RTI: Academic Interventions for Difficult-to-Teach Students Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – RTI: Academic Interventions for Difficult-to-Teach Students Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7fdc29-MzE5M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

RTI: Academic Interventions for Difficult-to-Teach Students Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

Description:

Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Mimi Mark Last modified by: Jim Created Date: 1/15/2006 6:20:54 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:258
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 215
Provided by: MimiM166
Learn more at: http://www.jimwrightonline.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: RTI: Academic Interventions for Difficult-to-Teach Students Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org


1
RTI Academic Interventions for
Difficult-to-Teach StudentsJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
2
Workshop Materials at
  • http//www.jimwrightonline.com/windsor.php

3
Workshop Agenda
4
The Key RTI Role of Classroom Teachers as Tier 1
Interventionists 6 Steps
  1. The teacher defines the student academic or
    behavioral problem clearly.
  2. The teacher decides on the best explanation for
    why the problem is occurring.
  3. The teacher selects evidence-based
    interventions.
  4. The teacher documents the students Tier 1
    intervention plan.
  5. The teacher monitors the students response
    (progress) to the intervention plan.
  6. The teacher knows what the next steps are when a
    student fails to make adequate progress with Tier
    1 interventions alone.

5
(No Transcript)
6
RTI Intervention Key Concepts
7
Essential Elements of Any Academic or Behavioral
Intervention (Treatment) Strategy
  • Method of delivery (Who or what delivers the
    treatment?)Examples include teachers,
    paraprofessionals, parents, volunteers,
    computers.
  • Treatment component (What makes the intervention
    effective?)Examples include activation of prior
    knowledge to help the student to make meaningful
    connections between known and new material
    guide practice (e.g., Paired Reading) to increase
    reading fluency periodic review of material to
    aid student retention.

8
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Core Instruction. Those instructional strategies
    that are used routinely with all students in a
    general-education setting are considered core
    instruction. High-quality instruction is
    essential and forms the foundation of RTI
    academic support. NOTE While it is important to
    verify that good core instructional practices are
    in place for a struggling student, those routine
    practices do not count as individual student
    interventions.

9
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Intervention. An academic intervention is a
    strategy used to teach a new skill, build fluency
    in a skill, or encourage a child to apply an
    existing skill to new situations or settings. An
    intervention can be thought of as a set of
    actions that, when taken, have demonstrated
    ability to change a fixed educational trajectory
    (Methe Riley-Tillman, 2008 p. 37).

10
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Accommodation. An accommodation is intended to
    help the student to fully access and participate
    in the general-education curriculum without
    changing the instructional content and without
    reducing the students rate of learning (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005). An accommodation is
    intended to remove barriers to learning while
    still expecting that students will master the
    same instructional content as their typical
    peers.
  • Accommodation example 1 Students are allowed to
    supplement silent reading of a novel by listening
    to the book on tape.
  • Accommodation example 2 For unmotivated
    students, the instructor breaks larger
    assignments into smaller chunks and providing
    students with performance feedback and praise for
    each completed chunk of assigned work (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005).

11
Teaching is giving it isnt taking away.
(Howell, Hosp Kurns, 2008 p. 356).


Source Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., Kurns, S.
(2008). Best practices in curriculum-based
evaluation. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best
practices in school psychology V (pp.349-362).
Bethesda, MD National Association of School
Psychologists..
12
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Modification. A modification changes the
    expectations of what a student is expected to
    know or dotypically by lowering the academic
    standards against which the student is to be
    evaluated. Examples of modifications
  • Giving a student five math computation problems
    for practice instead of the 20 problems assigned
    to the rest of the class
  • Letting the student consult course notes during a
    test when peers are not permitted to do so

13
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
14
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
15
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
  • This checklist summarizes the essential
    components of academic interventions. When
    preparing a students Tier 1, 2, or 3 academic
    intervention plan, use this document as a
    pre-flight checklist to ensure that the
    academic intervention is of high quality, is
    sufficiently strong to address the identified
    student problem, is fully understood and
    supported by the teacher, and can be implemented
    with integrity. NOTE While the checklist refers
    to the teacher as the interventionist, it can
    also be used as a guide to ensure the quality of
    interventions implemented by non-instructional
    personnel, adult volunteers, parents, and peer
    (student) tutors.

