RTI: An Overview for Schools Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 161
About This Presentation
Title:

RTI: An Overview for Schools Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

Description:

Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Mimi Mark Last modified by: Jim Created Date: 1/15/2006 6:20:54 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:559
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 162
Provided by: Mimi139
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: RTI: An Overview for Schools Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org


1
RTI An Overview for SchoolsJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
2
RTI Assumption Struggling Students Are Typical
Until Proven Otherwise
  • RTI logic assumes that
  • A student who begins to struggle in general
    education is typical, and that
  • It is general educations responsibility to find
    the instructional strategies that will unlock the
    students learning potential
  • Only when the student shows through
    well-documented interventions that he or she has
    failed to respond to intervention does RTI
    begin to investigate the possibility that the
    student may have a learning disability or other
    special education condition.

3
Essential Elements of RTI (Fairbanks, Sugai,
Guardino, Lathrop, 2007)
  1. A continuum of evidence-based services available
    to all students" that range from universal to
    highly individualized intensive
  2. Decision points to determine if students are
    performing significantly below the level of their
    peers in academic and social behavior domains"
  3. Ongoing monitoring of student progress"
  4. Employment of more intensive or different
    interventions when students do not improve in
    response" to lesser interventions
  5. Evaluation for special education services if
    students do not respond to intervention
    instruction"

Source Fairbanks, S., Sugai, G., Guardino, S.,
Lathrop, M. (2007). Response to intervention
Examining classroom behavior support in second
grade. Exceptional Children, 73, p. 289.
4
NYSED RTI Guidance Memo April 2008
5
(No Transcript)
6
The Regents policy framework for RtIDefines
RtI to minimally include Appropriate
instruction delivered to all students in the
general education class by qualified personnel.
Appropriate instruction in reading means
scientific research-based reading programs that
include explicit and systematic instruction in
phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary
development, reading fluency (including oral
reading skills) and reading comprehension
strategies.Screenings applied to all students
in the class to identify those students who are
not making academic progress at expected rates.
7
Instruction matched to student need with
increasingly intensive levels of targeted
intervention and instruction for students who do
not make satisfactory progress in their levels of
performance and/or in their rate of learning to
meet age or grade level standards.Repeated
assessments of student achievement which should
include curriculum based measures to determine if
interventions are resulting in student progress
toward age or grade level standards.The
application of information about the students
response to intervention to make educational
decisions about changes in goals, instruction
and/or services and the decision to make a
referral for special education programs and/or
services.
8
Written notification to the parents when the
student requires an intervention beyond that
provided to all students in the general education
classroom that provides information about the
-amount and nature of student performance data
that will be collected and the general education
services that will be provided-strategies for
increasing the students rate of learning
and-parents right to request an evaluation for
special education programs and/or services.
9
The Regents policy framework for RtIDefines
RtI to minimally include Requires each school
district to establish a plan and policies for
implementing school-wide approaches and
prereferral interventions in order to remediate a
students performance prior to referral for
special education, which may include the RtI
process as part of a districts school-wide
approach. The school district must select and
define the specific structure and components of
its RtI program, including, but not limited to
the -criteria for determining the levels of
intervention to be provided to students, -types
of interventions, amount and nature of student
performance data to be collected, and -manner
and frequency for progress monitoring.
10
What previous approach to diagnosing Learning
Disabilities does RTI replace?
  • Prior to RTI, many states used a Test-Score
    Discrepancy Model to identify Learning
    Disabilities.
  • A student with significant academic delays would
    be administered an battery of tests, including
    an intelligence test and academic achievement
    test(s).
  • If the student was found to have a substantial
    gap between a higher IQ score and lower
    achievement scores, a formula was used to
    determine if that gap was statistically
    significant and severe.
  • If the student had a severe discrepancy gap
    between IQ and achievement, he or she would be
    diagnosed with a Learning Disability.

11
Target Student
Dual-Discrepancy RTI Model of Learning
Disability (Fuchs 2003)
12
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
13
Source New York State Education Department.
(October 2010). Response to Intervention
Guidance for New York State School Districts.
Retrieved November 10, 2010, from
http//www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oc
t10.pdf p. 12
14
Tier 1 Core Instruction
  • Tier I core instruction
  • Is universalavailable to all students.
  • Can be delivered within classrooms or throughout
    the school.
  • Is an ongoing process of developing strong
    classroom instructional practices to reach the
    largest number of struggling learners.
  • All children have access to Tier 1
    instruction/interventions. Teachers have the
    capability to use those strategies without
    requiring outside assistance.
  • Tier 1 instruction encompasses
  • The schools core curriculum.
  • All published or teacher-made materials used to
    deliver that curriculum.
  • Teacher use of whole-group teaching
    management strategies.
  • Tier I instruction addresses this question Are
    strong classroom instructional strategies
    sufficient to help the student to achieve
    academic success?

15
Tier I (Classroom) Intervention
  • Tier 1 intervention
  • Targets red flag students who are not
    successful with core instruction alone.
  • Uses evidence-based strategies to address
    student academic or behavioral concerns.
  • Must be feasible to implement given the resources
    available in the classroom.
  • Tier I intervention addresses the question Does
    the student make adequate progress when the
    instructor uses specific academic or behavioral
    strategies matched to the presenting concern?

16
Tier 1 Grade-Level Team or Consultant
  • Who consults on the student case?
  • Choice A The teacher brings the student to a
    grade-level meeting to develop an intervention
    plan, check up on the plan in 4-8 weeks.
  • Choice B The teacher sits down with a consultant
    (selected from a roster or assigned to the
    classroom or grade level). Together, consultant
    and teacher develop an intervention, check up on
    the plan in 4-8 weeks.

17
Tier 1 Grade-Level Team or Consultant
  • What is the next step if the student is a
    non-responder?
  • The student case is referred to the school or
    grade-level Tier 2 Data Team. The Team places the
    student into appropriate Tier 2 services if
    availableor may decide to refer directly to the
    Problem-Solving Team.

