strategy
  • Method of delivery (Who or what delivers the
    treatment?)Examples include teachers,
    paraprofessionals, parents, volunteers,
    computers.
  • Treatment component (What makes the intervention
    effective?)Examples include activation of prior
    knowledge to help the student to make meaningful
    connections between known and new material
    guide practice (e.g., Paired Reading) to increase
    reading fluency periodic review of material to
    aid student retention.

37
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Core Instruction. Those instructional strategies
    that are used routinely with all students in a
    general-education setting are considered core
    instruction. High-quality instruction is
    essential and forms the foundation of RTI
    academic support. NOTE While it is important to
    verify that good core instructional practices are
    in place for a struggling student, those routine
    practices do not count as individual student
    interventions.

38
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Intervention. An academic intervention is a
    strategy used to teach a new skill, build fluency
    in a skill, or encourage a child to apply an
    existing skill to new situations or settings. An
    intervention can be thought of as a set of
    actions that, when taken, have demonstrated
    ability to change a fixed educational trajectory
    (Methe Riley-Tillman, 2008 p. 37).

39
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Accommodation. An accommodation is intended to
    help the student to fully access and participate
    in the general-education curriculum without
    changing the instructional content and without
    reducing the students rate of learning (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005). An accommodation is
    intended to remove barriers to learning while
    still expecting that students will master the
    same instructional content as their typical
    peers.
  • Accommodation example 1 Students are allowed to
    supplement silent reading of a novel by listening
    to the book on tape.
  • Accommodation example 2 For unmotivated
    students, the instructor breaks larger
    assignments into smaller chunks and providing
    students with performance feedback and praise for
    each completed chunk of assigned work (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005).

40
Teaching is giving it isnt taking away.
(Howell, Hosp Kurns, 2008 p. 356).


Source Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., Kurns, S.
(2008). Best practices in curriculum-based
evaluation. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best
practices in school psychology V (pp.349-362).
Bethesda, MD National Association of School
Psychologists..
41
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Modification. A modification changes the
    expectations of what a student is expected to
    know or dotypically by lowering the academic
    standards against which the student is to be
    evaluated. Examples of modifications
  • Giving a student five math computation problems
    for practice instead of the 20 problems assigned
    to the rest of the class
  • Letting the student consult course notes during a
    test when peers are not permitted to do so

42
Improving the Integrity of Academic Interventions
Through a Critical-Components Pre-Flight Check
Jim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
43
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
44
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
  • This checklist summarizes the essential
    components of academic interventions. When
    preparing a students Tier 1, 2, or 3 academic
    intervention plan, use this document as a
    pre-flight checklist to ensure that the
    academic intervention is of high quality, is
    sufficiently strong to address the identified
    student problem, is fully understood and
    supported by the teacher, and can be implemented
    with integrity. NOTE While the checklist refers
    to the teacher as the interventionist, it can
    also be used as a guide to ensure the quality of
    interventions implemented by non-instructional
    personnel, adult volunteers, parents, and peer
    (student) tutors.