16
Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio
The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981). The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981). The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981).
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Time Allocated. The time set aside for the intervention is appropriate for the type and level of student problem (Burns Gibbons, 2008 Kratochwill, Clements Kalymon, 2007). When evaluating whether the amount of time allocated is adequate, consider Length of each intervention session. Frequency of sessions (e.g.., daily, 3 times per week) Duration of intervention period (e.g., 6 instructional weeks)
? Student-Teacher Ratio. The student receives sufficient contact from the teacher or other person delivering the intervention to make that intervention effective. NOTE Generally, supplemental intervention groups should be limited to 6-7 students (Burns Gibbons, 2008).
17
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem
Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided. Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided. Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Problem Definition. The student academic problem(s) to be addressed in the intervention are defined in clear, specific, measureable terms (Bergan, 1995 Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). The full problem definition describes Conditions. Describe the environmental conditions or task demands in place when the academic problem is observed. Problem Description. Describe the actual observable academic behavior in which the student is engaged. Include rate, accuracy, or other quantitative information of student performance. Typical or Expected Level of Performance. Provide a typical or expected performance criterion for this skill or behavior. Typical or expected academic performance can be calculated using a variety of sources,
18
(No Transcript)
19
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.)
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Appropriate Target. Selected intervention(s) are appropriate for the identified student problem(s) (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008). TIP Use the Instructional Hierarchy (Haring et al., 1978) to select academic interventions according to the four stages of learning Acquisition. The student has begun to learn how to complete the target skill correctly but is not yet accurate in the skill. Interventions should improve accuracy. Fluency. The student is able to complete the target skill accurately but works slowly. Interventions should increase the students speed of responding (fluency) as well as to maintain accuracy. Generalization. The student may have acquired the target skill but does not typically use it in the full range of appropriate situations or settings. Or the student may confuse the target skill with similar skills. Interventions should get the student to use the skill in the widest possible range of settings and situations, or to accurately discriminate between the target skill and similar skills. Adaptation. The student is not yet able to modify or adapt an existing skill to fit novel task-demands or situations. Interventions should help the student to identify key concepts or elements from previously learned skills that can be adapted to the new demands or situations.
20
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.)
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Cant Do/Wont Do Check. The teacher has determined whether the student problem is primarily a skill or knowledge deficit (cant do) or whether student motivation plays a main or supporting role in academic underperformance (wont do). If motivation appears to be a significant factor contributing to the problem, the intervention plan includes strategies to engage the student (e.g., high interest learning activities rewards/incentives increased student choice in academic assignments, etc.) (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005 Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
21
Activity Matching the Intervention to the
Student Problem
  • Consider these critical aspects of academic
    intervention
  • Clear and specific problem-identification
    statement (Conditions, Problem Description,
    Typical/Expected Level of Performance).
  • Appropriate intervention target (e.g., selected
    intervention is appropriately matched to
    Acquisition, Fluency, Generalization, or
    Adaptation phase of Instructional Hierarchy).
  • Cant Do/Wont Do Check (Clarification of whether
    motivation plays a significant role in student
    academic underperformance).
  • What questions do you have about applying any of
    these concepts when planning classroom
    interventions?

22
Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements
These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention. These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention. These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Explicit Instruction. Student skills have been broken down into manageable and deliberately sequenced steps and the teacher provided overt strategies for students to learn and practice new skills (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008, p.1153).
? Appropriate Level of Challenge. The student experienced sufficient success in the academic task(s) to shape learning in the desired direction as well as to maintain student motivation (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008).
? Active Engagement. The intervention ensures that the student is engaged in active accurate responding (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005).at a rate frequent enough to capture student attention and to optimize effective learning.
? Performance Feedback. The student receives prompt performance feedback about the work completed (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008).
? Maintenance of Academic Standards. If the intervention includes any accommodations to better support the struggling learner (e.g., preferential seating, breaking a longer assignment into smaller chunks), those accommodations do not substantially lower the academic standards against which the student is to be evaluated and are not likely to reduce the students rate of learning (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005).
23
Activity Incorporating Effective Instructional
Elements
  • Think about the effective instructional elements
    reviewed in this workshop.
  • How can teachers ensure that all effective
    instructional elements are included in academic
    interventions?

Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Explicit Instruction.
? Appropriate Level of Challenge.
? Active Engagement..
? Performance Feedback.
? Maintenance of Academic Standards.
24
Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support
The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention. The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention. The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Teacher Responsibility. The teacher understands his or her responsibility to implement the academic intervention(s) with integrity.
? Teacher Acceptability. The teacher states that he or she finds the academic intervention feasible and acceptable for the identified student problem.
? Step-by-Step Intervention Script. The essential steps of the intervention are written as an intervention script--a series of clearly described stepsto ensure teacher understanding and make implementation easier (Hawkins, Morrison, Musti-Rao Hawkins, 2008).
? Intervention Training. If the teacher requires training to carry out the intervention, that training has been arranged.
? Intervention Elements Negotiable vs. Non-Negotiable. The teacher knows all of the steps of the intervention. Additionally, the teacher knows which of the intervention steps are non-negotiable (they must be completed exactly as designed) and which are negotiable (the teacher has some latitude in how to carry out those steps) (Hawkins, Morrison, Musti-Rao Hawkins, 2008).
? Assistance With the Intervention. If the intervention cannot be implemented as designed for any reason (e.g., student absence, lack of materials, etc.), the teacher knows how to get assistance quickly to either fix the problem(s) to the current intervention or to change the intervention.
25
Activity Verifying Teacher Understanding
Providing Teacher Support
  • In your teams
  • Review the checklist for verifying that teachers
    understand all elements of the intervention and
    actively support its use.
  • How will your school ensure that teachers will
    understand and support academic interventions
    designed to be implemented in the classroom?

Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support
Critical Item? Intervention Element
? Teacher Responsibility
? Teacher Acceptability.
? Step-by-Step Intervention Script.
? Intervention Training.
? Intervention Elements Negotiable vs. Non-Negotiable
? Assistance With the Intervention
26
Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data
Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Intervention Documentation. The teacher understands and can manage all documentation required for this intervention (e.g., maintaining a log of intervention sessions, etc.).
? Checkup Date. Before the intervention begins, a future checkup date is selected to review the intervention to determine if it is successful. Time elapsing between the start of the intervention and the checkup date should be short enough to allow a timely review of the intervention but long enough to give the school sufficient time to judge with confidence whether the intervention worked.
? Baseline. Before the intervention begins, the teacher has collected information about the students baseline level of performance in the identified area(s) of academic concern (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
? Goal. Before the intervention begins, the teacher has set a specific goal for predicted student improvement to use as a minimum standard for success (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). The goal is the expected student outcome by the checkup date if the intervention is successful.
? Progress-Monitoring. During the intervention, the teacher collects progress-monitoring data of sufficient quality and at a sufficient frequency to determine at the checkup date whether that intervention is successful (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
27
Activity Documenting the Intervention
Collecting Data
  • In your teams
  • Consider the elements of intervention
    documentation, data collection, and data
    interpretation discussed here.
  • What steps can your school take to make sure
    that data have a central focus when
    interventionsare planned and implemented?

Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Intervention Documentation.
? Checkup Date.
? Baseline.
? Goal.
? Progress-Monitoring.
28
References
  • Bergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a
    problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of
    Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2),
    111-123.
  • Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
    Implementing response-to-intervention in
    elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
    York.
  • Burns, M. K., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Boice, C. H.
    (2008). Best practices in intensive academic
    interventions. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.),
    Best practices in school psychology V
    (pp.1151-1162). Bethesda, MD National
    Association of School Psychologists.
  • Haring, N.G., Lovitt, T.C., Eaton, M.D.,
    Hansen, C.L. (1978). The fourth R Research in
    the classroom. Columbus, OH Charles E. Merrill
    Publishing Co.
  • Hawkins, R. O., Morrison, J. Q., Musti-Rao, S.,
    Hawkins, J. A. (2008). Treatment integrity for
    academic interventions in real- world settings.
    School Psychology Forum, 2(3), 1-15.
  • Kratochwill, T. R., Clements, M. A., Kalymon,
    K. M. (2007). Response to intervention
    Conceptual and methodological issues in
    implementation. In Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K.,
    VanDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.), Handbook of
    response to intervention The science and
    practice of assessment and intervention. New
    York Springer.
  • Skinner, C. H., Pappas, D. N., Davis, K. A.
    (2005). Enhancing academic engagement Providing
    opportunities for responding and influencing
    students to choose to respond. Psychology in the
    Schools, 42, 389-403.
  • Witt, J. C., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Gilbertson,
    D. (2004). Troubleshooting behavioral
    interventions. A systematic process for finding
    and eliminating problems. School Psychology
    Review, 33, 363-383. 
  • Yeaton, W. M. Sechrest, L. (1981). Critical
    dimensions in the choice and maintenance of
    successful treatments Strength, integrity, and
    effectiveness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
    Psychology, 49, 156-167.

29
RTI Assumption Struggling Students Are Typical
Until Proven Otherwise
  • RTI logic assumes that
  • A student who begins to struggle in general
    education is typical, and that
  • It is general educations responsibility to find
    the instructional strategies that will unlock the
    students learning potential
  • Only when the student shows through
    well-documented interventions that he or she has
    failed to respond to intervention does RTI
    begin to investigate the possibility that the
    student may have a learning disability or other
    special education condition.

30
School Instructional Time The Irreplaceable
Resource
  • In the average school system, there are 330
    minutes in the instructional day, 1,650 minutes
    in the instructional week, and 56,700 minutes in
    the instructional year. Except in unusual
    circumstances, these are the only minutes we have
    to provide effective services for students. The
    number of years we have to apply these minutes is
    fixed. Therefore, each minute counts and schools
    cannot afford to support inefficient models of
    service delivery. p. 177

Source Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon,
D. N., Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 177-193).
31
RTI Best Practicesin MathematicsInterventionsJ
im Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
32
National Mathematics Advisory Panel Report13
March 2008
33
Math Advisory Panel Report athttp//www.ed.gov/
mathpanel
34
2008 National Math Advisory Panel Report
Recommendations
  • The areas to be studied in mathematics from
    pre-kindergarten through eighth grade should be
    streamlined and a well-defined set of the most
    important topics should be emphasized in the
    early grades. Any approach that revisits topics
    year after year without bringing them to closure
    should be avoided.
  • Proficiency with whole numbers, fractions, and
    certain aspects of geometry and measurement are
    the foundations for algebra. Of these, knowledge
    of fractions is the most important foundational
    skill not developed among American students.
  • Conceptual understanding, computational and
    procedural fluency, and problem solving skills
    are equally important and mutually reinforce each
    other. Debates regarding the relative importance
    of each of these components of mathematics are
    misguided.
  • Students should develop immediate recall of
    arithmetic facts to free the working memory for
    solving more complex problems.

