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Title: RTI: Best Practices in Writing


1
RTI Best Practices in Writing Math
InterventionsJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.
org
2
RTI Best Practices in Writing and Math
Interventions
3
RTI Assumption Struggling Students Are Typical
Until Proven Otherwise
  • RTI logic assumes that
  • A student who begins to struggle in general
    education is typical, and that
  • It is general educations responsibility to find
    the instructional strategies that will unlock the
    students learning potential
  • Only when the student shows through
    well-documented interventions that he or she has
    failed to respond to intervention does RTI
    begin to investigate the possibility that the
    student may have a learning disability or other
    special education condition.

4
Use Time Resources Efficiently By Collecting
Information Only on Things That Are Alterable
  • Time should be spent thinking about things
    that the intervention team can influence through
    instruction, consultation, related services, or
    adjustments to the students program. These are
    things that are alterable.Beware of statements
    about cognitive processes that shift the focus
    from the curriculum and may even encourage
    questionable educational practice. They can also
    promote writing off a student because of the
    rationale that the students insufficient
    performance is due to a limited and fixed
    potential. p.359

Source Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., Kurns, S.
(2008). Best practices in curriculum-based
evaluation. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best
practices in school psychology V (pp.349-362).
Bethesda, MD National Association of School
Psychologists.
5
Five Core Components of RTI Service Delivery
  1. Student services are arranged in a multi-tier
    model
  2. Data are collected to assess student baseline
    levels and to make decisions about student
    progress
  3. Interventions are evidence-based
  4. The procedural integrity of interventions is
    measured
  5. RTI is implemented and developed at the school-
    and district-level to be scalable and sustainable
    over time

Source Glover, T. A., DiPerna, J. C. (2007).
Service delivery for response to intervention
Core components and directions for future
research. School Psychology Review, 36, 526-540.
6
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
7
Target Student
Dual-Discrepancy RTI Model of Learning
Disability (Fuchs 2003)
8
Intervention Research Development A Work in
Progress
9
Tier 1 What Are the Recommended Elements of
Core Curriculum? More Research Needed
  • In essence, we now have a good beginning on the
    evaluation of Tier 2 and 3 interventions, but no
    idea about what it will take to get the core
    curriculum to work at Tier 1. A complicating
    issue with this potential line of research is
    that many schools use multiple materials as their
    core program. p. 640

Source Kovaleski, J. F. (2007). Response to
intervention Considerations for research and
systems change. School Psychology Review, 36,
638-646.
10
Limitations of Intervention Research
  • the list of evidence-based interventions is
    quite small relative to the need of RTI. Thus,
    limited dissemination of interventions is likely
    to be a practical problem as individuals move
    forward in the application of RTI models in
    applied settings. p. 33

Source Kratochwill, T. R., Clements, M. A.,
Kalymon, K. M. (2007). Response to intervention
Conceptual and methodological issues in
implementation. In Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K.,
VanDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.), Handbook of
response to intervention The science and
practice of assessment and intervention. New
York Springer.
11
Schools Need to Review Tier 1 (Classroom)
Interventions to Ensure That They Are Supported
By Research
  • There is a lack of agreement about what is meant
    by scientifically validated classroom (Tier I)
    interventions. Districts should establish a
    vetting processcriteria for judging whether a
    particular instructional or intervention approach
    should be considered empirically based.

Source Fuchs, D., Deshler, D. D. (2007). What
we need to know about responsiveness to
intervention (and shouldnt be afraid to ask)..
Learning Disabilities Research Practice,
22(2),129136.
12
What Are Appropriate Content-Area Tier 1
Universal Interventions for Secondary Schools?
  • High schools need to determine what constitutes
    high-quality universal instruction across content
    areas. In addition, high school teachers need
    professional development in, for example,
    differentiated instructional techniques that will
    help ensure student access to instruction
    interventions that are effectively implemented.

Source Duffy, H. (August 2007). Meeting the
needs of significantly struggling learners in
high school. Washington, DC National High School
Center. Retrieved from http//www.betterhighschool
s.org/pubs/ p. 9
13
RTI Intervention Key Concepts
14
Essential Elements of Any Academic or Behavioral
Intervention (Treatment) Strategy
  • Method of delivery (Who or what delivers the
    treatment?)Examples include teachers,
    paraprofessionals, parents, volunteers,
    computers.
  • Treatment component (What makes the intervention
    effective?)Examples include activation of prior
    knowledge to help the student to make meaningful
    connections between known and new material
    guide practice (e.g., Paired Reading) to increase
    reading fluency periodic review of material to
    aid student retention.

15
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Core Instruction. Those instructional strategies
    that are used routinely with all students in a
    general-education setting are considered core
    instruction. High-quality instruction is
    essential and forms the foundation of RTI
    academic support. NOTE While it is important to
    verify that good core instructional practices are
    in place for a struggling student, those routine
    practices do not count as individual student
    interventions.