45
Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio
The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981). The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981). The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981).
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Time Allocated. The time set aside for the intervention is appropriate for the type and level of student problem (Burns Gibbons, 2008 Kratochwill, Clements Kalymon, 2007). When evaluating whether the amount of time allocated is adequate, consider Length of each intervention session. Frequency of sessions (e.g.., daily, 3 times per week) Duration of intervention period (e.g., 6 instructional weeks)
? Student-Teacher Ratio. The student receives sufficient contact from the teacher or other person delivering the intervention to make that intervention effective. NOTE Generally, supplemental intervention groups should be limited to 6-7 students (Burns Gibbons, 2008).
46
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem
Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided. Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided. Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Problem Definition. The student academic problem(s) to be addressed in the intervention are defined in clear, specific, measureable terms (Bergan, 1995 Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). The full problem definition describes Conditions. Describe the environmental conditions or task demands in place when the academic problem is observed. Problem Description. Describe the actual observable academic behavior in which the student is engaged. Include rate, accuracy, or other quantitative information of student performance. Typical or Expected Level of Performance. Provide a typical or expected performance criterion for this skill or behavior. Typical or expected academic performance can be calculated using a variety of sources,
47
p. 4
48
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.)
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Appropriate Target. Selected intervention(s) are appropriate for the identified student problem(s) (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008). TIP Use the Instructional Hierarchy (Haring et al., 1978) to select academic interventions according to the four stages of learning Acquisition. The student has begun to learn how to complete the target skill correctly but is not yet accurate in the skill. Interventions should improve accuracy. Fluency. The student is able to complete the target skill accurately but works slowly. Interventions should increase the students speed of responding (fluency) as well as to maintain accuracy. Generalization. The student may have acquired the target skill but does not typically use it in the full range of appropriate situations or settings. Or the student may confuse the target skill with similar skills. Interventions should get the student to use the skill in the widest possible range of settings and situations, or to accurately discriminate between the target skill and similar skills. Adaptation. The student is not yet able to modify or adapt an existing skill to fit novel task-demands or situations. Interventions should help the student to identify key concepts or elements from previously learned skills that can be adapted to the new demands or situations.
49
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.)
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Cant Do/Wont Do Check. The teacher has determined whether the student problem is primarily a skill or knowledge deficit (cant do) or whether student motivation plays a main or supporting role in academic underperformance (wont do). If motivation appears to be a significant factor contributing to the problem, the intervention plan includes strategies to engage the student (e.g., high interest learning activities rewards/incentives increased student choice in academic assignments, etc.) (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005 Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
50
Activity Matching the Intervention to the
Student Problem
  • Consider these critical aspects of academic
    intervention
  • Clear and specific problem-identification
    statement (Conditions, Problem Description,
    Typical/Expected Level of Performance).
  • Appropriate intervention target (e.g., selected
    intervention is appropriately matched to
    Acquisition, Fluency, Generalization, or
    Adaptation phase of Instructional Hierarchy).
  • Cant Do/Wont Do Check (Clarification of whether
    motivation plays a significant role in student
    academic underperformance).
  • What questions do you have about applying any of
    these concepts to provide special educational
    instruction?

51
Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements
These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention. These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention. These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Explicit Instruction. Student skills have been broken down into manageable and deliberately sequenced steps and the teacher provided overt strategies for students to learn and practice new skills (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008, p.1153).
? Appropriate Level of Challenge. The student experienced sufficient success in the academic task(s) to shape learning in the desired direction as well as to maintain student motivation (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008).
? Active Engagement. The intervention ensures that the student is engaged in active accurate responding (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005).at a rate frequent enough to capture student attention and to optimize effective learning.
? Performance Feedback. The student receives prompt performance feedback about the work completed (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008).
? Maintenance of Academic Standards. If the intervention includes any accommodations to better support the struggling learner (e.g., preferential seating, breaking a longer assignment into smaller chunks), those accommodations do not substantially lower the academic standards against which the student is to be evaluated and are not likely to reduce the students rate of learning (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005).
52
Activity Incorporating Effective Instructional
Elements
  • Think about the effective instructional elements
    reviewed in this workshop.
  • How can special education teachers ensure that
    all effective instructional elements are
    included in academic interventions?

Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Explicit Instruction.
? Appropriate Level of Challenge.
? Active Engagement..
? Performance Feedback.
? Maintenance of Academic Standards.
53
Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support
The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention. The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention. The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Teacher Responsibility. The teacher understands his or her responsibility to implement the academic intervention(s) with integrity.
? Teacher Acceptability. The teacher states that he or she finds the academic intervention feasible and acceptable for the identified student problem.
? Step-by-Step Intervention Script. The essential steps of the intervention are written as an intervention script--a series of clearly described stepsto ensure teacher understanding and make implementation easier (Hawkins, Morrison, Musti-Rao Hawkins, 2008).
? Intervention Training. If the teacher requires training to carry out the intervention, that training has been arranged.
? Intervention Elements Negotiable vs. Non-Negotiable. The teacher knows all of the steps of the intervention. Additionally, the teacher knows which of the intervention steps are non-negotiable (they must be completed exactly as designed) and which are negotiable (the teacher has some latitude in how to carry out those steps) (Hawkins, Morrison, Musti-Rao Hawkins, 2008).
? Assistance With the Intervention. If the intervention cannot be implemented as designed for any reason (e.g., student absence, lack of materials, etc.), the teacher knows how to get assistance quickly to either fix the problem(s) to the current intervention or to change the intervention.
54
Activity Verifying Teacher Understanding
Providing Teacher Support
  • In your teams
  • Review the checklist for verifying that teachers
    understand all elements of the intervention.
  • What supports will special educators need to
    ensure that they understand and support the use
    of evidence-based academic interventions and
    have the required help (training, etc.) to do
    so?

Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support
Critical Item? Intervention Element
? Teacher Responsibility
? Teacher Acceptability.
? Step-by-Step Intervention Script.
? Intervention Training.
? Intervention Elements Negotiable vs. Non-Negotiable
? Assistance With the Intervention
55
Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data
Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Intervention Documentation. The teacher understands and can manage all documentation required for this intervention (e.g., maintaining a log of intervention sessions, etc.).
? Checkup Date. Before the intervention begins, a future checkup date is selected to review the intervention to determine if it is successful. Time elapsing between the start of the intervention and the checkup date should be short enough to allow a timely review of the intervention but long enough to give the school sufficient time to judge with confidence whether the intervention worked.
? Baseline. Before the intervention begins, the teacher has collected information about the students baseline level of performance in the identified area(s) of academic concern (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
? Goal. Before the intervention begins, the teacher has set a specific goal for predicted student improvement to use as a minimum standard for success (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). The goal is the expected student outcome by the checkup date if the intervention is successful.
? Progress-Monitoring. During the intervention, the teacher collects progress-monitoring data of sufficient quality and at a sufficient frequency to determine at the checkup date whether that intervention is successful (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
56
Activity Documenting the Intervention
Collecting Data
  • In your teams
  • Consider the elements of intervention
    documentation, data collection, and data
    interpretation discussed here.
  • What steps can your school take to make sure
    that data have a central focus when
    interventionsare planned and implemented for
    students with IEPs?

Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Intervention Documentation.
? Checkup Date.
? Baseline.
? Goal.
? Progress-Monitoring.
57
References
  • Bergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a
    problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of
    Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2),
    111-123.
  • Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
    Implementing response-to-intervention in
    elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
    York.
  • Burns, M. K., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Boice, C. H.
    (2008). Best practices in intensive academic
    interventions. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.),
    Best practices in school psychology V
    (pp.1151-1162). Bethesda, MD National
    Association of School Psychologists.
  • Haring, N.G., Lovitt, T.C., Eaton, M.D.,
    Hansen, C.L. (1978). The fourth R Research in
    the classroom. Columbus, OH Charles E. Merrill
    Publishing Co.
  • Hawkins, R. O., Morrison, J. Q., Musti-Rao, S.,
    Hawkins, J. A. (2008). Treatment integrity for
    academic interventions in real- world settings.
    School Psychology Forum, 2(3), 1-15.
  • Kratochwill, T. R., Clements, M. A., Kalymon,
    K. M. (2007). Response to intervention
    Conceptual and methodological issues in
    implementation. In Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K.,
    VanDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.), Handbook of
    response to intervention The science and
    practice of assessment and intervention. New
    York Springer.
  • Skinner, C. H., Pappas, D. N., Davis, K. A.
    (2005). Enhancing academic engagement Providing
    opportunities for responding and influencing
    students to choose to respond. Psychology in the
    Schools, 42, 389-403.
  • Witt, J. C., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Gilbertson,
    D. (2004). Troubleshooting behavioral
    interventions. A systematic process for finding
    and eliminating problems. School Psychology
    Review, 33, 363-383. 
  • Yeaton, W. M. Sechrest, L. (1981). Critical
    dimensions in the choice and maintenance of
    successful treatments Strength, integrity, and
    effectiveness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
    Psychology, 49, 156-167.