Source National Math Panel Fact Sheet. (March
2008). Retrieved on March 14, 2008, from
http//www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/rep
ort/final-factsheet.html
35
An RTI Challenge Limited Research to Support
Evidence-Based Math Interventions
  • in contrast to reading, core math programs
    that are supported by research, or that have been
    constructed according to clear research-based
    principles, are not easy to identify. Not only
    have exemplary core programs not been identified,
    but also there are no tools available that we
    know of that will help schools analyze core math
    programs to determine their alignment with clear
    research-based principles. p. 459

Source Clarke, B., Baker, S., Chard, D.
(2008). Best practices in mathematics assessment
and intervention with elementary students. In A.
Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in
school psychology V (pp. 453-463).
36
Math Intervention Planning Some Challenges for
Elementary RTI Teams
  • There is no national consensus about what math
    instruction should look like in elementary
    schools
  • Schools may not have consistent expectations for
    the best practice math instruction strategies
    that teachers should routinely use in the
    classroom
  • Schools may not have a full range of assessment
    methods to collect baseline and progress
    monitoring data on math difficulties

37
Profile of Students With Significant Math
Difficulties
  • Spatial organization. The student commits errors
    such as misaligning numbers in columns in a
    multiplication problem or confusing
    directionality in a subtraction problem (and
    subtracting the original numberminuendfrom the
    figure to be subtracted (subtrahend).
  • Visual detail. The student misreads a
    mathematical sign or leaves out a decimal or
    dollar sign in the answer.
  • Procedural errors. The student skips or adds a
    step in a computation sequence. Or the student
    misapplies a learned rule from one arithmetic
    procedure when completing another, different
    arithmetic procedure.
  • Inability to shift psychological set. The
    student does not shift from one operation type
    (e.g., addition) to another (e.g.,
    multiplication) when warranted.
  • Graphomotor. The students poor handwriting can
    cause him or her to misread handwritten numbers,
    leading to errors in computation.
  • Memory. The student fails to remember a specific
    math fact needed to solve a problem. (The student
    may KNOW the math fact but not be able to recall
    it at point of performance.)
  • Judgment and reasoning. The student comes up with
    solutions to problems that are clearly
    unreasonable. However, the student is not able
    adequately to evaluate those responses to gauge
    whether they actually make sense in context.

Source Rourke, B. P. (1993). Arithmetic
disabilities, specific otherwise A
neuropsychological perspective. Journal of
Learning Disabilities, 26, 214-226.
38
Mathematics is made of 50 percent formulas, 50
percent proofs, and 50 percent imagination.
Anonymous
39
The Elements of Mathematical Proficiency What
the Experts Say
40
(No Transcript)
41
Five Strands of Mathematical Proficiency
  1. Understanding Comprehending mathematical
    concepts, operations, and relations--knowing what
    mathematical symbols, diagrams, and procedures
    mean.
  2. Computing Carrying out mathematical procedures,
    such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, and
    dividing numbers flexibly, accurately,
    efficiently, and appropriately.
  3. Applying Being able to formulate problems
    mathematically and to devise strategies for
    solving them using concepts and procedures
    appropriately.

Source National Research Council. (2002).
Helping children learn mathematics. Mathematics
Learning Study Committee, J. Kilpatrick J.
Swafford, Editors, Center for Education, Division
of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.
Washington, DC National Academy Press.
42
Five Strands of Mathematical Proficiency (Cont.)
  1. Reasoning Using logic to explain and justify a
    solution to a problem or to extend from something
    known to something less known.
  2. Engaging Seeing mathematics as sensible, useful,
    and doableif you work at itand being willing to
    do the work.

Source National Research Council. (2002).
Helping children learn mathematics. Mathematics
Learning Study Committee, J. Kilpatrick J.
Swafford, Editors, Center for Education, Division
of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.
Washington, DC National Academy Press.
43
Five Strands of Mathematical Proficiency (NRC,
2002)
  • Table Activity Evaluate Your Schools Math
    Proficiency
  • As a group, review the National Research Council
    Strands of Math Proficiency.
  • Which strand do you feel that your school /
    curriculum does the best job of helping students
    to attain proficiency?
  • Which strand do you feel that your school /
    curriculum should put the greatest effort to
    figure out how to help students to attain
    proficiency?
  • Be prepared to share your results.
  • Understanding Comprehending mathematical
    concepts, operations, and relations--knowing what
    mathematical symbols, diagrams, and procedures
    mean.
  • Computing Carrying out mathematical procedures,
    such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, and
    dividing numbers flexibly, accurately,
    efficiently, and appropriately.
  • Applying Being able to formulate problems
    mathematically and to devise strategies for
    solving them using concepts and procedures
    appropriately.
  • Reasoning Using logic to explain and justify a
    solution to a problem or to extend from something
    known to something less known.
  • Engaging Seeing mathematics as sensible, useful,
    and doableif you work at itand being willing to
    do the work.

