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The RTI Model: An Overview for Educators Jim Wright


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Title: The RTI Model: An Overview for Educators Jim Wright

The RTI Model An Overview for EducatorsJim
School Instructional Time The Irreplaceable
  • In the average school system, there are 330
    minutes in the instructional day, 1,650 minutes
    in the instructional week, and 56,700 minutes in
    the instructional year. Except in unusual
    circumstances, these are the only minutes we have
    to provide effective services for students. The
    number of years we have to apply these minutes is
    fixed. Therefore, each minute counts and schools
    cannot afford to support inefficient models of
    service delivery. p. 177

Source Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon,
D. N., Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 177-193).
RTI Assumption Struggling Students Are Typical
Until Proven Otherwise
  • RTI logic assumes that
  • A student who begins to struggle in general
    education is typical, and that
  • It is general educations responsibility to find
    the instructional strategies that will unlock the
    students learning potential
  • Only when the student shows through
    well-documented interventions that he or she has
    failed to respond to intervention does RTI
    begin to investigate the possibility that the
    student may have a learning disability or other
    special education condition.

Five Core Components of RTI Service Delivery
  1. Student services are arranged in a multi-tier
  2. Data are collected to assess student baseline
    levels and to make decisions about student
  3. Interventions are evidence-based
  4. The procedural integrity of interventions is
  5. RTI is implemented and developed at the school-
    and district-level to be scalable and sustainable
    over time

Source Glover, T. A., DiPerna, J. C. (2007).
Service delivery for response to intervention
Core components and directions for future
research. School Psychology Review, 36, 526-540.
Target Student
Dual-Discrepancy RTI Model of Learning
Disability (Fuchs 2003)
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
Tier 1 Core Instruction
  • Tier I core instruction
  • Is universalavailable to all students.
  • Can be delivered within classrooms or throughout
    the school.
  • Is an ongoing process of developing strong
    classroom instructional practices to reach the
    largest number of struggling learners.
  • All children have access to Tier 1
    instruction/interventions. Teachers have the
    capability to use those strategies without
    requiring outside assistance.
  • Tier 1 instruction encompasses
  • The schools core curriculum.
  • Al published or teacher-made materials used to
    deliver that curriculum.
  • Teacher use of whole-group teaching
    management strategies.
  • Tier I instruction addresses this question Are
    strong classroom instructional strategies
    sufficient to help the student to achieve
    academic success?

Tier I (Classroom) Intervention
  • Tier 1 intervention
  • Targets red flag students who are not
    successful with core instruction alone.
  • Uses evidence-based strategies to address
    student academic or behavioral concerns.
  • Must be feasible to implement given the resources
    available in the classroom.
  • Tier I intervention addresses the question Does
    the student make adequate progress when the
    instructor uses specific academic or behavioral
    strategies matched to the presenting concern?

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Tier 2 Supplemental (Group-Based)
Interventions(Standard Treatment Protocol)
  • Tier 2 interventions are typically delivered in
    small-group format. About 15 of students in the
    typical school will require Tier 2/supplemental
    intervention support. Group size for Tier 2
    interventions is limited to 4-7 students.
    Students placed in Tier 2 interventions should
    have a shared profile of intervention need.
  • Programs or practices used in Tier 2
    interventions should be evidence-based.
  • The progress of students in Tier 2
    interventions are monitored at least 1-2 times
    per month.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
Group-Based Tier 2 Services How Much Time Should
Be Allocated?
  • Emerging guidelines drawn largely from reading
    research suggest that standard protocol
    interventions should consist of at least three to
    five 30-minute sessions per week, in a group size
    not to exceed 7 students. Standard protocol
    interventions should also supplement, rather than
    replace, core instruction taking place in the