58
Bringing Special Education IEPs into Alignment
with RTI Expectations of the CSE
  • At future Annual Review meetings, the Committee
    on Special Education will apply the same
    standards when evaluating the quality of the
    special education programs of IEP students as
    those used under RTI to judge the quality of
    general education. In particular, special
    educators will be asked to provide a description
    of how the student program on the IEP is
    delivered in a manner consistent with RTI
    principles.

59
Bringing Special Education IEPs into Alignment
with RTI Expectations of the CSE (Cont.)
  • At the Annual Review, the special education
    teacher will be expected to demonstrate how he or
    she
  • Defined the student academic or behavioral
    challenge in clear, specific, measurable terms.
  • Selected an evidence-based intervention practice
    or program to address the identified student
    concern.
  • Selected one or more methods to assess the
    students progress during the intervention
    calculated the students baseline performance
    level set a goal for improvement.
  • Collected progress-monitoring data on the student
    at least weekly to judge whether the intervention
    was effective.
  • Collected information on the integrity, or
    quality, with which the intervention was
    implemented.

60
  • RTI the IEP At the Annual Review, the special
    education teacher will be expected to demonstrate
    how he or she
  • Defined the student academic or behavioral
    challenge in clear, specific, measurable terms.

61
Defining Student Problem Behaviors A Key to
Identifying Effective Interventions Jim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
62
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  • Define the problem behavior in clear, observable,
    measurable terms (Batsche et al., 2008 Upah,
    2008). Write a clear description of the problem
    behavior. Avoid vague problem identification
    statements such as The student is disruptive.
  • A well-written problem definition should include
    three parts
  • Conditions. The condition(s) under which the
    problem is likely to occur
  • Problem Description. A specific description of
    the problem behavior
  • Contextual information. Information about the
    frequency, intensity, duration, or other
    dimension(s) of the behavior that provide a
    context for estimating the degree to which the
    behavior presents a problem in the setting(s) in
    which it occurs.

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Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Develop examples and non-examples of the problem
    behavior (Upah, 2008). Writing both examples and
    non-examples of the problem behavior helps to
    resolve uncertainty about when the students
    conduct should be classified as a problem
    behavior. Examples should include the most
    frequent or typical instances of the student
    problem behavior. Non-examples should include any
    behaviors that are acceptable conduct but might
    possibly be confused with the problem behavior.

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Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Write a behavior hypothesis statement (Batsche et
    al., 2008 Upah, 2008). The next step in
    problem-solving is to develop a hypothesis about
    why the student is engaging in an undesirable
    behavior or not engaging in a desired behavior.
    Teachers can gain information to develop a
    hypothesis through direct observation, student
    interview, review of student work products, and
    other sources. The behavior hypothesis statement
    is important because (a) it can be tested, and
    (b) it provides guidance on the type(s) of
    interventions that might benefit the student.

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Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Select a replacement behavior (Batsche et al.,
    2008). Behavioral interventions should be focused
    on increasing student skills and capacities, not
    simply on suppressing problem behaviors. By
    selecting a positive behavioral goal that is an
    appropriate replacement for the students
    original problem behavior, the teacher reframes
    the student concern in a manner that allows for
    more effective intervention planning.

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Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Write a prediction statement (Batsche et al.,
    2008 Upah, 2008). The prediction statement
    proposes a strategy (intervention) that is
    predicted to improve the problem behavior. The
    importance of the prediction statement is that it
    spells out specifically the expected outcome if
    the strategy is successful. The formula for
    writing a prediction statement is to state that
    if the proposed strategy (Specific Action) is
    adopted, then the rate of problem behavior is
    expected to decrease or increase in the desired
    direction.