44
Math Computation InterventionsJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
45
"Arithmetic is being able to count up to twenty
without taking off your shoes." Anonymous
46
Benefits of Automaticity of Arithmetic
Combinations (Gersten, Jordan, Flojo, 2005)
  • There is a strong correlation between poor
    retrieval of arithmetic combinations (math
    facts) and global math delays
  • Automatic recall of arithmetic combinations frees
    up student cognitive capacity to allow for
    understanding of higher-level problem-solving
  • By internalizing numbers as mental constructs,
    students can manipulate those numbers in their
    head, allowing for the intuitive understanding of
    arithmetic properties, such as associative
    property and commutative property

Source Gersten, R., Jordan, N. C., Flojo, J.
R. (2005). Early identification and interventions
for students with mathematics difficulties.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 293-304.
47
Cover-Copy-Compare Math Computational
Fluency-Building Intervention
  • The student is given sheet with correctly
    completed math problems in left column and index
    card. For each problem, the student
  • studies the model
  • covers the model with index card
  • copies the problem from memory
  • solves the problem
  • uncovers the correctly completed model to check
    answer

Source Skinner, C.H., Turco, T.L., Beatty, K.L.,
Rasavage, C. (1989). Cover, copy, and compare
A method for increasing multiplication
performance. School Psychology Review, 18,
412-420.
48
Math Computation Problem Interspersal Technique
  • The teacher first identifies the range of
    challenging problem-types (number problems
    appropriately matched to the students current
    instructional level) that are to appear on the
    worksheet.
  • Then the teacher creates a series of easy
    problems that the students can complete very
    quickly (e.g., adding or subtracting two 1-digit
    numbers). The teacher next prepares a series of
    student math computation worksheets with easy
    computation problems interspersed at a fixed rate
    among the challenging problems.
  • If the student is expected to complete the
    worksheet independently, challenging and easy
    problems should be interspersed at a 11 ratio
    (that is, every challenging problem in the
    worksheet is preceded and/or followed by an
    easy problem).
  • If the student is to have the problems read aloud
    and then asked to solve the problems mentally and
    write down only the answer, the items should
    appear on the worksheet at a ratio of 3
    challenging problems for every easy one (that
    is, every 3 challenging problems are preceded
    and/or followed by an easy one).

Source Hawkins, J., Skinner, C. H., Oliver, R.
(2005). The effects of task demands and additive
interspersal ratios on fifth-grade students
mathematics accuracy. School Psychology Review,
34, 543-555..
49
Developing Student Metacognitive AbilitiesJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
50
Importance of Metacognitive Strategy Use
  • Metacognitive processes focus on self-awareness
    of cognitive knowledge that is presumed to be
    necessary for effective problem solving, and they
    direct and regulate cognitive processes and
    strategies during problem solvingThat is,
    successful problem solvers, consciously or
    unconsciously (depending on task demands), use
    self-instruction, self-questioning, and
    self-monitoring to gain access to strategic
    knowledge, guide execution of strategies, and
    regulate use of strategies and problem-solving
    performance. p. 231

Source Montague, M. (1992). The effects of
cognitive and metacognitive strategy instruction
on the mathematical problem solving of middle
school students with learning disabilities.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, 230-248.
51
Elements of Metacognitive Processes
  • Self-instruction helps students to identify and
    direct the problem-solving strategies prior to
    execution. Self-questioning promotes internal
    dialogue for systematically analyzing problem
    information and regulating execution of cognitive
    strategies. Self-monitoring promotes appropriate
    use of specific strategies and encourages
    students to monitor general performance.
    Emphasis added. p. 231

Source Montague, M. (1992). The effects of
cognitive and metacognitive strategy instruction
on the mathematical problem solving of middle
school students with learning disabilities.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, 230-248.
52
Combining Cognitive Metacognitive Strategies to
Assist Students With Mathematical Problem Solving
  • Solving an advanced math problem independently
    requires the coordination of a number of complex
    skills. The following strategies combine both
    cognitive and metacognitive elements (Montague,
    1992 Montague Dietz, 2009). First, the student
    is taught a 7-step process for attacking a math
    word problem (cognitive strategy). Second, the
    instructor trains the student to use a three-part
    self-coaching routine for each of the seven
    problem-solving steps (metacognitive strategy).

53
Cognitive Portion of Combined Problem Solving
Approach
  • In the cognitive part of this multi-strategy
    intervention, the student learns an explicit
    series of steps to analyze and solve a math
    problem. Those steps include
  • Reading the problem. The student reads the
    problem carefully, noting and attempting to clear
    up any areas of uncertainly or confusion (e.g.,
    unknown vocabulary terms).
  • Paraphrasing the problem. The student restates
    the problem in his or her own words.
  • Drawing the problem. The student creates a
    drawing of the problem, creating a visual
    representation of the word problem.
  • Creating a plan to solve the problem. The student
    decides on the best way to solve the problem and
    develops a plan to do so.
  • Predicting/Estimating the answer. The student
    estimates or predicts what the answer to the
    problem will be. The student may compute a quick
    approximation of the answer, using rounding or
    other shortcuts.
  • Computing the answer. The student follows the
    plan developed earlier to compute the answer to
    the problem.
  • Checking the answer. The student methodically
    checks the calculations for each step of the
    problem. The student also compares the actual
    answer to the estimated answer calculated in a
    previous step to ensure that there is general
    agreement between the two values.

54
Metacognitive Portion of Combined Problem Solving
Approach
  • The metacognitive component of the intervention
    is a three-part routine that follows a sequence
    of Say, Ask, Check. For each of the 7
    problem-solving steps reviewed above
  • The student first self-instructs by stating, or
    saying, the purpose of the step (Say).
  • The student next self-questions by asking what
    he or she intends to do to complete the step
    (Ask).
  • The student concludes the step by
    self-monitoring, or checking, the successful
    completion of the step (Check).