18
Source New York State Education Department.
(October 2010). Response to Intervention
Guidance for New York State School Districts.
Retrieved November 10, 2010, from
http//www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oc
t10.pdf p. 13
19
Tier 2 Supplemental (Group-Based)
Interventions(Standard Treatment Protocol)
  • Tier 2 interventions are typically delivered in
    small-group format. About 15 of students in the
    typical school will require Tier 2/supplemental
    intervention support. Group size for Tier 2
    interventions is limited to 3-5 students.
    Students placed in Tier 2 interventions should
    have a shared profile of intervention need.
  • Programs or practices used in Tier 2
    interventions should be evidence-based.
  • The progress of students in Tier 2
    interventions are monitored at least 2 times per
    month.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
20
Tier 2 Data Team
  • Who makes up the Data Team and what is its
    purpose?
  • The Data Team is a school-wide or grade-specific
    team that typically includes classroom teachers,
    a school administrator, and perhaps other
    participants.
  • The Data Team reviews school-wide screening data
    (e.g., DIBELS NEXT, AimsWeb) three times per year
    to determine which students are at risk and
    require supplemental (Tier 2) intervention.
  • The Team continues to meet (e.g., monthly) to
    review student progress and to move students out
    of, into or across Tier 2 groups depending on
    progress and classroom performance.

21
Tier 2 Data Team
  • Who makes up the Data Team and what is its
    purpose? (Cont)
  • The Data Team can also take Tier 1 (classroom)
    referrals for struggling students who were not
    picked up in the academic screening(s) but are
    showing serious academic difficulties.

22
Scheduling Elementary Tier 2 Interventions
Option 3 Floating RTIGradewide Shared
Schedule. Each grade has a scheduled RTI time
across classrooms. No two grades share the same
RTI time. Advantages are that outside providers
can move from grade to grade providing push-in or
pull-out services and that students can be
grouped by need across different teachers within
the grade.
Anyplace Elementary School RTI Daily Schedule
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade K
900-930
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 1
945-1015
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 2
1030-1100
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 3
1230-100
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 4
115-145
Grade 5
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
200-230
Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Routledge.
23
Tier 2 Data Team
  • What is the next step if the student is a
    non-responder?
  • The Data Team refers the student to the Tier 3
    RTI Problem-Solving Team if the student fails to
    make acceptable progress during at least one
    intervention trial.

24
Source New York State Education Department.
(October 2010). Response to Intervention
Guidance for New York State School Districts.
Retrieved November 10, 2010, from
http//www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oc
t10.pdf p. 14
25
Tier 3 Intensive Individualized
Interventions(Problem-Solving Protocol)
  • Tier 3 interventions are the most intensive
    offered in a school setting.
  • Students qualify for Tier 3 interventions
    because
  • they are found to have a large skill gap when
    compared to their class or grade peers and/or
  • They did not respond to interventions provided
    previously at Tiers 1 2.
  • Tier 3 interventions are provided daily for
    sessions of 30 minutes or more. The
    student-teacher ratio is flexible but should
    allow the student to receive intensive,
    individualized instruction.
  • The reading progress of students in Tier 3
    interventions is monitored at least weekly.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
26
Tier 3 RTI Problem-Solving Team
  • How does a referral come in to the
    Problem-Solving Team?
  • Referral route A The Tier 2 Data Team meets
    periodically to review student progress. If a
    student is found not to be making expected
    progress, he or she can then be referred on to
    the RTI Team.
  • Referral route B If the school lacks a standard
    treatment Tier 2 intervention for a student
    concern (e.g., behavior, math), the student may
    be referred directly from Tier 1 to Tier 3 via a
    teacher referral.

27
Tier 3 RTI Problem-Solving Team
  • Who consults on the student case?
  • The RTI Problem-Solving Team is a
    multi-disciplinary team that consults with the
    teacher at the RTI Team Meeting.
  • The school may also want to have other staff
    (e.g., school nurse, math title teacher)
    available to attend RTI Team meetings on an
    as-needed basis for specific student cases.

28
Tier 3 RTI Problem-Solving Team
  • What is the next step if the student is a
    non-responder?
  • The school district should adopt uniform
    decision rules that indicate when a student
    should be referred on to the Special Education
    Eligibility Team. Example A district decided
    that across Tiers 2 and 3a student should go
    through at least 3 separate interventions of 6-8
    instructional weeks each before that student
    could be designated a non-responder and
    referred to Special Education.

29
Tier 1 Developing the Capacity for Classroom
Teachers to Become Intervention First
RespondersJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.or
g
30
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
31
The Key Role of Classroom Teachers in RTI 6 Steps
  1. The teacher defines the student academic or
    behavioral problem clearly.
  2. The teacher decides on the best explanation for
    why the problem is occurring.
  3. The teacher selects evidence-based
    interventions.
  4. The teacher documents the students Tier 1
    intervention plan.
  5. The teacher monitors the students response
    (progress) to the intervention plan.
  6. The teacher knows what the next steps are when a
    student fails to make adequate progress with Tier
    1 interventions alone.