16
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Intervention. An academic intervention is a
    strategy used to teach a new skill, build fluency
    in a skill, or encourage a child to apply an
    existing skill to new situations or settings. An
    intervention can be thought of as a set of
    actions that, when taken, have demonstrated
    ability to change a fixed educational trajectory
    (Methe Riley-Tillman, 2008 p. 37).

17
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Accommodation. An accommodation is intended to
    help the student to fully access and participate
    in the general-education curriculum without
    changing the instructional content and without
    reducing the students rate of learning (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005). An accommodation is
    intended to remove barriers to learning while
    still expecting that students will master the
    same instructional content as their typical
    peers.
  • Accommodation example 1 Students are allowed to
    supplement silent reading of a novel by listening
    to the book on tape.
  • Accommodation example 2 For unmotivated
    students, the instructor breaks larger
    assignments into smaller chunks and providing
    students with performance feedback and praise for
    each completed chunk of assigned work (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005).

18
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Modification. A modification changes the
    expectations of what a student is expected to
    know or dotypically by lowering the academic
    standards against which the student is to be
    evaluated. Examples of modifications
  • Giving a student five math computation problems
    for practice instead of the 20 problems assigned
    to the rest of the class
  • Letting the student consult course notes during a
    test when peers are not permitted to do so
  • Allowing a student to select a much easier book
    for a book report than would be allowed to his or
    her classmates.

19
RTI Writing Interventions Jim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
20
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21
Defining Student Writing Problems
22
  • "If all the grammarians in the world were placed
    end to end, it would be a good thing."
  • Oscar Wilde

23
  • Domains of writing to be assessed (Robinson
    Howell, 2008)
  • Fluency/Text Generation Facility in getting text
    onto paper or typed into the computer. (NOTE
    This element can be significantly influenced by
    student motivation.)
  • Syntactic Maturity This skill includes the
  • Ability to discern when a word string meets
    criteria as a complete sentence
  • Ability to write compositions with a diverse
    range of sentence structures
  • Semantic Maturity Writers use of vocabulary of
    range and sophistication

Source Robinson, L. K., Howell, K. W. (2008).
Best practices in curriculum-based evaluation
written expression. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 439-452). Bethesda, MD National Association
of School Psychologists.
24
Domains of writing to be assessed (Robinson
Howell, 2008)
  • 5-Step Writing Process (Items in bold are
    iterative)
  • Planning. The student carries out necessary
    pre-writing planning activities, including
    content, format, and outline.
  • Drafting. The student writes or types the
    composition.
  • Revision. The student reviews the content of the
    composition-in-progress and makes changes as
    needed. After producing an initial written draft,
    the student considers revisions to content before
    turning in for a grade or evaluation.
  • Editing. The student looks over the composition
    and corrects any mechanical mistakes
    (capitalization, punctuation, etc.).
  • Publication The student submits the composition
    in finished form.

Source Robinson, L. K., Howell, K. W. (2008).
Best practices in curriculum-based evaluation
written expression. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 439-452). Bethesda, MD National Association
of School Psychologists.
25
Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing next
Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved
from http//www.all4ed.org/files/WritingNext.pdf
26
Evaluating the Impact of Effect Size Coefficients
  • 0.20 Effect Size Small
  • 0.50 Effect Size Medium
  • 0.80 Effect Size Large

Source Cohen,J. (1988). Statistical power
analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nded.).
Hillsdale,NJErlbaum.
27
  • Elements of effective writing instruction for
    adolescents
  • Writing Process (Effect Size 0.82) Students
    are taught a process for planning, revising, and
    editing.
  • Summarizing (Effect Size 0.82) Students are
    taught methods to identify key points, main ideas
    from readings to write summaries of source texts.
  • Cooperative Learning Activities (Collaborative
    Writing) (Effect Size 0.75) Students are
    placed in pairs or groups with learning
    activities that focus on collaborative use of the
    writing process.
  • Goal-Setting (Effect Size 0.70) Students set
    specific product goals for their writing and
    then check their attainment of those
    self-generated goals.

Source Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing
next Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved
from http//www.all4ed.org/files/WritingNext.pdf
28
  • Elements of effective writing instruction for
    adolescents
  • Writing Processors (Effect Size 0.55) Students
    have access to computers/word processors in the
    writing process.
  • Sentence Combining (Effect Size 0.50) Students
    take part in instructional activities that
    require the combination or embedding of simpler
    sentences (e.g., Noun-Verb-Object) to generate
    more advanced, complex sentences.
  • Prewriting (Effect Size 0.32) Students learn
    to select, develop, or organize ideas to
    incorporate into their writing by participating
    in structured pre-writing activities.
  • Inquiry Activities (Effect Size 0.32) Students
    become actively engaged researchers, collecting
    and analyzing information to guide the ideas and
    content for writing assignments.