Sources Burns, Al Otaiba, S. Torgesen, J.
(2007). Effects from intensive standardized
kindergarten and first-grade interventions for
the prevention of reading difficulties. In S. R.
Jimerson, M. K. Burns, A. M. VanDerHeyden
(Eds.), Response to intervention The science and
practice of assessment and intervention (pp.
212-222). National Reading Panel. (2000).
Teaching children to read An evidence-based
assessment of the scientific research literature
on reading and its implications for reading
instruction. Bethesda, MD National Institute of
Child Health Human Development, National
Institutes of Health.
Scheduling Elementary Tier 2 Interventions
Option 3 Floating RTIGradewide Shared
Schedule. Each grade has a scheduled RTI time
across classrooms. No two grades share the same
RTI time. Advantages are that outside providers
can move from grade to grade providing push-in or
pull-out services and that students can be
grouped by need across different teachers within
the grade.
Anyplace Elementary School RTI Daily Schedule
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade K
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 1
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 2
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 3
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Tier 3 Intensive Individualized Interventions
(Problem-Solving Model)
  • Tier 3 interventions are the most intensive
    offered in a school setting. About 5 of a
    general-education student population may qualify
    for Tier 3 supports. Typically, the RTI
    Problem-Solving Team meets to develop
    intervention plans for Tier 3 students.
  • Students qualify for Tier 3 interventions
  • they are found to have a large skill gap when
    compared to their class or grade peers and/or
  • They did not respond to interventions provided
    previously at Tiers 1 2.
  • Tier 3 interventions are provided daily for
    sessions of at least 30 minutes. The
    student-teacher ratio is flexible but should
    allow the student to receive intensive,
    individualized instruction. The academic or
    behavioral progress of students in Tier 3
    interventions is monitored at least weekly.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
NYSED RTI Guidance Memo April 2008
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The Regents policy framework for RtIDefines
RtI to minimally include Appropriate
instruction delivered to all students in the
general education class by qualified personnel.
Appropriate instruction in reading means
scientific research-based reading programs that
include explicit and systematic instruction in
phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary
development, reading fluency (including oral
reading skills) and reading comprehension
strategies.Screenings applied to all students
in the class to identify those students who are
not making academic progress at expected rates.
Instruction matched to student need with
increasingly intensive levels of targeted
intervention and instruction for students who do
not make satisfactory progress in their levels of
performance and/or in their rate of learning to
meet age or grade level standards.Repeated
assessments of student achievement which should
include curriculum based measures to determine if
interventions are resulting in student progress
toward age or grade level standards.The
application of information about the students
response to intervention to make educational
decisions about changes in goals, instruction
and/or services and the decision to make a
referral for special education programs and/or
Written notification to the parents when the
student requires an intervention beyond that
provided to all students in the general education
classroom that provides information about the
-amount and nature of student performance data
that will be collected and the general education
services that will be provided-strategies for
increasing the students rate of learning
and-parents right to request an evaluation for
special education programs and/or services.
The Regents policy framework for RtIDefines
RtI to minimally include Requires each school
district to establish a plan and policies for
implementing school-wide approaches and
prereferral interventions in order to remediate a
students performance prior to referral for
special education, which may include the RtI
process as part of a districts school-wide
approach. The school district must select and
define the specific structure and components of
its RtI program, including, but not limited to
the -criteria for determining the levels of
intervention to be provided to students, -types
of interventions, amount and nature of student
performance data to be collected, and -manner
and frequency for progress monitoring.
Recommended RTI Websites
  • New York State RTI Technical Assistance Center
  • National Center on RTI

RTI Secondary Schools Helping Struggling
Secondary Students Unique Challenges
  • Struggling learners in middle and high school
  • Have significant deficits in basic academic
  • Lack higher-level problem-solving strategies and
  • Present with issues of school motivation
  • Show social/emotional concerns that interfere
    with academics
  • Have difficulty with attendance
  • Are often in a process of disengaging from
    learning even as adults in school expect that
    those students will move toward being
    self-managing learners