32
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions
33
Teacher Tolerance as an Indicator of RTI
Intervention Capacity
  • I call the range of students whom teachers
    come to view as adequately responsive i.e.,
    teachable as the tolerance those who are
    perceived to be outside the tolerance are those
    for whom teachers seek additional resources. The
    term tolerance is used to indicate that
    teachers form a permissible boundary on their
    measurement (judgments) in the same sense as a
    confidence interval. In this case, the teacher
    actively measures the distribution of
    responsiveness in her class by processing
    information from a series of teaching trials and
    perceives some range of students as within the
    tolerance. (Gerber, 2002)

Source Gerber, M. M. (2003). Teachers are still
the test Limitations of response to instruction
strategies for identifying children with learning
disabilities. Paper presented at the National
Research Center on Learning Disabilities
Responsiveness-to-Intervention Symposium, Kansas
City, MO.
34
RTI Teacher Reluctance
  • The willingness of teachers to implement
    interventions is essential in any school to the
    success of the RTI model. Yet general-education
    teachers may not always see themselves as
    interventionists and indeed may even resist the
    expectation that they will provide individualized
    interventions as a routine part of their
    classroom practice (Walker, 2004).
  • It should be remembered, however, that teachers
    reluctance to accept elements of RTI may be based
    on very good reasons. Here are some common
    reasons that teachers might be reluctant to
    accept their role as RTI intervention first
    responders

35
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions
  • Lack of Skills. Teachers lack the skills
    necessary to successfully implement academic or
    behavioral interventions in their content-area
    classrooms (Fisher, 2007 Kamil et al., 2008).
  • Not My Job. Teachers define their job as
    providing content-area instruction. They do not
    believe that providing classwide or individual
    academic and behavioral interventions falls
    within their job description (Kamil et al., 2008).

36
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions(Cont.)
  • No Time. Teachers do not believe that they have
    sufficient time available in classroom
    instruction to implement academic or behavioral
    interventions (Kamil et al., 2008 Walker,
    2004).
  • No Payoff. Teachers lack confidence that there
    will be an adequate instructional pay-off if they
    put classwide or individual academic or
    behavioral interventions into place in their
    content-area classroom (Kamil et al., 2008).

37
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions (Cont.)
  • Loss of Classroom Control. Teachers worry that if
    they depart from their standard instructional
    practices to adopt new classwide or individual
    academic or behavior intervention strategies,
    they may lose behavioral control of the classroom
    (Kamil et al., 2008).
  • Undeserving Students. Teachers are unwilling to
    invest the required effort to provide academic or
    behavioral interventions for unmotivated students
    (Walker, 2004) because they would rather put that
    time into providing additional attention to
    well-behaved, motivated students who are more
    deserving.

38
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions (Cont.)
  • The Magic of Special Education. Content-area
    teachers regard special education services as
    magic (Martens, 1993). According to this view,
    interventions provided to struggling students in
    the general-education classroom alone will be
    inadequate, and only special education services
    have the power to truly benefit those students.

39
Team Activity Engaging the Reluctant Teacher
40
Building Teacher Capacity to Deliver Tier 1
Interventions An 8-Step Checklist p. 12
41
(No Transcript)
42
(No Transcript)
43
(No Transcript)
44
(No Transcript)
45
(No Transcript)
46
(No Transcript)
47
(No Transcript)
48
(No Transcript)
49
(No Transcript)
50
(No Transcript)
51
(No Transcript)
52
Team Activity Building Tier 1 Capacity
  • At your tables
  • Consider the eight steps to building Tier 1
    teacher capacity to deliver effective classroom
    interventions.
  • Discuss the strengths and challenges that your
    school or district presents in promoting
    classroom teachers appropriate and effective use
    of Tier 1 interventions.
  • Be prepared to share your discussion with the
    larger group!

53
(No Transcript)
54
Implementing Response to Intervention in
Secondary Schools Key Challenges to Changing a
SystemJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
55
Barriers in Schools to Innovations in
Interventions
  • Factors that have been identified as
    barriers to acceptance and implementation by
    educators of effective behavioral interventions
    for at at-risk students include characteristics
    of the host organization, practitioner behavior,
    costs, lack of program readiness, the absence of
    program champions and advocates within the host
    organization, philosophical objections, lack of
    fit between the program's key features and
    organizational routines and operations, and weak
    staff participation.

Source Walker, H. M. (2004). Use of
evidence-based interventions in schools Where
we've been, where we are, and where we need to
go. School Psychology Review, 33, 398-407. p. 400
56
Preventing Your School from Developing RTI
Antibodies
  • Schools can anticipate and take steps to address
    challenges to RTI implementation in schools
  • This proactive stance toward RTI adoption will
    reduce the probability that the host school or
    district will reject RTI as a model

57
RTI Research Questions
  • Q What Conditions Support the Successful
    Implementation of RTI?
  • Continuing professional development to give
    teachers the skills to implement RTI and educate
    new staff because of personnel turnover.
  • Administrators who assert leadership under RTI,
    including setting staff expectations for RTI
    implementation, finding the needed resources, and
    monitoring the fidelity of implementation.
  • Proactive hiring of teachers who support the
    principles of RTI and have the skills to put RTI
    into practice in the classroom.
  • The changing of job roles of teachers and other
    staff to support RTI.
  • Input from teachers and support staff
    (bottom-up) about how to make RTI work in the
    school/district, as well as guidance from
    administration (top-down).

Source Fuchs, D., Deshler, D. D. (2007). What
we need to know about responsiveness to
intervention (and shouldnt be afraid to ask)..
Learning Disabilities Research Practice,
22(2),129136.
58
Tier 1 Case Example Collin Letter Identification
59
Case Example Letter Identification
  • The Concern
  • In a mid-year (Fall) school-wide screening for
    Letter Naming Fluency, a first-grade student new
    to the school, Collin, was found have moderate
    delays when compared to peers. In his school,
    Collin fell at the 15th percentile compared with
    peers (local norms).
  • Screening results, therefore, suggested that
    Collin has problems with Letter Identification.
    However, more information is needed to better
    understand this student academic delay.

60
Case Example Letter Identification
  • Instructional Assessment
  • Collins teacher, Ms. Tessia, sat with him and
    checked his letter knowledge. She discovered
    that, at baselline, Collin knew 17 lower-case
    letters and 19 upper-case letters. (Ms. Tessia
    defined knows a letter as When shown the
    letter, the student can correctly give the name
    of the letter within 2 seconds.)
  • Based on her findings, Ms. Tessia decided that
    Collin was just acquiring this letter
    identification skill. He needed direct-teaching
    activities to learn to identify all of the
    letters.