Source Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing
next Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved
from http//www.all4ed.org/files/WritingNext.pdf
29
  • Elements of effective writing instruction for
    adolescents
  • Process Writing (Effect Size 0.32) Writing
    instruction is taught in a workshop format that
    stresses extended writing opportunities,
    writing for authentic audiences, personalized
    instruction, and cycles of writing (Graham
    Perin, 2007 p. 4).
  • Use of Writing Models (Effect Size 0.25)
    Students read and discuss models of good writing
    and use them as exemplars for their own writing.
  • Writing to Learn Content (Effect Size 0.23)
    The instructor incorporates writing activities as
    a means to have students learn content material.

Source Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing
next Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved
from http//www.all4ed.org/files/WritingNext.pdf
30
The Effect of Grammar Instruction as an
Independent Activity
  • Grammar instruction in the studies reviewed
    for the Writing Next report involved the
    explicit and systematic teaching of the parts of
    speech and structure of sentences. The
    meta-analysis found an effect for this type of
    instruction for students across the full range of
    ability, but surprisingly, this effect was
    negativeSuch findings raise serious questions
    about some educators enthusiasm for traditional
    grammar instruction as a focus of writing
    instruction for adolescents.Overall, the
    findings on grammar instruction suggest that,
    although teaching grammar is important,
    alternative procedures, such as sentence
    combining, are more effective than traditional
    approaches for improving the quality of students
    writing. p. 21

Source Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing
next Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education.
31
Challenge How Do Schools Stop the Use of
Zombie Instructional Practices?
  • In their rush to promote use of evidence-based
    instructional practices under RTI schools should
    not forget that research cuts both ways. It can
    illuminate new approaches to effectively teach
    struggling learners. But research also sometimes
    reveals instructional or intervention strategies
    that should be reformed or eliminated altogether.
    Despite the fact that educators may have
    developed a sentimental attachment to such
    outmoded practices, schools should provide the
    appropriate support to help these teachers to
    discard them and adopt more effective
    instructional tools. Otherwise, these obsolete,
    zombie methods of instruction and intervention
    threaten to linger on far past their expected
    termination date to continue to drag down student
    performance.

Source Wright, J. (2010). Killing off zombie'
interventions The need to root out ineffective
instructional strategies. Retrieved from
http//www.interventioncentral.org
32
Question How Does a School Use Research
Information to Influence Classroom Practice?
  • In this workshop, we reviewed recommendations
    from the Writing Next manual, a meta-analysis of
    effective writing instructional elements.
  • How might your school use information sources
    like this to influence classroom practice?

33
  • "The difference between the right word and the
    almost right word is the difference between
    lightning and the lightning bug."
  • Mark Twain

34
  • "Your manuscript is both good and original. But
    the part that is good is not original, and the
    part that is original is not good."
  • Samuel Johnson

35
Selected Writing Interventions
36
Fluency Have Students Write Every Day
  • Short daily writing assignments can build
    student writing fluency and make writing a more
    motivating activity. Poor writers gradually
    develop into better writers when they are
    prompted to write daily--and receive rapid
    feedback and encouragement about that writing.
  • The teacher can encourage daily writing by
  • giving short writing assignments
  • allowing time for students to journal about their
    learning activities
  • requiring that they correspond daily with pen
    pals via email
  • even posting a question on the board as a
    bell-ringer activity that students can respond to
    in writing for extra credit.

Source Graham, S., Harris, K. R., Larsen, L.
(2001). Prevention and intervention of writing
difficulties for students with learning
disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research
Practice, 16, 74-84.
37
Writing Support in the Classroom Essentials of
Effective Instruction
  • Teachers are most successful in reaching
    students with writing delays when they
  • Build their written expression lessons around
    the 3 stages of writing planning, writing, and
    revision and make those stages clear and
    explicit.
  • Provide students with think sheets that outline
    step-by-step strategies for tackle the different
    phases of a writing assignment (e.g., taking
    concise notes from research material building
    an outline proofreading a draft).
  • Expose students to different kinds of expressive
    text, such as persuasive, narrative, and
    expository writing-- good prose models that the
    student can review when completing a writing
    assignment.
  • Give supportive and timely feedback to students
    about their writing. When teachers or classmates
    offer writing feedback to the student, they are
    honest but also maintain an encouraging tone.

Source Gersten, R., Baker, S., Edwards, L.
(1999). Teaching expressive writing to students
with learning disabilities A meta-analysis. New
York National Center for Learning Disabilities.
38
Integrated Writing Instruction (MacArthur,
Graham, Schwarz, 1993 )
  • The instructor follows a uniform daily
    instructional framework for writing instruction.
  • Status-checking. At the start of the writing
    session, the instructor quickly goes around the
    room, asking each student what writing goal(s) he
    or she plans to accomplish that day. The
    instructor records these responses for all to
    see.
  • Mini-Lesson. The instructor teaches a mini-lesson
    relevant to the writing process. Mini-lessons are
    a useful means to present explicit writing
    strategies (e.g., an outline for drafting an
    opinion essay) as well as a forum for reviewing
    the conventions of writing. Mini-lessons should
    be kept short (e.g.,5-10 minutes) to hold the
    attention of the class.