55
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
56
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
57
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
58
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
59
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
60
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
61
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
62
Applied Problems Pop Quiz
  • Q To move their armies, the Romans built over
    50,000 miles of roads. Imagine driving all those
    miles! Now imagine driving those miles in the
    first gasoline-driven car that has only three
    wheels and could reach a top speed of about 10
    miles per hour.
  • For safety's sake, let's bring along a spare
    tire. As you drive the 50,000 miles, you rotate
    the spare with the other tires so that all four
    tires get the same amount of wear. Can you figure
    out how many miles of wear each tire accumulates?

Directions As a team, read the following
problem. At your tables, apply the 7-step
problem-solving (cognitive) strategy to complete
the problem. As you complete each step of the
problem, apply the Say-Ask-Check metacognitive
sequence. Try to complete the entire 7 steps
within the time allocated for this exercise.
  • 7-Step Problem-SolvingProcess
  • Reading the problem.
  • Paraphrasing the problem.
  • Drawing the problem.
  • Creating a plan to solve the problem.
  • Predicting/Estimat-ing the answer.
  • Computing the answer.
  • Checking the answer.

A Since the four wheels of the three-wheeled
car share the journey equally, simply take
three-fourths of the total distance (50,000
miles) and you'll get 37,500 miles for each
tire.
Source The Math Forum _at_ Drexel Critical
Thinking Puzzles/Spare My Brain. Retrieved from
http//mathforum.org/k12/k12puzzles/critical.think
ing/puzz2.html
63
RTI Writing Interventions Jim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
64
(No Transcript)
65
  • "If all the grammarians in the world were placed
    end to end, it would be a good thing."
  • Oscar Wilde

66
Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing next
Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved
from http//www.all4ed.org/files/WritingNext.pdf
67
The Effect of Grammar Instruction as an
Independent Activity
  • Grammar instruction in the studies reviewed
    for the Writing Next report involved the
    explicit and systematic teaching of the parts of
    speech and structure of sentences. The
    meta-analysis found an effect for this type of
    instruction for students across the full range of
    ability, but surprisingly, this effect was
    negativeSuch findings raise serious questions
    about some educators enthusiasm for traditional
    grammar instruction as a focus of writing
    instruction for adolescents.Overall, the
    findings on grammar instruction suggest that,
    although teaching grammar is important,
    alternative procedures, such as sentence
    combining, are more effective than traditional
    approaches for improving the quality of students
    writing. p. 21

Source Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing
next Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education.
68
  • Elements of effective writing instruction for
    adolescents
  • Writing Process (Effect Size 0.82) Students
    are taught a process for planning, revising, and
    editing.
  • Summarizing (Effect Size 0.82) Students are
    taught methods to identify key points, main ideas
    from readings to write summaries of source texts.
  • Cooperative Learning Activities (Collaborative
    Writing) (Effect Size 0.75) Students are
    placed in pairs or groups with learning
    activities that focus on collaborative use of the
    writing process.
  • Goal-Setting (Effect Size 0.70) Students set
    specific product goals for their writing and
    then check their attainment of those
    self-generated goals.

Source Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing
next Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved
from http//www.all4ed.org/files/WritingNext.pdf
69
  • Elements of effective writing instruction for
    adolescents
  • Writing Processors (Effect Size 0.55) Students
    have access to computers/word processors in the
    writing process.
  • Sentence Combining (Effect Size 0.50) Students
    take part in instructional activities that
    require the combination or embedding of simpler
    sentences (e.g., Noun-Verb-Object) to generate
    more advanced, complex sentences.
  • Prewriting (Effect Size 0.32) Students learn
    to select, develop, or organize ideas to
    incorporate into their writing by participating
    in structured pre-writing activities.
  • Inquiry Activities (Effect Size 0.32) Students
    become actively engaged researchers, collecting
    and analyzing information to guide the ideas and
    content for writing assignments.

Source Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing
next Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved
from http//www.all4ed.org/files/WritingNext.pdf
70
  • Elements of effective writing instruction for
    adolescents
  • Process Writing (Effect Size 0.32) Writing
    instruction is taught in a workshop format that
    stresses extended writing opportunities,
    writing for authentic audiences, personalized
    instruction, and cycles of writing (Graham
    Perin, 2007 p. 4).
  • Use of Writing Models (Effect Size 0.25)
    Students read and discuss models of good writing
    and use them as exemplars for their own writing.
  • Writing to Learn Content (Effect Size 0.23)
    The instructor incorporates writing activities as
    a means to have students learn content material.

Source Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing
next Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved
from http//www.all4ed.org/files/WritingNext.pdf
71
  • "The difference between the right word and the
    almost right word is the difference between
    lightning and the lightning bug."
  • Mark Twain

72
  • "Your manuscript is both good and original. But
    the part that is good is not original, and the
    part that is original is not good."
  • Samuel Johnson

73
Use Selective Proofreading With Highlighting of
Errors
  • To prevent struggling writers from becoming
    overwhelmed by teacher proofreading corrections,
    select only 1 or 2 proofreading areas when
    correcting a writing assignment.
  • Create a student writing skills checklist that
    inventories key writing competencies (e.g.,
    grammar/syntax, spelling, vocabulary, etc.).
  • For each writing assignment, announce to students
    that you will grade the assignment for overall
    content but will make proofreading corrections on
    only 1-2 areas chosen from the writing skills
    checklist. (Select different proofreading targets
    for each assignment matched to common writing
    weaknesses in your classroom.)