61
Case Example Letter Identification
62
Case Example Letter Identification
  • Intervention
  • Ms. Tessia decided to use incremental rehearsal
    (Burns, 2005) as an intervention for Collin. This
    intervention benefits students who are still
    acquiring their math facts, sight words, or
    letters. Students start by reviewing a series
    of known cards. Then the instructor adds
    unknown items to the card pile one at a time,
    so that the student has a high ratio of known to
    unknown items. This strategy promotes
    near-errorless learning.
  • Collin received this intervention daily, for 10
    minutes.
  • NOTE A paraprofessional, adult volunteer, or
    other non-instructional personnel can be trained
    to deliver this intervention.

Source Burns, M. K. (2005). Using incremental
rehearsal to increase fluency of single-digit
multiplication facts with children identified as
learning disabled in mathematics computation.
Education and Treatment of Children, 28,
237-249.
63
East Carolina University Evidence-Based
Intervention Projecthttp//www.ecu.edu/cs-cas/psy
c/rileytillmant/EBI-Network-Homepage.cfmIncremen
tal Rehearsal Guidelines
64
Case Example Letter Identification
  • Goal-Setting and Data Collection
  • Ms. Tessia set the goals that, within 4
    instructional weeks, Collin would
  • identify all upper-case and lower-case letters.
  • move above the 25th percentile in Letter Naming
    Fluency when compared to grade-level peers.
  • The teacher collected two sources of data on the
    intervention
  • At the end of each tutoring session, the tutor
    logged any additional formerly unknown letters
    that were now known (that the student could now
    accurately identify within 2 seconds).
  • Each week, the teacher administered a one-minute
    timed Letter Naming Fluency probe and charted the
    number of correctly identified letters.

65
Case Example Letter Identification
  • Outcome
  • Ms. Tessia discovered that Collin attained the
    first goal (able to identify all upper-case and
    lower-case letters) within 2 weeks.
  • Collin attained the second goal (move above the
    25th percentile in Letter Naming Fluency when
    compared to grade-level peers) within the
    expected four instructional weeks.

66
Tiers 12 Case Example Angela Reading Fluency
67
DIBELS Case Example Angela
  • Angela is a 3rd grade student.
  • Angela struggled in her classroom with reading
    fluency. Her teacher tried a series of classroom
    strategies to promote fluency for the student,
    including providing Angela with additional
    opportunities to listen to fluent text modeling
    from an adult and opportunities to read aloud
    with corrective feedback.

68
DIBELS Case Example Angela
  • In the mid-year schoolwide literacy screening in
    January, Angela read 77 words per minute on the
    DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency measure.
  • According to DIBELS benchmark guidelines, Angela
    falls within the strategic intervention range
    (between 67 and 92 WPM).

69
Source Good, R. H., Kaminski, R. A. (Eds.).
(2002). Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early
Literacy Skills (6th ed.). Eugene, OR Institute
for the Development of Educational Achievement.
Available http//dibels.uoregon.edu/.
70
DIBELS Case Example Angela Cont.
  • After the mid-year screening, the 3rd grade
    teachers, building administrator, and reading
    teacher gathered for a data meeting.
  • At that meeting, the group considered the
    screening results and discussed how to improve
    core literacy instruction to assist those
    students who fell within the some risk and at
    risk categories.
  • The group next sorted students from the some
    risk and at risk categories into supplemental
    (Tier 2) groups, according to intervention need.
    Teacher knowledge of the student, classroom
    assessments, state test results, and other
    information was used to supplement the DIBELS
    data during this sorting process.

71
DIBELS Case Example Angela Cont.
  • At the data meeting, it was decided that Angela
    and other students in the 3rd grade needed
    supplemental intervention support to increase
    their reading fluency, as well as to build their
    phonics (alphabetics) skills.
  • The reading teacher agreed to start a Corrective
    Reading group that would meet for 4 days per week
    in 45 minute sessions. (The Corrective Reading
    program met the schools guidelines as an
    evidence-based program, based on findings from
    the What Works Clearinghouse website.)
  • Angela and 5 other children were placed in this
    Corrective Reading group.

72
Corrective Reading Description
  • Corrective Reading is designed to promote
    reading accuracy (decoding), fluency, and
    comprehension skills of students in third grade
    or higher who are reading below their grade
    level. The program has four levels that address
    students' decoding skills and six levels that
    address students' comprehension skills. All
    lessons in the program are sequenced and
    scripted. Corrective Reading can be implemented
    in small groups of four to five students or in a
    whole-class format. Corrective Reading is
    intended to be taught in 45-minute lessons four
    to five times a week. For the single study
    reviewed in this report, only the word-level
    skills components of the Corrective Reading
    program were implemented.
  • Corrective Reading was found to have
    potentially positive effects on alphabetics and
    fluency and no discernible effects on
    comprehension.

Source What Works Clearinghouse. Retrieved on
October 6, 2009 from http//ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/re
ports/beginning_reading/cr/c
73
DIBELS Case Example Angela Cont.
  • BASELINE Before Angela began the Corrective
    Reading group, her reading teacher collected
    baseline data. The teacher used grade 3
    progress-monitoring probes supplied by DIBELS.
    The student was administered Oral Reading Fluency
    probes across three separate days.
  • At baseline, Angela was found to be reading 76
    words per minute in grade 3 text. This became the
    starting point for setting a student goal for
    intervention.

74
Goal
75
DIBELS Case Example Angela Cont.
  • GOAL-SETTING. Because Angela would be monitored
    using grade 3 ORF probes, it was decided to
    select an ambitious rate of progress. Using
    research norms, the reading teacher estimated
    that Angela should increase her reading rate by
    1.5 additional words per week. Because the
    intervention would be in place for 6
    instructional weeks, the teacher estimated that
    the student should read an additional 9 words per
    minute at the end of 6 weeks. Because the
    students baseline reading rate was 76 words per
    minute, her goal at the end of the 6 weeks is 85
    words per minute. In other words, if the group
    intervention is successful, Angela should read at
    least 85 WPM at the end of the intervention
    period.