Overlap Between Policy Pathways RTI Goals
Recommendations for Schools to Reduce Dropout
  • A range of high school learning options matched
    to the needs of individual learners different
    schools for different students
  • Strategies to engage parents
  • Individualized graduation plans
  • Early warning systems to identify students at
    risk of school failure
  • A range of supplemental services/intensive
    assistance strategies for struggling students
  • Adult advocates to work individually with at-risk
    students to overcome obstacles to school

Source Bridgeland, J. M., DiIulio, J. J.,
Morison, K. B. (2006). The silent epidemic
Perspectives of high school dropouts. Seattle,
WA Gates Foundation. Retrieved on May 4, 2008,
from http//
School Dropout as a Process, Not an Event
  • It is increasingly accepted that dropout is
    best conceptualized as a long-term process, not
    an instantaneous event however, most
    interventions are administered at a middle or
    high school level after problems are severe.

Source Jimerson, S., Reschly, A.L., Hess, R.
(2008). Best practices in increasing the
likelihood of school completion. In A. Thomas
J. Grimes (Eds). Best Practices in School
Psychology - 5th Ed (pp. 1085-1097). Bethesda,
MD National Association of School
Psychologists.. p.1090
What Are the Early Warning Flags of Student
  • A sample of 13,000 students in Philadelphia were
    tracked for 8 years. These early warning
    indicators were found to predict student drop-out
    in the sixth-grade year
  • Failure in English
  • Failure in math
  • Missing at least 20 of school days
  • Receiving an unsatisfactory behavior rating
    from at least one teacher

Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
What is the Predictive Power of These Early
Warning Flags?
Number of Early Warning Flags in Student Record Probability That Student Would Graduate
None 56
1 36
2 21
3 13
4 7
Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
Protective Factors Empowering Teachers
  • Some factors in students lives (such as family
    divorce, moving frequently, drug use, and poor
    teaching) lower the probability that these
    students will learn and/or get along with others.
    These are often referred to as risk factorsRisk
    factors do not assure student failure. Risk
    factors simply make the odds of failure greater.
    Aligning assessment and instruction allows
    teachersto introduce new factors into the
    students life that raise the probability of
    learning. These are often called protective
    factors since they protect against the risks
    associated with risk factorsThe use of
    protective factors to raise the probability of
    learning is often referred to as resilience.

Source Hosp, J. L. (2008). Best practices in
aligning academic assessment with instruction. In
A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in
school psychology V (pp.363-376). Bethesda, MD
National Association of School Psychologists.
The Purpose of RTI in Secondary Schools What
Students Should It Serve?
Secondary-Level Tier 1 Intervention Case
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Tier 1 Case Example Patricia Reading
Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Problem
  • A student, Patricia, struggled in her social
    studies class, particularly in understanding the
    course readings. Her teacher, Ms. Cardamone,
    decided that the problem was significant enough
    that the student required some individualized

Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Evidence
  • Student Interview. Ms. Cardamone met with
    Patricia to ask her questions about her
    difficulties with social studies content and
    assignments. Patricia said that when she reads
    the course text and other assigned readings, she
    doesnt have difficulty with the vocabulary but
    often realizes after reading half a page that she
    hasnt really understood what she has read.
    Sometimes she has to reread a page several times
    and that can be frustrating.

Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Evidence (Cont.)
  • Review of Records. Past teacher report card
    comments suggest that Patricia has had difficulty
    with reading comprehension tasks in earlier
    grades. She had received help in middle school in
    the reading lab, although there was no record of
    what specific interventions were tried in that
  • Input from Other Teachers. Ms. Cardamone checked
    with other teachers who have Patricia in their
    classes. All expressed concern about Patricias
    reading comprehension skills. The English
    teacher noted that Patricia appears to have
    difficulty pulling the main idea from a passage,
    which limits her ability to extract key
    information from texts and to review that
    information for tests.

Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Intervention
  • Ms. Cardamone decided, based on the evidence
    collected, that Patricia would benefit from
    training in identifying the main idea from a
    passage, rather than trying to retain all the
    information presented in the text. She selected
    two simple interventions Question Generation and
    Text Lookback. She arranged to have Patricia meet
    with her during an open period to review these
    two strategies. During that meeting, Ms.
    Cardamone demonstrated how to use these
    strategies effectively with the social studies
    course text and other assigned readings.

  • Students are taught to boost their comprehension
    of expository passages by (1) locating the main
    idea or key ideas in the passage and (2)
    generating questions based on that information.

  • Text lookback is a simple strategy that students
    can use to boost their recall of expository prose
    by identifying questions that require information
    from the text and then looking back in the text
    in a methodical manner to locate that

Text Lookback
Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • Documentation and Goal-Setting
  • Ms Cardamone filled out a Tier 1 intervention
    plan for the student. On the plan, she listed
    interventions to be used, a checkup date (4
    instructional weeks), and data to be used to
    assess student progress.
  • Data Ms. Cardamone decided that she would rate
    the students grasp of text content in two ways
  • Student self-rating (1-3 scale 1dont
    understand 3 understand well)
  • Quiz grades.
  • She collected baseline on both and set a goal for

(No Transcript)
Case Example Reading Comprehension
  • The Outcome
  • When the intervention had been in place for 4
    weeks, Ms. Cardamone noted that Patricia appeared
    to have a somewhat better grasp of course content
    and expressed a greater understanding of material
    from the text.
  • She shared her intervention ideas with other
    teachers working with Patricia. Because
    Patricias self-ratings of reading comprehension
    and quiz grades met the goals after 4 weeks, Ms.
    Cardamone decided to continue the intervention
    plan with the student without changes.

Tier 1 Case Example Justin Non-Compliance
Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Problem
  • Justin showed a pattern from the start of the
    school year of not complying with teacher
    requests in his English class. His teacher, Mr.
    Steubin, noted that when given a teacher
    directiveJustin would sometimes fail to comply.
    Justin would show no obvious signs of opposition
    but would sit passively or remain engaged in his
    current activity, as if ignoring the instructor.
    When no task demands were made on him, Justin
    was typically a quiet and somewhat distant
    student but otherwise appeared to fit into the
    class and show appropriate behavior.

Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Evidence
  • Student Interview. Mr. Steubin felt that he did
    not have a strong relationship with the student,
    so he asked the counselor to talk with Justin
    about why he might be non-compliant in English
    class. Justin told the counselor that he was
    bored in the class and just didnt like to write.
    When pressed by the counselor, Justin admitted
    that he could do the work in the class but chose
    not to.
  • Direct Observation. Mr. Steubin noted that Justin
    was less likely to comply with writing
    assignments than other in-class tasks. The
    likelihood that Justin would be non-compliant
    tended to go up if Mr. Steubin pushed him to
    comply in the presence of Justins peers. The
    odds that Justin would comply also appeared to
    increase when Mr. Steubin stated his request and
    walked away, rather than continuing to nag
    Justin to comply.

Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Evidence (Cont.)
  • Work Products. Mr. Steubin knew from the
    assignments that he did receive from Justin that
    the student had adequate writing skills. However,
    Justins compositions tended to be short, and
    ideas were not always as fully developed as they
    could beas Justin was doing the minimum to get
  • Input from Other Teachers. Mr. Steubin checked
    with other teachers who had Justin in their
    classes. The Spanish teacher had similar problems
    in getting Justin to comply but the science
    teacher generally found Justin to be a compliant
    and pleasant student. She noted that Justin
    seemed to really like hands-on activities and
    that, when potentially non-compliant, he
    responded well to gentle humor.

Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Intervention
  • Mr. Steubin realized that he tended to focus most
    of his attention on Justins non-compliance. So
    the students non compliance might be supported
    by teacher attention. OR the students compliant
    behaviors might be extinguished because Mr.
    Steubin did not pay attention to them.
  • The teacher decided instead that Justin needed to
    have appropriate consequences for non-compliance,
    balanced with incentives to engage in learning
    tasks. Additionally, Mr. Steubin elected to give
    the student attention at times that were NOT
    linked to non-compliance.

Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Intervention (Cont.)
  • Appropriate Consequences for Non-Compliance. Mr.
    Steubin adopted a new strategy to deal with
    Justins episodes of non-compliance. Mr. Steubin
    got agreement from Justins parents that the
    student could get access to privileges at home
    each day only if he had a good report from the
    teacher about complying with classroom requests.
    Whenever the student failed to comply within a
    reasonable time (1 minute) to a teacher request,
    Mr. Steubin would approach Justins desk and
    quietly restate the request as a two-part
    choice statement. He kept his verbal
    interactions brief and neutral in tone. As part
    of the choice statement, the teacher told
    Justin that if he did not comply, his parents
    would be emailed a negative report. If Justin
    still did not comply, Mr. Steubin would follow
    through later that day in sending the report of
    non-compliance to the parents.

Teacher Command Sequence Two-Part Choice
  • Make the request. Use simple, clear language
    that the student understands. If possible,
    phrase the request as a positive (do) statement,
    rather than a negative (dont) statement. (E.g.,
    Justin, please start your writing assignment
    now.) Wait a reasonable time for the student to
    comply (e.g., 1 minute)

Teacher Command Sequence Two-Part Choice
  • If the student fails to comply Repeat the
    request as a 2-part choice. Give the student
    two clear choices with clear consequences. Order
    the choices so that the student hears negative
    consequence as the first choice and the teacher
    request as the second choice. (E.g., Justin, I
    can email your parents to say that you wont do
    the class assignment or you can start the
    assignment now and not have a negative report go
    home. Its your choice.) Give the student a
    reasonable time to comply (e.g., 1 minute).

Teacher Command Sequence Two-Part Choice
  1. If the student fails to comply Impose the
    pre-selected negative consequence. As you impose
    the consequence, ignore student questions or
    complaints that appear intended to entangle you
    in a power struggle.

Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Intervention (Cont.)
  • Active Student Engagement. Mr. Steubin reasoned
    that he could probably better motivate the entire
    class by making sure that lessons were engaging.
    He made an extra effort to build lessons around
    topics of high interest to students, built in
    cooperative learning opportunities to engage
    students, and moved the lesson along at a brisk
    pace. The teacher also made real-world
    connections whenever he could between what was
    being taught in a lesson and ways that students
    could apply that knowledge or skill outside of
    school or in future situations.

Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Intervention (Cont.)
  • Teacher Attention (Non-Contingent). Mr. Steubin
    adopted the two-by-ten intervention (A. Mendler,
    2000) as a way to jumpstart a connection with
    Justin. The total time required for this strategy
    was 20 minutes across ten school days.

Sample Ideas to Improve Relationships With
Students The Two-By-Ten Intervention (Mendler,
  • Make a commitment to spend 2 minutes per day for
    10 consecutive days in building a relationship
    with the studentby talking about topics of
    interest to the student. Avoid discussing
    problems with the students behaviors or
    schoolwork during these times.

Source Mendler, A. N. (2000). Motivating
students who dont care. Bloomington, IN
National Educational Service.
Sample Ideas to Improve Relationships With
Students The Three-to-One Intervention (Sprick,
Borgmeier, Nolet, 2002)
  • Give positive attention or praise to problem
    students at least three times more frequently
    than you reprimand them. Give the student the
    attention or praise during moments when that
    student is acting appropriately. Keep track of
    how frequently you give positive attention and
    reprimands to the student.