39
Integrated Writing Instruction Cont. (MacArthur,
Graham, Schwarz, 1993 )
  • Student Writing. During the session, substantial
    time is set aside for students to write. Their
    writing assignment might be one handed out that
    day or part of a longer composition (e.g., story,
    extended essay) that the student is writing and
    editing across multiple days. When possible,
    student writers are encouraged to use computers
    as aids in composing and editing their work.
  • Peer Teacher Conferences. At the end of the
    daily writing block, the student may sit with a
    classmate to review each other's work, using a
    structured peer editing strategy. During this
    discussion time, the teacher also holds brief
    individual conferences with students to review
    their work, have students evaluate how
    successfully they completed their writing goals
    for the day, and hear writers' thoughts about how
    they might plan to further develop a writing
    assignment.

40
Integrated Writing Instruction Cont. (MacArthur,
Graham, Schwarz, 1993 )
  • Group Sharing or Publishing. At the end of each
    session, writing produced that day is shared with
    the whole class. Students might volunteer to read
    passages aloud from their compositions. Students
    are encouraged to choose more polished work and
    post it on the classroom wall or bulletin board,
    have their work displayed in a public area of the
    school, publish the work in an anthology of
    school writings, read it aloud at school
    assemblies, or publish it on a school Internet
    site.

41
Monitoring to Increase Writing Fluency (Rathvon,
1999)
  • Students gain motivation to write through daily
    monitoring and charting of their own and
    classwide rates of writing fluency.
  • Assign timed freewriting several times per week.
  • After each freewriting period, direct each
    student to count up the number of words he or she
    has written in their daily journal entry (whether
    spelled correctly or not).
  • Have students to record their personal
    writing-fluency score in their journal and also
    chart the score on their own time-series graph
    for visual feedback.
  • Collect the days writing-fluency scores of all
    students in the class, sum those scores, and
    chart the results on a large time-series graph
    posted at the front of the room.
  • Raise the class goal by five percent per week.

42
Organization Build an Outline by Talking Through
the Topic
  • Students who struggle to organize their notes
    into a coherent outline can tell others what
    they know about the topicand then capture the
    informal logical structure of that conversation
    to create a working outline.
  • The student studies notes from the topic and
    describes what he or she knows about the topic
    and its significance to a listener. (The student
    may want to audio-record this conversation for
    later playback.)
  • After the conversation, the student jots down an
    outline from memory to capture the structure and
    main ideas of the discussion.
  • This outline kernel can then be expanded and
    refined into the framework for a paper.

Source The Writing Center, University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill (n.d.). Reorganizing your
draft. Retrieved December 23, 2006, from
http//www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/organizati
on.html
43
Organization Reverse Outline the Draft
  • Students can improve the internal flow of their
    compositions through reverse outlining.
  • The student writes a draft of the composition.
  • Next, the student reads through the draft,
    jotting notes in the margins that signify the
    main idea of each paragraph or section.
  • Then the student organizes the margin notes into
    an outline to reveal the organizational structure
    of the paper.
  • This reverse outline allows the student to note
    whether sections of the draft are repetitious,
    are out of order, or do not logically connect
    with one another.

Source The Writing Center, University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill (n.d.). Reorganizing your
draft. Retrieved December 23, 2006, from
http//www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/organizati
on.html
44
A Memory Device for Proofreading SCOPE (Bos
Vaughn, 2002)
  • When students regularly use a simple, portable,
    easily memorized plan for proofreading, the
    quality of their writing improves significantly.
  • Create and have students refer to a classroom
    with the SCOPE proofreading elements Spelling
    Are my words spelled correctly Capitalization
    Have I capitalized all appropriate words,
    including first words of sentences, proper nouns,
    and proper names? Order of words Is my word
    order (syntax) correct? Punctuation Did I use
    end punctuation and other punctuation marks
    appropriately? Expression of complete thoughts
    Do all of my sentences contain a noun and verb to
    convey a complete thought?

45
Cover-Copy-Compare (Murphy, Hern, Williams,
McLaughlin, 1990)
  • Students increase their spelling knowledge by
    copying a spelling word from a correct model and
    then recopying the same word from memory. Give
    students a list of 10-20 spelling words, an index
    card, and a blank sheet of paper. For each word
    on the spelling list, the student
  • copies the spelling list item onto a sheet of
    paper,
  • covers the newly copied word with the index card,
  • writes the spelling word again on the sheet
    (spelling it from memory), and
  • uncovers the copied word and checks to ensure
    that the word copied from memory is spelled
    correctly. Repeat as necessary.