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Defining Academic Problems Get It Right and
Interventions Are More Likely to Be
EffectiveJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
74
Defining Academic Problems Recommended Steps
  1. Be knowledgeable of the school academic
    curriculum and key student academic skills that
    are taught. The teacher should have a good
    survey-level knowledge of the key academic skills
    outlined in the schools curriculumfor the grade
    level of their classroom as well as earlier grade
    levels. If the curriculum alone is not adequate
    for describing a students academic deficit, the
    instructor can make use of research-based
    definitions or complete a task analysis to
    further define the academic problem area. Here
    are guidelines for consulting curriculum and
    research-based definitions and for conducting a
    task analysis for more global skills.

75
Defining Academic Problems Recommended Steps
  • Curriculum. The teacher can review the schools
    curriculum and related documents (e.g.,
    score-and-sequence charts curriculum maps) to
    select specific academic skill or performance
    goals. First, determine the approximate grade or
    level in the curriculum that matches the
    students skills. Then, review the curriculum at
    that alternate grade level to find appropriate
    descriptions of the students relevant academic
    deficit. For example, a second-grade student
    had limited phonemic awareness. The student was
    not able accurately to deconstruct a spoken word
    into its component sound-units, or phonemes. In
    the schools curriculum, children were expected
    to attain proficiency in phonemic awareness by
    the close of grade 1. The teacher went off
    level to review the grade 1 curriculum and found
    a specific description of phonemic awareness that
    she could use as a starting point in defining the
    students skill deficit.

76
Defining Academic Problems Recommended Steps
  • Research-Based Skill Definitions. Even when a
    schools curriculum identifies key skills,
    schools may find it useful to corroborate or
    elaborate those skill definitions by reviewing
    alternative definitions published in research
    journals or other trusted sources. For example,
    a student had delays in solving quadratic
    equations. The math instructor found that the
    schools math curriculum did not provide a
    detailed description of the skills required to
    successfully complete quadratic equations. So the
    teacher reviewed the National Mathematics
    Advisory Panel report (Fennell et al., 2008) and
    found a detailed description of component skills
    for solving quadratic equations. By combining the
    skill definitions from the school curriculum with
    the more detailed descriptions taken from the
    research-based document, the teacher could better
    pinpoint the students academic deficit in
    specific terms.

77
Defining Academic Problems Recommended Steps
  • Task Analysis. Students may possess deficits in
    more global academic enabling skills that are
    essential for academic success. Teachers can
    complete an task analysis of the relevant skill
    by breaking it down into a checklist of
    constituent subskills. An instructor can use the
    resulting checklist to verify that the student
    can or cannot perform each of the subskills that
    make up the global academic enabling
    skill.For example, teachers at a middle school
    noted that many of their students seemed to have
    poor organization skills. Those instructors
    conducted a task analysis and determined that--in
    their classrooms--the essential subskills of
    student organization included (a) arriving to
    class on time (b) bringing work materials to
    class (c) following teacher directions in a
    timely manner (d) knowing how to request teacher
    assistance when needed and (e) having an
    uncluttered desk with only essential work
    materials.

78
Defining Academic Problems Recommended Steps
  • Describe the academic problem in specific,
    skill-based terms (Batsche et al., 2008 Upah,
    2008). Write a clear, brief description of the
    academic skill or performance deficit that
    focuses on a specific skill or performance area.
    Here are sample problem-identification
    statements
  • John reads aloud from grade-appropriate text much
    more slowly than his classmates.
  • Ann lacks proficiency with multiplication math
    problems (double-digit times double-digit with no
    regrouping).
  • Tye does not turn in homework assignments.
  • Angela produces limited text on in-class writing
    assignments.