76
Table 2 Predictions for Reading Growthby Grade
77
DIBELS Case Example Angela Cont.
  • IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERVENTION. When the
    Corrective Reading program began, Angela was
    assessed weekly (progress-monitoring) using grade
    3 ORF probes from DIBELS.
  • After six instructional weeks, the data team and
    reading teacher met to consider Angelas
    progress.

78
Goal
79
DIBELS Case Example Angela Cont.
  • INTERVENTION CHECK-UP. At the end of 6 weeks,
    Angela had made promising progress but had not
    quite hit her intervention goal of 85 WPM.
  • The school kept Angela in the Corrective Reading
    program, but decided to add an intervention
    component. A high school student was recruited
    and trained in Paired Reading. The tutor met with
    Angela 3 times per week for 25 minutes and used
    the Paired Reading strategy. Additionally,
    Angelas parent was recruited to use Paired
    Reading at home for at least 2 times per week.
    The intervention goal was reset for 94 WPM.

80
  • The student reads aloud in tandem with an
    accomplished reader. At a student signal, the
    helping reader stops reading, while the student
    continues on. When the student commits a reading
    error, the helping reader resumes reading in
    tandem.

Paired Reading
81
(No Transcript)
82
DIBELS Case Example Angela Cont.
  • INTERVENTION CHECK-UP 2. At the end of the second
    6-week intervention, the reading teacher examined
    the students monitoring data and discovered that
    she had met her intervention goal of 94 words per
    minute.

83
Goal
Goal
84
DIBELS Case Example Angela Cont.
  • While the student had attained success, the
    school continued the intervention (Corrective
    Reading group and Paired Reading) for 3 more
    weeks to continue to strengthen Angelas reading
    fluency. The school then discontinued the Tier 2
    intervention.
  • Although Angelas teacher admitted that she was a
    bit anxious about the students ability to
    maintain success without the Tier 2 intervention,
    she was reassured that Angela would immediately
    be given RTI intervention support again if she
    were to be flagged as at risk in a future
    grade-wide reading screening.

85
RTI for Elementary Schools Next Steps Planning
Exercise
86
Scaling Up Four Stages of RTI
DevelopmentJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.or
g
87
RTI Development Four Stages of Scaling Up
  1. Preparation. Planning activities creating
    readiness in the school system for the RTI
    component.
  2. Initial Implementation. Bringing the component
    into the school setting.
  3. Institutionalization. Institutionalizing the RTI
    component as a part of routine school and
    district practices.
  4. Ongoing Development/Updating. Ensuring that the
    RTI component stays current with changing
    revisions in state and federal guidelines and
    emerging findings in RTI research.

Source Ervin, R. A., Schaughency, E. (2008).
Best practices in accessing the systems change
literature. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best
practices in school psychology V (pp. 853-873).
Bethesda, MD National Association of School
Psychologists.
88
RTI Steering Committee Using the Four Stages of
Scaling Up in Planning
  • First, the RTI Steering Committee selects a
    series of RTI Implementation Goals. These
    goals should be more general, global goals that
    will require attention through all stages of the
    RTI implementation process.
  • The RTI Steering Committee then takes each of the
    general RTI Implementation Goals and breaks the
    global goal into a series of specific subtasks.
    Subtasks are sorted by stage of implementation.

89
(No Transcript)
90
RTI Implementation Planning Sheet Example
  • Stage 1 Preparation List any preparation steps
    such as development of materials or staff
    training.
  • Examples of Preparation Tasks
  • Download and preview DIBELS training materials
    from the official DIBELS website
    (https//dibels.uoregon.edu/).
  • Select district-level DIBELS trainers.
  • Schedule sessions to train classroom teachers in
    grades K-4 to administer DIBELS assessments
    appropriate to their grade level.

91
RTI Implementation Planning Sheet Example
  • Stage 2 Initial Implementation Describe the
    tasks required to actually implement the goal.
  • Examples of Initial Implementation Tasks
  • Meet with the principal to schedule 3 DIBELS
    benchmarking days (fall/winter/spring) across the
    school year.
  • Create DIBELS team of school-wide personnel to
    assist classroom teachers to collect DIBELS data
    on benchmarking days
  • Schedule grade-level data meetings at which
    teachers review DIBELS benchmarking data to
    determine which students will require more
    intensive intervention services for reading
    delays.

92
RTI Implementation Planning Sheet Example
  • Stage 3 Institutionalization Once the goal is
    initially carried out successfully, devise a plan
    to weave various activities that support the goal
    into the day-to-day institutional routine of the
    school.
  • Examples of Institutionalization Tasks
  • Set guidelines for classroom teachers to
    independently collect DIBELS data on any student
    falling significantly below grade level in
    reading skills and use that data to develop
    individualized reading interventions at Tier 1.
  • Revise the elementary school report card format
    to allow for the entry of DIBELS benchmarking
    data.

93
RTI Implementation Planning Sheet Example
  • Stage 4 Ongoing Development/Updating The RTI
    model is steadily evolving as new research
    indicates better methods for data collection,
    intervention planning, etc. The RTI
    Implementation Plan should include Ongoing
    Development/Updating tasks--ongoing activities to
    ensure that the districts practices confirm to
    best practices over time.
  • Examples of Ongoing Development/Updating Tasks
  • Monitor the DIBELS website (https//dibels.uorego
    n.edu/) on a regular basis to ensure that
    district DIBELS monitoring practices align with
    those recommended by DIBELS developers.
  • Monitor DIBELS research published in
    peer-reviewed education journals to track DIBELS
    standing in the research community as an RTI
    progress-monitoring tool.
  • Visit the National Center on Student Progress
    Monitoring website (http//www.studentprogress.org
    /) regularly to stay abreast of the sites rating
    of DIBELS materials in comparison to similar
    progress-monitoring materials from other
    organizations or companies.