46
Use Selective Proofreading With Highlighting of
Errors
  • To prevent struggling writers from becoming
    overwhelmed by teacher proofreading corrections,
    select only 1 or 2 proofreading areas when
    correcting a writing assignment.
  • Create a student writing skills checklist that
    inventories key writing competencies (e.g.,
    grammar/syntax, spelling, vocabulary, etc.).
  • For each writing assignment, announce to students
    that you will grade the assignment for overall
    content but will make proofreading corrections on
    only 1-2 areas chosen from the writing skills
    checklist. (Select different proofreading targets
    for each assignment matched to common writing
    weaknesses in your classroom.)

47
Use Selective Proofreading With Highlighting of
Errors Cont.
  • To prevent cluttering the students paper with
    potentially discouraging teacher comments and
    editing marks
  • underline problems in the student text with a
    highlighter and
  • number the highlighted errors sequentially at the
    left margin of the student paper.
  • write teacher comments on a separate feedback
    sheet to explain the writing errors. Identify
    each comment with the matching error-number from
    the left margin of the students worksheet.
  • TIP Have students use this method when
    proofreading their own text.

48
Selective Proofreading With Highlighting of
Errors
Jimmy Smith
Dec 1, 2006
Mrs. Richman
49
  • "A ratio of failures is built into the process
    of writing. The wastebasket has evolved for a
    reason."
  • Margaret Atwood

50
Sentence Combining
  • Students with poor writing skills often write
    sentences that lack syntactic maturity. Their
    sentences often follow a simple, stereotyped
    format. A promising approach to teach students
    use of diverse sentence structures is through
    sentence combining. In sentence combining,
    students are presented with kernel sentences and
    given explicit instruction in how to weld these
    kernel sentences into more diverse sentence types
    either
  • by using connecting words to combine multiple
    sentences into one or
  • by isolating key information from an otherwise
    superfluous sentence and embedding that important
    information into the base sentence.

Sources Saddler, B. (2005). Sentence combining
A sentence-level writing intervention. The
Reading Teacher, 58, 468-471. Strong, W. (1986).
Creative approaches to sentence combining.
Urbana, OL ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and
Communication Skill National Council of
Teachers of English.
51
Formatting Sentence Combining Examples
52
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53
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54
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55
Interventionist TIP Dont Forget ThatWriting
Interventions Are Embedded in a Larger Web of
Potential Academic Intervention Strategies
Writing
56
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
57
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
58
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
  • This checklist summarizes the essential
    components of academic interventions. When
    preparing a students Tier 1, 2, or 3 academic
    intervention plan, use this document as a
    pre-flight checklist to ensure that the
    academic intervention is of high quality, is
    sufficiently strong to address the identified
    student problem, is fully understood and
    supported by the teacher, and can be implemented
    with integrity. NOTE While the checklist refers
    to the teacher as the interventionist, it can
    also be used as a guide to ensure the quality of
    interventions implemented by non-instructional
    personnel, adult volunteers, parents, and peer
    (student) tutors.

59
Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio
The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981). The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981). The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981).
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Time Allocated. The time set aside for the intervention is appropriate for the type and level of student problem (Burns Gibbons, 2008 Kratochwill, Clements Kalymon, 2007). When evaluating whether the amount of time allocated is adequate, consider Length of each intervention session. Frequency of sessions (e.g.., daily, 3 times per week) Duration of intervention period (e.g., 6 instructional weeks)
? Student-Teacher Ratio. The student receives sufficient contact from the teacher or other person delivering the intervention to make that intervention effective. NOTE Generally, supplemental intervention groups should be limited to 6-7 students (Burns Gibbons, 2008).
60
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem
Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided. Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided. Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Problem Definition. The student academic problem(s) to be addressed in the intervention are defined in clear, specific, measureable terms (Bergan, 1995 Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). The full problem definition describes Conditions. Describe the environmental conditions or task demands in place when the academic problem is observed. Problem Description. Describe the actual observable academic behavior in which the student is engaged. Include rate, accuracy, or other quantitative information of student performance. Typical or Expected Level of Performance. Provide a typical or expected performance criterion for this skill or behavior. Typical or expected academic performance can be calculated using a variety of sources,
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Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.)
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Appropriate Target. Selected intervention(s) are appropriate for the identified student problem(s) (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008). TIP Use the Instructional Hierarchy (Haring et al., 1978) to select academic interventions according to the four stages of learning Acquisition. The student has begun to learn how to complete the target skill correctly but is not yet accurate in the skill. Interventions should improve accuracy. Fluency. The student is able to complete the target skill accurately but works slowly. Interventions should increase the students speed of responding (fluency) as well as to maintain accuracy. Generalization. The student may have acquired the target skill but does not typically use it in the full range of appropriate situations or settings. Or the student may confuse the target skill with similar skills. Interventions should get the student to use the skill in the widest possible range of settings and situations, or to accurately discriminate between the target skill and similar skills. Adaptation. The student is not yet able to modify or adapt an existing skill to fit novel task-demands or situations. Interventions should help the student to identify key concepts or elements from previously learned skills that can be adapted to the new demands or situations.
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Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.)
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Cant Do/Wont Do Check. The teacher has determined whether the student problem is primarily a skill or knowledge deficit (cant do) or whether student motivation plays a main or supporting role in academic underperformance (wont do). If motivation appears to be a significant factor contributing to the problem, the intervention plan includes strategies to engage the student (e.g., high interest learning activities rewards/incentives increased student choice in academic assignments, etc.) (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005 Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
64
Activity Matching the Intervention to the
Student Problem
  • Consider these critical aspects of academic
    intervention
  • Clear and specific problem-identification
    statement (Conditions, Problem Description,
    Typical/Expected Level of Performance).
  • Appropriate intervention target (e.g., selected
    intervention is appropriately matched to
    Acquisition, Fluency, Generalization, or
    Adaptation phase of Instructional Hierarchy).
  • Cant Do/Wont Do Check (Clarification of whether
    motivation plays a significant role in student
    academic underperformance).
  • What steps can your RTI Team and school take to
    ensure that each of these aspects is taken into
    consideration when planning interventions at Tier
    1, 2, or 3?