74
Use Selective Proofreading With Highlighting of
Errors Cont.
  • To prevent cluttering the students paper with
    potentially discouraging teacher comments and
    editing marks
  • underline problems in the student text with a
    highlighter and
  • number the highlighted errors sequentially at the
    left margin of the student paper.
  • write teacher comments on a separate feedback
    sheet to explain the writing errors. Identify
    each comment with the matching error-number from
    the left margin of the students worksheet.
  • TIP Have students use this method when
    proofreading their own text.

75
Selective Proofreading With Highlighting of
Errors
Jimmy Smith
Dec 1, 2006
Mrs. Richman
76
  • "A ratio of failures is built into the process
    of writing. The wastebasket has evolved for a
    reason."
  • Margaret Atwood

77
Sentence Combining
  • Students with poor writing skills often write
    sentences that lack syntactic maturity. Their
    sentences often follow a simple, stereotyped
    format. A promising approach to teach students
    use of diverse sentence structures is through
    sentence combining. In sentence combining,
    students are presented with kernel sentences and
    given explicit instruction in how to weld these
    kernel sentences into more diverse sentence types
    either
  • by using connecting words to combine multiple
    sentences into one or
  • by isolating key information from an otherwise
    superfluous sentence and embedding that important
    information into the base sentence.

Sources Saddler, B. (2005). Sentence combining
A sentence-level writing intervention. The
Reading Teacher, 58, 468-471. Strong, W. (1986).
Creative approaches to sentence combining.
Urbana, OL ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and
Communication Skill National Council of
Teachers of English.
78
Formatting Sentence Combining Examples
79
(No Transcript)
80
(No Transcript)
81
(No Transcript)
82
Team Activity Use of Sentence Combining as a
Writing Strategy Across Content Areas
  • Discuss the sentence-combining strategy discussed
    in this workshop.
  • Brainstorm ways that schools can promote the use
    of this strategy across content areas to
    encourage students to write with greater variety
    of sentence structure.

83
Reading Interventions toPromote Fluency
ComprehensionJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral
.org
84
Savvy Teachers Guide Reading Interventions That
Work (Wright, 2000)
85
Big Ideas in Beginning Reading
  • Phonemic Awareness The ability to hear and
    manipulate sounds in words.
  • Alphabetic Principle The ability to associate
    sounds with letters and use these sounds to form
    words.
  • Fluency with Text The effortless, automatic
    ability to read words in connected text.
  • Vocabulary The ability to understand (receptive)
    and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey
    meaning.
  • Comprehension The complex cognitive process
    involving the intentional interaction between
    reader and text to convey meaning.

Source Big ideas in beginning reading.
University of Oregon. Retrieved September 23,
2007, from http//reading.uoregon.edu/index.php
86
  • Building Reading Fluency

87
CBM Student Reading Samples What Difference
Does Fluency Make?
  • 3rd Grade 19 Words Per Minute
  • 3rd Grade 70 Words Per Minute
  • 3rd Grade 98 Words Per Minute

88
NRP Conclusions Regarding Importance of Oral
Reading Fluency
  • An extensive review of the literature
    indicates that classroom practices that
    encourage repeated oral reading with feedback
    and guidance leads to meaningful improvements in
    reading expertise for studentsfor good readers
    as well as those who are experiencing
    difficulties.-p. 3-3

89
Interventions forIncreasing Reading Fluency
  • Assisted Reading Practice
  • Listening Passage Preview (ListeningWhile
    Reading)
  • Paired Reading
  • Repeated Reading

90
  • The student reads aloud in tandem with an
    accomplished reader. At a student signal, the
    helping reader stops reading, while the student
    continues on. When the student commits a reading
    error, the helping reader resumes reading in
    tandem.

Paired Reading
91
(No Transcript)
92
Secondary-Level Tier 1 Intervention Case
ExamplesJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
93
(No Transcript)
94
Tier 1 Case Example Patricia Reading
Comprehension
95
Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Problem
  • A student, Patricia, struggled in her social
    studies class, particularly in understanding the
    course readings. Her teacher, Ms. Cardamone,
    decided that the problem was significant enough
    that the student required some individualized
    support.

96
Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Evidence
  • Student Interview. Ms. Cardamone met with
    Patricia to ask her questions about her
    difficulties with social studies content and
    assignments. Patricia said that when she reads
    the course text and other assigned readings, she
    doesnt have difficulty with the vocabulary but
    often realizes after reading half a page that she
    hasnt really understood what she has read.
    Sometimes she has to reread a page several times
    and that can be frustrating.