79
Defining Academic Problems Recommended Steps
  • Develop a fuller description of the academic
    problem to provide a meaningful instructional
    context. When the teacher has described the
    students academic problem, the next step is to
    expand the problem definition to put it into a
    meaningful context. This expanded definition
    includes information about the conditions under
    which the academic problem is observed and
    typical or expected level of performance.
  • Conditions. Describe the environmental conditions
    or task demands in place when the academic
    problem is observed.
  • Problem Description. Describe the actual
    observable academic behavior in which the student
    is engaged. Include rate, accuracy, or other
    quantitative information of student performance.
  • Typical or Expected Level of Performance. Provide
    a typical or expected performance criterion for
    this skill or behavior. Typical or expected
    academic performance can be calculated using a
    variety of sources,

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Defining Academic Problems Recommended Steps
  1. Develop a hypothesis statement to explain the
    academic skill or performance problem. The
    hypothesis states the assumed reason(s) or
    cause(s) for the students academic problems.
    Once it has been developed, the hypothesis
    statement acts as a compass needle, pointing
    toward interventions that most logically address
    the student academic problems.

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  • RTI the IEP At the Annual Review, the special
    education teacher will be expected to demonstrate
    how he or she
  • Selected an evidence-based intervention practice
    or program to address the identified student
    concern.

84
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) pp. 6-7 Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) pp. 6-7 Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) pp. 6-7
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Appropriate Target. Selected intervention(s) are appropriate for the identified student problem(s) (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008). TIP Use the Instructional Hierarchy (Haring et al., 1978) to select academic interventions according to the four stages of learning Acquisition. The student has begun to learn how to complete the target skill correctly but is not yet accurate in the skill. Interventions should improve accuracy. Fluency. The student is able to complete the target skill accurately but works slowly. Interventions should increase the students speed of responding (fluency) as well as to maintain accuracy. Generalization. The student may have acquired the target skill but does not typically use it in the full range of appropriate situations or settings. Or the student may confuse the target skill with similar skills. Interventions should get the student to use the skill in the widest possible range of settings and situations, or to accurately discriminate between the target skill and similar skills. Adaptation. The student is not yet able to modify or adapt an existing skill to fit novel task-demands or situations. Interventions should help the student to identify key concepts or elements from previously learned skills that can be adapted to the new demands or situations.
85
Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements p. 7 Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements p. 7 Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements p. 7
These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention. These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention. These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Explicit Instruction. Student skills have been broken down into manageable and deliberately sequenced steps and the teacher provided overt strategies for students to learn and practice new skills (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008, p.1153).
? Appropriate Level of Challenge. The student experienced sufficient success in the academic task(s) to shape learning in the desired direction as well as to maintain student motivation (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008).
? Active Engagement. The intervention ensures that the student is engaged in active accurate responding (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005).at a rate frequent enough to capture student attention and to optimize effective learning.
? Performance Feedback. The student receives prompt performance feedback about the work completed (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008).
? Maintenance of Academic Standards. If the intervention includes any accommodations to better support the struggling learner (e.g., preferential seating, breaking a longer assignment into smaller chunks), those accommodations do not substantially lower the academic standards against which the student is to be evaluated and are not likely to reduce the students rate of learning (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005).
86
  • RTI the IEP At the Annual Review, the special
    education teacher will be expected to demonstrate
    how he or she
  • Selected one or more methods to assess the
    students progress during the intervention
    calculated the students baseline performance
    level set a goal for improvement.

87
Interventions Potential Fatal Flaws
  • Any intervention must include 4 essential
    elements. The absence of any one of the elements
    would be considered a fatal flaw (Witt,
    VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004) that blocks the
    school from drawing meaningful conclusions from
    the students response to the intervention
  • Clearly defined problem. The students target
    concern is stated in specific, observable,
    measureable terms. This problem identification
    statement is the most important step of the
    problem-solving model (Bergan, 1995), as a
    clearly defined problem allows the teacher or RTI
    Team to select a well-matched intervention to
    address it.
  • Baseline data. The teacher or RTI Team measures
    the students academic skills in the target
    concern (e.g., reading fluency, math computation)
    prior to beginning the intervention. Baseline
    data becomes the point of comparison throughout
    the intervention to help the school to determine
    whether that intervention is effective.
  • Performance goal. The teacher or RTI Team sets a
    specific, data-based goal for student improvement
    during the intervention and a checkpoint date by
    which the goal should be attained.
  • Progress-monitoring plan. The teacher or RTI Team
    collects student data regularly to determine
    whether the student is on-track to reach the
    performance goal.