Source Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., Nolet, V.
(2002). Prevention and management of behavior
problems in secondary schools. In M. A. Shinn, H.
M. Walker G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for
academic and behavior problems II Preventive and
remedial approaches (pp.373-401). Bethesda, MD
National Association of School Psychologists.
Case Example Non-Compliance
  • The Outcome
  • The strategies adopted by Mr. Steubin did not
    improve Justins level of compliance right away.
    Once the teacher had gone through the full ten
    days of the two by ten intervention, however,
    Mr. Steubin noticed that Justin made more eye
    contact with him and even joked occasionally. And
    the students rate of compliance then noticeably
    improvedbut still had a way to go.
  • Mr. Steubin kept in regular contact with Justins
    parents, who admitted about 8 days into the
    intervention that they were not as rigorous as
    they should be in preventing him from accessing
    privileges at home when he was non-compliant at
    school. When the teacher urged them to hold the
    line at home, they said that they would and did.
    Justins behavior improved as a result, to the
    point where his level of compliance was typical
    for the range of students in Mr. Steubins class.

Elementary Tier 1 Intervention Case ExampleJim
(No Transcript)
Tier 1 Case Example John Math Computation
Case Example Math Computation
  • The Problem
  • John is a fourth-grade student. His teacher, Mrs.
    Kennedy, is concerned that John appears to be
    much slower in completing math computation items
    than are his classmates.

Profile of Students With Significant Math
  • Spatial organization. The student commits errors
    such as misaligning numbers in columns in a
    multiplication problem or confusing
    directionality in a subtraction problem (and
    subtracting the original numberminuendfrom the
    figure to be subtracted (subtrahend).
  • Visual detail. The student misreads a
    mathematical sign or leaves out a decimal or
    dollar sign in the answer.
  • Procedural errors. The student skips or adds a
    step in a computation sequence. Or the student
    misapplies a learned rule from one arithmetic
    procedure when completing another, different
    arithmetic procedure.
  • Inability to shift psychological set. The
    student does not shift from one operation type
    (e.g., addition) to another (e.g.,
    multiplication) when warranted.
  • Graphomotor. The students poor handwriting can
    cause him or her to misread handwritten numbers,
    leading to errors in computation.
  • Memory. The student fails to remember a specific
    math fact needed to solve a problem. (The student
    may KNOW the math fact but not be able to recall
    it at point of performance.)
  • Judgment and reasoning. The student comes up with
    solutions to problems that are clearly
    unreasonable. However, the student is not able
    adequately to evaluate those responses to gauge
    whether they actually make sense in context.

Source Rourke, B. P. (1993). Arithmetic
disabilities, specific otherwise A
neuropsychological perspective. Journal of
Learning Disabilities, 26, 214-226.
Case Example Math Computation
  • Core Instruction
  • Johns school uses the Everyday Math curriculum
    (McGraw Hill/University of Chicago). In addition
    to the basic curriculum the series contains
    intervention exercises for students who need
    additional practice or remediation. As an
    extension of core instruction, his teacher works
    with a small group of children in her
    roomincluding John having them complete these
    practice exercises to boost their math
    computation fluency. While other children in this
    group appear to benefit from the assistance, John
    does not make noticeable gains in his computation

Case Example Math Computation
  • The Evidence
  • Mrs. Kennedy collects and reviews information
    that may be relevant to understanding Johns math
    computation concernTeacher Interview. Ms.
    Kennedy talks with Johns Grade 3 teacher from
    last year who confirms that John was slow in
    completing math facts in that setting as wellbut
    was accurate in his work and appeared motivated
    to do computation assignments.

Case Example Math Computation
  • The Evidence (Cont.)
  • Review of Records. When Mrs. Kennedy reviews
    Johns past report cards and other records from
    his cumulative file, she does not find any
    comments or other evidence that he displayed
    fine-motor delays that might interfere with
    computation fluency.
  • Work Products. Mrs. Kennedy reviews examples of
    Johns work on untimed math computation
    worksheets. Similar to observations shared by the
    3rd grade teacher, Mrs. Kennedy notes that Johns
    work is accurateeven though he did not complete
    as many problems as peers.