97
Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Evidence (Cont.)
  • Review of Records. Past teacher report card
    comments suggest that Patricia has had difficulty
    with reading comprehension tasks in earlier
    grades. She had received help in middle school in
    the reading lab, although there was no record of
    what specific interventions were tried in that
    setting.
  • Input from Other Teachers. Ms. Cardamone checked
    with other teachers who have Patricia in their
    classes. All expressed concern about Patricias
    reading comprehension skills. The English
    teacher noted that Patricia appears to have
    difficulty pulling the main idea from a passage,
    which limits her ability to extract key
    information from texts and to review that
    information for tests.
  •  

98
Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Intervention
  • Ms. Cardamone decided, based on the evidence
    collected, that Patricia would benefit from
    training in identifying the main idea from a
    passage, rather than trying to retain all the
    information presented in the text. She selected
    two simple interventions Question Generation and
    Text Lookback. She arranged to have Patricia meet
    with her during an open period to review these
    two strategies. During that meeting, Ms.
    Cardamone demonstrated how to use these
    strategies effectively with the social studies
    course text and other assigned readings.

99
  • Students are taught to boost their comprehension
    of expository passages by (1) locating the main
    idea or key ideas in the passage and (2)
    generating questions based on that information.

QuestionGeneration
http//www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/interve
ntions/rdngcompr/qgen.php
100
  • Text lookback is a simple strategy that students
    can use to boost their recall of expository prose
    by identifying questions that require information
    from the text and then looking back in the text
    in a methodical manner to locate that
    information.

Text Lookback
http//www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/interve
ntions/rdngcompr/txtlkbk.php
101
Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • Documentation and Goal-Setting
  • Ms Cardamone filled out a Tier 1 intervention
    plan for the student. On the plan, she listed
    interventions to be used, a checkup date (4
    instructional weeks), and data to be used to
    assess student progress.
  • Data Ms. Cardamone decided that she would rate
    the students grasp of text content in two ways
  • Student self-rating (1-3 scale 1dont
    understand 3 understand well)
  • Quiz grades.
  • She collected baseline on both and set a goal for
    improvement.

102
(No Transcript)
103
Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Outcome
  • When the intervention had been in place for 4
    weeks, Ms. Cardamone noted that Patricia appeared
    to have a somewhat better grasp of course content
    and expressed a greater understanding of material
    from the text.
  • She shared her intervention ideas with other
    teachers working with Patricia. Because
    Patricias self-ratings of reading comprehension
    and quiz grades met the goals after 4 weeks, Ms.
    Cardamone decided to continue the intervention
    plan with the student without changes.

104
END
105
Building Teacher Capacity to Deliver Tier 1
Interventions An 8-Step Checklist Jim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
106
(No Transcript)
107
(No Transcript)
108
(No Transcript)
109
(No Transcript)
110
(No Transcript)
111
(No Transcript)
112
(No Transcript)
113
(No Transcript)
114
(No Transcript)
115
(No Transcript)
116
(No Transcript)
117
Team Activity Building Tier 1 Capacity
  • At your tables
  • Consider the eight steps to building Tier 1
    teacher capacity to deliver effective classroom
    interventions.
  • Discuss the strengths and challenges that your
    school or district presents in promoting
    classroom teachers appropriate and effective use
    of Tier 1 interventions.
  • Be prepared to share your discussion with the
    larger group!

118
RTI An Overview for EducatorsJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
119
RTI Assumption Struggling Students Are Typical
Until Proven Otherwise
  • RTI logic assumes that
  • A student who begins to struggle in general
    education is typical, and that
  • It is general educations responsibility to find
    the instructional strategies that will unlock the
    students learning potential
  • Only when the student shows through
    well-documented interventions that he or she has
    failed to respond to intervention does RTI
    begin to investigate the possibility that the
    student may have a learning disability or other
    special education condition.

120
Five Core Components of RTI Service Delivery
  1. Student services are arranged in a multi-tier
    model
  2. Data are collected to assess student baseline
    levels and to make decisions about student
    progress
  3. Interventions are evidence-based
  4. The procedural integrity of interventions is
    measured
  5. RTI is implemented and developed at the school-
    and district-level to be scalable and sustainable
    over time

Source Glover, T. A., DiPerna, J. C. (2007).
Service delivery for response to intervention
Core components and directions for future
research. School Psychology Review, 36, 526-540.
121
Target Student
Dual-Discrepancy RTI Model of Learning
Disability (Fuchs 2003)
122
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
123
Tier 1 Core Instruction
  • Tier I core instruction
  • Is universalavailable to all students.
  • Can be delivered within classrooms or throughout
    the school.
  • Is an ongoing process of developing strong
    classroom instructional practices to reach the
    largest number of struggling learners.
  • All children have access to Tier 1
    instruction/interventions. Teachers have the
    capability to use those strategies without
    requiring outside assistance.
  • Tier 1 instruction encompasses
  • The schools core curriculum.
  • Al published or teacher-made materials used to
    deliver that curriculum.
  • Teacher use of whole-group teaching
    management strategies.
  • Tier I instruction addresses this question Are
    strong classroom instructional strategies
    sufficient to help the student to achieve
    academic success?

124
Tier I (Classroom) Intervention
  • Tier 1 intervention
  • Targets red flag students who are not
    successful with core instruction alone.
  • Uses evidence-based strategies to address
    student academic or behavioral concerns.
  • Must be feasible to implement given the resources
    available in the classroom.
  • Tier I intervention addresses the question Does
    the student make adequate progress when the
    instructor uses specific academic or behavioral
    strategies matched to the presenting concern?

125
(No Transcript)
126
The Key RTI Role of Classroom Teachers as Tier 1
Interventionists
About PowerShow.com