65
Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements
These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention. These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention. These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Explicit Instruction. Student skills have been broken down into manageable and deliberately sequenced steps and the teacher provided overt strategies for students to learn and practice new skills (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008, p.1153).
? Appropriate Level of Challenge. The student experienced sufficient success in the academic task(s) to shape learning in the desired direction as well as to maintain student motivation (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008).
? Active Engagement. The intervention ensures that the student is engaged in active accurate responding (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005).at a rate frequent enough to capture student attention and to optimize effective learning.
? Performance Feedback. The student receives prompt performance feedback about the work completed (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008).
? Maintenance of Academic Standards. If the intervention includes any accommodations to better support the struggling learner (e.g., preferential seating, breaking a longer assignment into smaller chunks), those accommodations do not substantially lower the academic standards against which the student is to be evaluated and are not likely to reduce the students rate of learning (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005).
66
Activity Incorporating Effective Instructional
Elements
  • Think about the effective instructional elements
    reviewed in this workshop.
  • How can your school assist teachers to ensure
    that effective instructional elements are
    included in academicinterventions?

Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Explicit Instruction.
? Appropriate Level of Challenge.
? Active Engagement..
? Performance Feedback.
? Maintenance of Academic Standards.
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Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support
The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention. The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention. The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Teacher Responsibility. The teacher understands his or her responsibility to implement the academic intervention(s) with integrity.
? Teacher Acceptability. The teacher states that he or she finds the academic intervention feasible and acceptable for the identified student problem.
? Step-by-Step Intervention Script. The essential steps of the intervention are written as an intervention script--a series of clearly described stepsto ensure teacher understanding and make implementation easier (Hawkins, Morrison, Musti-Rao Hawkins, 2008).
? Intervention Training. If the teacher requires training to carry out the intervention, that training has been arranged.
? Intervention Elements Negotiable vs. Non-Negotiable. The teacher knows all of the steps of the intervention. Additionally, the teacher knows which of the intervention steps are non-negotiable (they must be completed exactly as designed) and which are negotiable (the teacher has some latitude in how to carry out those steps) (Hawkins, Morrison, Musti-Rao Hawkins, 2008).
? Assistance With the Intervention. If the intervention cannot be implemented as designed for any reason (e.g., student absence, lack of materials, etc.), the teacher knows how to get assistance quickly to either fix the problem(s) to the current intervention or to change the intervention.
68
Activity Verifying Teacher Understanding
Providing Teacher Support
  • In your teams
  • Review the checklist for verifying that teachers
    understand all elements of the intervention and
    actively support its use.
  • How will your school ensure that teachers in
    Tier 1 will understand and support academic
    interventions designed to be implemented in the
    classroom?

Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support
Critical Item? Intervention Element
? Teacher Responsibility
? Teacher Acceptability.
? Step-by-Step Intervention Script.
? Intervention Training.
? Intervention Elements Negotiable vs. Non-Negotiable
? Assistance With the Intervention
69
Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data
Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Intervention Documentation. The teacher understands and can manage all documentation required for this intervention (e.g., maintaining a log of intervention sessions, etc.).
? Checkup Date. Before the intervention begins, a future checkup date is selected to review the intervention to determine if it is successful. Time elapsing between the start of the intervention and the checkup date should be short enough to allow a timely review of the intervention but long enough to give the school sufficient time to judge with confidence whether the intervention worked.
? Baseline. Before the intervention begins, the teacher has collected information about the students baseline level of performance in the identified area(s) of academic concern (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
? Goal. Before the intervention begins, the teacher has set a specific goal for predicted student improvement to use as a minimum standard for success (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). The goal is the expected student outcome by the checkup date if the intervention is successful.
? Progress-Monitoring. During the intervention, the teacher collects progress-monitoring data of sufficient quality and at a sufficient frequency to determine at the checkup date whether that intervention is successful (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
70
Activity Documenting the Intervention
Collecting Data
  • In your teams
  • Consider the elements of intervention
    documentation, data collection, and data
    interpretation discussed here.
  • What steps can your school take to make sure
    that data have a central focus when
    interventionsare planned and implemented?

Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Intervention Documentation.
? Checkup Date.
? Baseline.
? Goal.
? Progress-Monitoring.
71
References
  • Bergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a
    problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of
    Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2),
    111-123.
  • Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
    Implementing response-to-intervention in
    elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
    York.
  • Burns, M. K., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Boice, C. H.
    (2008). Best practices in intensive academic
    interventions. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.),
    Best practices in school psychology V
    (pp.1151-1162). Bethesda, MD National
    Association of School Psychologists.
  • Haring, N.G., Lovitt, T.C., Eaton, M.D.,
    Hansen, C.L. (1978). The fourth R Research in
    the classroom. Columbus, OH Charles E. Merrill
    Publishing Co.
  • Hawkins, R. O., Morrison, J. Q., Musti-Rao, S.,
    Hawkins, J. A. (2008). Treatment integrity for
    academic interventions in real- world settings.
    School Psychology Forum, 2(3), 1-15.
  • Kratochwill, T. R., Clements, M. A., Kalymon,
    K. M. (2007). Response to intervention
    Conceptual and methodological issues in
    implementation. In Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K.,
    VanDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.), Handbook of
    response to intervention The science and
    practice of assessment and intervention. New
    York Springer.
  • Skinner, C. H., Pappas, D. N., Davis, K. A.
    (2005). Enhancing academic engagement Providing
    opportunities for responding and influencing
    students to choose to respond. Psychology in the
    Schools, 42, 389-403.
  • Witt, J. C., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Gilbertson,
    D. (2004). Troubleshooting behavioral
    interventions. A systematic process for finding
    and eliminating problems. School Psychology
    Review, 33, 363-383. 
  • Yeaton, W. M. Sechrest, L. (1981). Critical
    dimensions in the choice and maintenance of
    successful treatments Strength, integrity, and
    effectiveness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
    Psychology, 49, 156-167.

72
RTI Best Practicesin MathematicsInterventionsJ
im Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
73
National Mathematics Advisory Panel Report13
March 2008
74
Math Advisory Panel Report athttp//www.ed.gov/
mathpanel
75
2008 National Math Advisory Panel Report
Recommendations
  • The areas to be studied in mathematics from
    pre-kindergarten through eighth grade should be
    streamlined and a well-defined set of the most
    important topics should be emphasized in the
    early grades. Any approach that revisits topics
    year after year without bringing them to closure
    should be avoided.
  • Proficiency with whole numbers, fractions, and
    certain aspects of geometry and measurement are
    the foundations for algebra. Of these, knowledge
    of fractions is the most important foundational
    skill not developed among American students.
  • Conceptual understanding, computational and
    procedural fluency, and problem solving skills
    are equally important and mutually reinforce each
    other. Debates regarding the relative importance
    of each of these components of mathematics are
    misguided.
  • Students should develop immediate recall of
    arithmetic facts to free the working memory for
    solving more complex problems.

Source National Math Panel Fact Sheet. (March
2008). Retrieved on March 14, 2008, from
http//www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/rep
ort/final-factsheet.html
76
An RTI Challenge Limited Research to Support
Evidence-Based Math Interventions
  • in contrast to reading, core math programs
    that are supported by research, or that have been
    constructed according to clear research-based
    principles, are not easy to identify. Not only
    have exemplary core programs not been identified,
    but also there are no tools available that we
    know of that will help schools analyze core math
    programs to determine their alignment with clear
    research-based principles. p. 459

Source Clarke, B., Baker, S., Chard, D.
(2008). Best practices in mathematics assessment
and intervention with elementary students. In A.
Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in
school psychology V (pp. 453-463).
77
Who is At Risk for Poor Math Performance? A
Proactive Stance
  • we use the term mathematics difficulties
    rather than mathematics disabilities. Children
    who exhibit mathematics difficulties include
    those performing in the low average range (e.g.,
    at or below the 35th percentile) as well as those
    performing well below averageUsing higher
    percentile cutoffs increases the likelihood that
    young children who go on to have serious math
    problems will be picked up in the screening. p.
    295

Source Gersten, R., Jordan, N. C., Flojo, J.
R. (2005). Early identification and interventions
for students with mathematics difficulties.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 293-304.
78
The Elements of Mathematical Proficiency What
the Experts Say
79
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80
Five Strands of Mathematical Proficiency
  1. Understanding Comprehending mathematical
    concepts, operations, and relations--knowing what
    mathematical symbols, diagrams, and procedures
    mean.
  2. Computing Carrying out mathematical procedures,
    such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, and
    dividing numbers flexibly, accurately,
    efficiently, and appropriately.
  3. Applying Being able to formulate problems
    mathematically and to devise strategies for
    solving them using concepts and procedures
    appropriately.