Case Example Math Computation
  • The Evidence (Cont.)
  • Direct Observation. Watching John complete a
    computation worksheet, his teacher notes that
    John counts on his fingers. This appears to slow
    down his computation speed considerably.

Case Example Math Computation
  • The Intervention
  • Mrs. Kennedy met with a consultant to create a
    Tier 1 (classroom) intervention plan for John.
    Both the consultant and teacher agreed that John
    was slow in math computation because he relied on
    finger counting to compute number problems rather
    than using the more efficient strategies of
    mental arithmetic and automatic recall of math

Case Example Math Computation
  • The Intervention (Cont.)
  • Mrs. Kennedy decided to institute a version of
    math computation time-drills as a technique to
    boost Johns computation speed and (she hoped)
    encourage him to give up the finger-counting
    habit. Each day, John would self-administer
    and score 3 separate three-minute time drills
    using multiplication facts.

Math Intervention Tier I or II Elementary
Secondary Self-Administered Math Fact Timed
Drills With Performance Self-Monitoring
  1. The student is given a math computation worksheet
    of a specific problem type, along with an answer
    key Academic Opportunity to Respond.
  2. The student consults his or her performance chart
    and notes previous performance. The student is
    encouraged to try to beat his or her most
    recent score.
  3. The student is given a pre-selected amount of
    time (e.g., 5 minutes) to complete as many
    problems as possible. The student sets a timer
    and works on the computation sheet until the
    timer rings. Active Student Responding
  4. The student checks his or her work, giving credit
    for each correct digit (digit of correct value
    appearing in the correct place-position in the
    answer). Performance Feedback
  5. The student records the days score of TOTAL
    number of correct digits on his or her personal
    performance chart.
  6. The student receives praise or a reward if he or
    she exceeds the most recently posted number of
    correct digits.

Application of Learn Unit framework from
Heward, W.L. (1996). Three low-tech strategies
for increasing the frequency of active student
response during group instruction. In R. Gardner,
D. M.S ainato, J. O. Cooper, T. E. Heron, W. L.
Heward, J. W. Eshleman, T. A. Grossi (Eds.),
Behavior analysis in education Focus on
measurably superior instruction (pp.283-320).
Pacific Grove, CABrooks/Cole.
Self-Administered Arithmetic Combination
DrillsExamples of Student Worksheet and Answer
Worksheets created using Math Worksheet
Generator. Available online athttp//www.interve
Self-Administered Arithmetic Combination Drills
Case Example Math Computation
  • Documentation and Goal-Setting
  • While meeting with the consultant, Mrs. Kennedy
    filled out a Tier 1 intervention plan for the
    student. On the plan, she listed interventions to
    be used, a checkup date (5 instructional weeks),
    and data to be used to assess student progress.
  • Mrs. Kennedy decided to monitor Johns
    computation progress once per week using a
    2-minute curriculum-based measurement math
    computation probe.

Case Example Math Computation
  • Goal-Setting
  • Mrs. Kennedys school used math computation
    guidelines that indicated that defined fluency in
    math computation at 40 correct digits (CDs) or
    more in two minutes.
  • At baseline, John was found to calculate an
    average of 18 CDs per 2 minutes.
  • Mrs. Kennedy decided to set a goal of 2
    additional CDs per week. Her intermediate goal
    was for John to compute at least 28 CDs per 2
    minutes at the end of five weeks.

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Case Example Math Computation
  • The Outcome
  • When the intervention had been in place for 5
    weeks, Mrs. Kennedy found that John had exceeded
    his intermediate goal of 28 CDs per 2 minutesthe
    actual number was 34 CDs.
  • Mrs. Kennedy judged that the intervention was
    effective. She decided to continue the
    intervention without changes for another five
    weeks with the expectation that John would reach
    his goal (40 CDs in 2 minutes) by that time.
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