Source Witt, J. C., VanDerHeyden, A. M.,
Gilbertson, D. (2004). Troubleshooting behavioral
interventions. A systematic process for finding
and eliminating problems. School Psychology
Review, 33, 363-383.
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89
  • RTI the IEP At the Annual Review, the special
    education teacher will be expected to demonstrate
    how he or she
  • Collected progress-monitoring data on the student
    at least weekly to judge whether the intervention
    was effective.

90
Methods of Classroom Data CollectionJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
91
Timed Tasks (e.g., Curriculum-Based Measurement)
  • Description The teacher administers structured,
    timed tasks to assess student accuracy and
    fluency.
  • Example The student completes a 2-minute CBM
    single-skill math computation probe.
  • Example The student completes a 3-minute CBM
    writing probe that is scored for total words
    written.

92
Existing Records
  • Description The teacher uses information already
    being collected in the classroom that is relevant
    to the identified student problem.
  • Examples of existing records that can be used to
    track student problems include
  • Grades
  • Absences and incidents of tardiness
  • Homework turned in

93
Global Skills Checklists (pp. 25-29)
  • Description The teacher selects a global skill.
    The teacher then breaks that global skill down
    into specific, observable subskills. Each
    subskill can be verified as done or not done.

94
Skills Checklists Example
  • The teacher selects the global skill
    organizational skills.
  • That global skill is defined as having the
    following components, each of which can be
    observed
  • arriving to class on time
  • bringing work materials to class
  • following teacher directions in a timely manner
  • knowing how to request teacher assistance when
    needed
  • having an uncluttered desk with only essential
    work materials.

95
Behavioral Frequency Count
  • Description The teacher observes a student
    behavior and keeps a cumulative tally of the
    number of times that the behavior is observed
    during a given period.
  • Behaviors that are best measured using frequency
    counts have clearly observable beginning and end
    pointsand are of relatively short duration.
    Examples include
  • Student call-outs.
  • Requests for teacher help during independent
    seatwork.
  • Raising ones hand to make a contribution to
    large-group discussion.

96
Behavioral Frequency Count How to Record
  • Teachers can collect data on the frequency of
    student behaviors in several ways
  • Keeping a mental tally of the frequency of target
    behaviors occurring during a class period.
  • Recording behaviors on paper (e.g., simple tally
    marks) as they occur.
  • Using a golf counter, stitch counter, or other
    mechanical counter device to keep an accurate
    tally of behaviors.

97
Behavioral Frequency Count How to Compute
  • If student behaviors are being tallied during a
    class period, frequency-count data can be
    reported as X number of behaviors per class
    period.
  • If frequency-count data is collected in different
    spans of time on different days, however, schools
    can use the following method to standardize
    frequency count data
  • Record the total number of behaviors observed.
  • Record the number of minutes in the observation
    period.
  • Divide the total number of behaviors observed by
    total minutes in the observation period.
  • Example 5 callouts observed during a 10 minute
    period 0.5 callouts per minute.

98
Behavior Log
  • Description The teacher makes a log entry each
    time that a behavior is observed. An advantage of
    behavior logs is that they can provide
    information about the context within which a
    behavior occurs.(Disciplinary office referrals
    are a specialized example of a behavior log.)
  • Behavior logs are useful for tracking
    low-incidence problem behaviors.

99
Behavior Log Sample Form
100
Rating Scales
  • Description A scale is developed that a rater
    can use to complete a global rating of a
    behavior. Often the rating scale is completed at
    the conclusion of a fixed observation period
    (e.g., after each class period).
  • Daily / Direct Behavior Report Cards are one
    example of rating scales.

101
Student Work Samples
  • Description Work samples are collected for
    information about the students basic academic
    skills, mastery of course content, etc.
  • Recommendation Whe
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