94
(No Transcript)
95
RTI Next Steps Planning Activity
  • Element 1 Build Classroom Teacher Understanding
    Support for RTI p.36
  • Element 2 Create Teacher Capacity to Deliver
    Effective Classroom (Tier 1) Interventions p.38
  • Element 3 Inventory Evidence-Based Supplemental
    Intervention Programs Available at Tiers 2 3
    p.40
  • Element 4 Establish an RTI Problem Solving Team
    at Tier 3 p.43
  • Element 5 Select Measures for Universal
    Screening and Progress Monitoring to Evaluate
    Student Response to Intervention p.45
  • At your tables
  • Select one of the key RTI tasks listed to the
    right..
  • Discuss the steps needed to accomplish the task.
  • Write down those steps on the RTI Goals Planning
    Sheet included in your packet.
  • Be prepared to report out.

96
(No Transcript)
97
RTI Teams Improving Problem-Solving Through
Effective Case Management
98
(No Transcript)
99
Case Manager Role
  • Meets with the referring teacher(s) briefly prior
    to the initial RTI Team meeting to review the
    teacher referral form, clarify teacher concerns,
    decide what additional data should be collected
    on the student.
  • Touches base briefly with the referring
    teacher(s) after the RTI Team meeting to check
    that the intervention plan is running smoothly.

100
Case Manager Pre-Meeting
  • Prior to an initial RTI Problem-Solving Team
    meeting, it is recommended that a case manager
    from the RTI Team schedule a brief (15-20 minute)
    pre-meeting with the referring teacher. The
    purpose of this pre-meeting is for the case
    manager to share with the teacher the purpose of
    the upcoming full RTI Team meeting, to clarify
    student referral concerns, and to decide what
    data should be collected and brought to the RTI
    Team meeting.

101
Case Manager Pre-Meeting Steps
  • Here is a recommended agenda for the case
    manager-teacher pre-meeting
  • Explain the purpose of the upcoming RTI
    Problem-Solving Team meeting The case manager
    explains that the RTI Team meeting goals are to
    (a) fully understand the nature of the students
    academic and/or behavioral problems (b) develop
    an evidence-based intervention plan for the
    student and (c) set a goal for student
    improvement and select means to monitor the
    students response to the intervention plan.

102
Case Manager Pre-Meeting Steps
  1. Define the student referral concern(s) in clear,
    specific terms. The case manager reviews with the
    teacher the most important student referral
    concern(s), helping the teacher to define those
    concern(s) in clear, specific, observable terms.
    The teacher is also prompted to prioritize his or
    her top 1-2 student concerns.

103
Case Manager Pre-Meeting Steps
  1. Decide what data should be brought to the RTI
    Team meeting. The case manager and teacher decide
    what student data should be collected and brought
    to the RTI Team meeting to provide insight into
    the nature of the students presenting
    concern(s).

104
Case Manager Pre-Meeting Steps
105
(No Transcript)
106
Team Activity Defining the RTI Team Pre-Meeting
  • At your table
  • Discuss how your school can structure the
    pre-meeting in which the case manager and
    teacher meet to clarify the teachers referral
    concern(s) and to decide what data to bring to
    the actual RTI Team meeting.
  • Brainstorm ideas for finding the time for such
    pre-meetings.

107
Tier II Resources Maintain Flexibility by
Assigning to Grade Levels
  • If there are personnel resources available to
    support classroom RTI (e.g., paraprofessional
    time, push-in support available from a reading
    teacher), those resources should be allocated to
    the grade level, not to individual classrooms.
    This permits greater flexibility in moving
    resources around to target shifting student needs.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Routledge.
108
Tier 1 Grade-Level Team or Consultant
  • Who consults on the student case?
  • Choice A The teacher brings the student to a
    grade-level meeting to develop an intervention
    plan, check up on the plan in 4-8 weeks.
  • Choice B The teacher sits down with a consultant
    (selected from a roster or assigned to the
    classroom or grade level). Together, consultant
    and teacher develop an intervention, check up on
    the plan in 4-8 weeks.

109
Tier 1 Grade-Level Team or Consultant
  • What is the next step if the student is a
    non-responder?
  • Choice A The student case is referred to a
    single clearinghouse person in the school
    (e.g., reading teacher, school psychologist,
    assistant principal) who can review the case and
    match the student to any appropriate Tier 2
    services if available. If the student case is
    unique, it may be referred directly to the Tier 3
    Problem-Solving Team.
  • Choice B Preferred The student case is
    referred to the school or grade-level Tier 2 Data
    Team. The Team places the student into
    appropriate Tier 2 services if availableor may
    decide to refer directly to the Tier 3
    Problem-Solving Team.

110
Tier 2 Data Team
  • Who makes up the Data Team and what is its
    purpose?
  • The Data Team is a school-wide or grade-specific
    team that typically includes classroom teachers,
    a school administrator, and perhaps other
    participants.
  • The Data Team reviews school-wide screening data
    (e.g., DIBELS NEXT, AimsWeb) three times per year
    to determine which students are at risk and
    require supplemental (Tier 2) intervention.
  • The Team continues to meet (e.g., monthly) to
    review student progress and to move students out
    of, into or across Tier 2 groups depending on
    progress and classroom performance.

111
Tier 2 Data Team
  • Who makes up the Data Team and what is its
    purpose? (Cont)
  • The Data Team can also take Tier 1 (classroom)
    referrals for struggling students who were not
    picked up in the academic screening(s) but are
    showing serious academic difficulties.

112
Scheduling Elementary Tier 2 Interventions
Option 3 Floating RTIGradewide Shared
Schedule. Each grade has a scheduled RTI time
across classrooms. No two grades share the same
RTI time. Advantages are that outside providers
can move from grade to grade providing push-in or
pull-out services and that students can be
grouped by need across different teachers within
the grade.
Anyplace Elementary School RTI Daily Schedule
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade K
900-930
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 1
945-1015
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 2
1030-1100
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 3
1230-100
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 4
115-145
Grade 5
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
200-230
Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Routledge.
113
Tier 2 Data Team
  • What is the next step if the student is a
    non-responder?
  • The Data Team refers the student to the Tier 3
    RTI Problem-Solving Team if the student fails to
    make acceptable progress during at least one
    intervention trial.

114
Tier 3 RTI Problem-Solving Team
  • How does a referral come in to the
    Problem-Solving Team?
  • Referral route A The Tier 2 Data Team meets
    periodically to review student progress. If a
    student is found not to be making expected
    progress, he or she can then be referred on to
    the RTI Team.
  • Referral route B If the school lacks a standard
    treatment Tier 2 intervention for a student
    concern (e.g., behavior, math), the student may
    be referred directly from Tier 1 to Tier 3 via a
    teacher referral.

115
Tier 3 RTI Problem-Solving Team
  • Who consults on the student case?
  • The RTI Problem-Solving Team is a
    multi-disciplinary team that consults with the
    teacher at the RTI Team Meeting.
  • The school may also want to have other staff
    (e.g., school nurse, math title teacher)
    available to attend RTI Team meetings on an
    as-needed basis for specific student cases.

116
Tier 3 RTI Problem-Solving Team
  • What is the next step if the student is a
    non-responder?
  • The school district should adopt uniform
    decision rules that indicate when a student
    should be referred on to the Special Education
    Eligibility Team. Example A district decided
    that across Tiers 2 and 3a student should go
    through at least 3 separate interventions of 6-8
    instructional weeks each before that student
    could be designated a non-responder and
    referred to Special Education.

117
Tier 3 RTI Teams Following a Structured
Problem-Solving Model Jim Wrightwww.interventio
ncentral.org
118
Tier 3 Interventions Are Developed With
Assistance from the Schools RTI
(Problem-Solving) Team
  • Effective RTI Teams
  • Are multi-disciplinary and include classroom
    teachers among their members
  • Follow a structured problem-solving model
  • Use data to analyze the academic problem and
    match the student to effective, evidence-based
    interventions
  • Develop a detailed research-based intervention
    plan to help staff with implementation
  • Check up on the teachers success in carrying out
    the intervention (intervention integrity)

119
The Problem-Solving Model Multi-Disciplinary
Teams
  • A school consultative process (the
    problem-solving model) with roots in applied
    behavior analysis was developed (e.g., Bergan,
    1995) that includes 4 steps
  • Problem Identification
  • Problem Analysis
  • Plan Implementation
  • Problem Evaluation
  • Originally designed for individual consultation
    with teachers, the problem-solving model was
    later adapted in various forms to
    multi-disciplinary team settings.

Source Bergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a
problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of
Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2),
111-123.
120
Team Roles
  • Coordinator
  • Facilitator
  • Recorder
  • Time Keeper
  • Case Manager

121
RTI Team Consultative Process
  • Step 1 Assess Teacher Concerns 5 Mins
  • Step 2 Inventory Student Strengths/Talents 5
    Mins
  • Step 3 Review Background/Baseline Data 5 Mins
  • Step 4 Select Target Teacher Concerns 5-10 Mins
  • Step 5 Set Academic and/or Behavioral Outcome
    Goals and Methods for Progress-Monitoring 5 Mins
  • Step 6 Design an Intervention Plan 15-20 Mins
  • Step 7 Plan How to Share Meeting Information
    with the Students Parent(s) 5 Mins
  • Step 8 Review Intervention Monitoring Plans 5
    Mins

122
RTI Teams Managing Those RTI EmergenciesJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
123
Managing Those RTI Emergencies
The initial teacher referral suggested that the
students classroom needs are primarily
behavioral. At the RTI Team meeting, it becomes
clear that ACADEMIC concerns are probably driving
the behavioral problems. You have little targeted
information about the students academic
skills.How can your team respond (or avoid this
situation in the first place)?
124
Managing Those RTI Emergencies
When asked to state her main referral concern,
the referring teacher at the RTI Team meeting
declares that The problem is that the student
just cant do the work. We need to find a better
placement for him than my classroom!How can
your team respond (or avoid this situation in the
first place)?
125
Managing Those RTI Emergencies
The referring teacher appears highly reluctant
to participate in the RTI Team meeting. At one
point, he says, I am only here because the
principal said that I had to refer this
student. How can your team respond (or avoid
this situation in the first place)?
126
Managing Those RTI Emergencies
Your RTI Team feels stuck in selecting an
intervention (Step 6 Design an Intervention
Plan) for a student whose referral concerns have
been identified as poor reading comprehension
and disruptive behavior. How can your team
respond (or avoid this situation in the first
place)?
127
Managing Those RTI Emergencies
During the RTI Team meeting, the team recommends
a number of research-based intervention ideas for
a student with academic delays. For each idea,
the teacher says, Ive already tried
that. How can your team respond (or avoid this
situation in the first place)?
128
Tier 3 RTI Problem-Solving Team
  • How does a referral come in to the
    Problem-Solving Team?
  • Referral route A The Tier 2 Data Team meets
    periodically to review student progress. If a
    student is found not to be making expected
    progress, he or she can then be referred on to
    the RTI Team.
  • Referral route B If the school lacks a standard
    treatment Tier 2 intervention for a student
    concern (e.g., behavior, math), the student may
    be referred directly from Tier 1 to Tier 3 via a
    teacher referral.

129
Tier 3 RTI Problem-Solving Team
  • Who consults on the student case?
  • The RTI Problem-Solving Team is a
    multi-disciplinary team that consults with the
    teacher at the RTI Team Meeting.
  • The school may also want to have other staff
    (e.g., school nurse, math title teacher)
    available to attend RTI Team meetings on an
    as-needed basis for specific student cases.

130
Tier 3 RTI Problem-Solving Team
  • What is the next step if the student is a
    non-responder?
  • The school district should adopt uniform
    decision rules that indicate when a student
    should be referred on to the Special Education
    Eligibility Team. Example A district decided
    that across Tiers 2 and 3a student should go
    through at least 3 separate interventions of 6-8
    instructional weeks each before that student
    could be designated a non-responder and
    referred to Special Education.

131
Small-Group Activity Evaluate YourCurrent RTI
Problem-Solving Team
  • Discuss your current Problem-Solving Team.
  • How closely does your current Team match the
    expectations of RTI?
  • Effective RTI Teams
  • Are multi-disciplinary and include teachers among
    their members
  • Follow a structured problem-solving model
  • Use data to analyze the academic problem and
    match the student to effective, evidence-based
    interventions
  • Develop a detailed research-based intervention
    plan to help staff with implementation
  • Check up on the teachers success in carrying out
    the intervention (intervention integrity)

132
(No Transcript)
133
Tier 2 Group-Based Interventions
134
Tier 2 Supplemental (Group-Based)
Interventions(Standard Treatment Protocol)
  • Tier 2 interventions are typically delivered in
    small-group format. About 15 of students in the
    typical school will require Tier 2/supplemental
    intervention support. Group size for Tier 2
    interventions is limited to 4-7 students.
    Students placed in Tier 2 interventions should
    have a shared profile of intervention need.
  • Programs or practices used in Tier 2
    interventions should be evidence-based.
  • The progress of students in Tier 2
    interventions are monitored at least 1-2 times
    per month.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
135
Group-Based Tier 2 Services How Much Time Should
Be Allocated?
  • Emerging guidelines drawn largely from reading
    research suggest that standard protocol
    interventions should consist of at least three to
    five 30-minute sessions per week, in a group size
    not to exceed 7 students. Standard protocol
    interventions should also supplement, rather than
    replace, core instruction taking place in the
    classroom.

Sources Burns, Al Otaiba, S. Torgesen, J.
(2007). Effects from intensive standardized
kindergarten and first-grade interventions for
the prevention of reading difficulties. In S. R.
Jimerson, M. K. Burns, A. M. VanDerHeyden
(Eds.), Response to intervention The science and
practice of assessment and intervention (pp.
212-222). National Reading Panel. (2000).
Teaching children to read An evidence-based
assessment of the scientific research literature
on reading and its implications for reading
instruction. Bethesda, MD National Institute of
Child Health Human Development, National
Institutes of Health.
136
Scheduling Elementary Tier 2 Interventions
Option 3 Floating RTIGradewide Shared
Schedule. Each grade has a scheduled RTI time
across classrooms. No two grades share the same
RTI time. Advantages are that outside providers
can move from grade to grade providing push-in or
pull-out services and that students can be
grouped by need across different teachers within
the grade.
Anyplace Elementary School RTI Daily Schedule
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade K
900-930
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 1
945-1015
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 2
1030-1100
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 3
1230-100
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 4
115-145
Grade 5
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
200-230
Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Routledge.
137
Level Tier 2 RTI Services Programming
  • Tier 2 intervention programs may be group-based
    or computer-administered.
  • A good source for possible Tier 2 intervention
    programs is the What Works Clearinghouse
    athttp//ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/

138
RTI Intervention Key Concepts
139
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Core Instruction. Those instructional strategies
    that are used routinely with all students in a
    general-education setting are considered core
    instruction. High-quality instruction is
    essential and forms the foundation of RTI
    academic support. NOTE While it is important to
    verify that good core instructional practices are
    in place for a struggling student, those routine
    practices do not count as individual student
    interventions.

140
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Intervention. An academic intervention is a
    strategy used to teach a new skill, build fluency
    in a skill, or encourage a child to apply an
    existing skill to new situations or settings. An
    intervention can be thought of as a set of
    actions that, when taken, have demonstrated
    ability to change a fixed educational trajectory
    (Methe Riley-Tillman, 2008 p. 37).

141
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Accommodation. An accommodation is intended to
    help the student to fully access and participate
    in the general-education curriculum without
    changing the instructional content and without
    reducing the students rate of learning (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005). An accommodation is
    intended to remove barriers to learning while
    still expecting that students will master the
    same instructional content as their typical
    peers.
  • Accommodation example 1 Students are allowed to
    supplement silent reading of a novel by listening
    to the book on tape.
  • Accommodation example 2 For unmotivated
    students, the instructor breaks larger
    assignments into smaller chunks and providing
    students with performance feedback and praise for
    each completed chunk of assigned work (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005).

142
Teaching is giving it isnt taking away.
(Howell, Hosp Kurns, 2008 p. 356).


Source Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., Kurns, S.
(2008). Best practices in curriculum-based
evaluation. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best
practices in school psychology V (pp.349-362).
Bethesda, MD National Association of School
Psychologists..
143
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Modification. A modification changes the
    expectations of what a student is expected to
    know or dotypically by lowering the academic
    standards against which the student is to be
    evaluated. Examples of modifications
  • Giving a student five math computation problems
    for practice instead of the 20 problems assigned
    to the rest of the class
  • Letting the student consult course notes during a
    test when peers are not permitted to do so

144
RTI Leadership Team Setting a Course for
Response to InterventionJim Wrightwww.intervent
ioncentral.org
145
What is the Purpose of the RTI Leadership team?
  • The RTI Leadership Team guides the overall RTI
    process.
  • The group meets periodically (e.g., monthly) on
    an ongoing basis to evaluate the RTI project,
    shape its future direction, determine what
    resources the project requires, and allocate
    those resources.
  • The RTI Leadership
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com