Source National Research Council. (2002).
Helping children learn mathematics. Mathematics
Learning Study Committee, J. Kilpatrick J.
Swafford, Editors, Center for Education, Division
of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.
Washington, DC National Academy Press.
81
Five Strands of Mathematical Proficiency (Cont.)
  1. Reasoning Using logic to explain and justify a
    solution to a problem or to extend from something
    known to something less known.
  2. Engaging Seeing mathematics as sensible, useful,
    and doableif you work at itand being willing to
    do the work.

Source National Research Council. (2002).
Helping children learn mathematics. Mathematics
Learning Study Committee, J. Kilpatrick J.
Swafford, Editors, Center for Education, Division
of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.
Washington, DC National Academy Press.
82
Five Strands of Mathematical Proficiency (NRC,
2002)
  • Table Activity Evaluate Your Schools Math
    Proficiency
  • As a group, review the National Research Council
    Strands of Math Proficiency.
  • Which strand do you feel that your school /
    curriculum does the best job of helping students
    to attain proficiency?
  • Which strand do you feel that your school /
    curriculum should put the greatest effort to
    figure out how to help students to attain
    proficiency?
  • Be prepared to share your results.
  • Understanding Comprehending mathematical
    concepts, operations, and relations--knowing what
    mathematical symbols, diagrams, and procedures
    mean.
  • Computing Carrying out mathematical procedures,
    such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, and
    dividing numbers flexibly, accurately,
    efficiently, and appropriately.
  • Applying Being able to formulate problems
    mathematically and to devise strategies for
    solving them using concepts and procedures
    appropriately.
  • Reasoning Using logic to explain and justify a
    solution to a problem or to extend from something
    known to something less known.
  • Engaging Seeing mathematics as sensible, useful,
    and doableif you work at itand being willing to
    do the work.

83
Three General Levels of Math Skill Development
(Kroesbergen Van Luit, 2003)
  • As students move from lower to higher grades,
    they move through levels of acquisition of math
    skills, to include
  • Number sense
  • Basic math operations (i.e., addition,
    subtraction, multiplication, division)
  • Problem-solving skills The solution of both
    verbal and nonverbal problems through the
    application of previously acquired information
    (Kroesbergen Van Luit, 2003, p. 98)

Source Kroesbergen, E., Van Luit, J. E. H.
(2003). Mathematics interventions for children
with special educational needs. Remedial and
Special Education, 24, 97-114..
84
Benefits of Automaticity of Arithmetic
Combinations (Gersten, Jordan, Flojo, 2005)
  • There is a strong correlation between poor
    retrieval of arithmetic combinations (math
    facts) and global math delays
  • Automatic recall of arithmetic combinations frees
    up student cognitive capacity to allow for
    understanding of higher-level problem-solving
  • By internalizing numbers as mental constructs,
    students can manipulate those numbers in their
    head, allowing for the intuitive understanding of
    arithmetic properties, such as associative
    property and commutative property

Source Gersten, R., Jordan, N. C., Flojo, J.
R. (2005). Early identification and interventions
for students with mathematics difficulties.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 293-304.
85
How much is 3 8? Strategies to Solve
Source Gersten, R., Jordan, N. C., Flojo, J.
R. (2005). Early identification and interventions
for students with mathematics difficulties.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 293-304.
86
Profile of Students With Significant Math
Difficulties
  • Spatial organization. The student commits errors
    such as misaligning numbers in columns in a
    multiplication problem or confusing
    directionality in a subtraction problem (and
    subtracting the original numberminuendfrom the
    figure to be subtracted (subtrahend).
  • Visual detail. The student misreads a
    mathematical sign or leaves out a decimal or
    dollar sign in the answer.
  • Procedural errors. The student skips or adds a
    step in a computation sequence. Or the student
    misapplies a learned rule from one arithmetic
    procedure when completing another, different
    arithmetic procedure.
  • Inability to shift psychological set. The
    student does not shift from one operation type
    (e.g., addition) to another (e.g.,
    multiplication) when warranted.
  • Graphomotor. The students poor handwriting can
    cause him or her to misread handwritten numbers,
    leading to errors in computation.
  • Memory. The student fails to remember a specific
    math fact needed to solve a problem. (The student
    may KNOW the math fact but not be able to recall
    it at point of performance.)
  • Judgment and reasoning. The student comes up with
    solutions to problems that are clearly
    unreasonable. However, the student is not able
    adequately to evaluate those responses to gauge
    whether they actually make sense in context.

Source Rourke, B. P. (1993). Arithmetic
disabilities, specific otherwise A
neuropsychological perspective. Journal of
Learning Disabilities, 26, 214-226.
87
Math Interventions
88
Math Intervention Tier I or II Elementary
Secondary Self-Administered Arithmetic
Combination Drills With Performance
Self-Monitoring Incentives
  1. The student is given a math computation worksheet
    of a specific problem type, along with an answer
    key Academic Opportunity to Respond.
  2. The student consults his or her performance chart
    and notes previous performance. The student is
    encouraged to try to beat his or her most
    recent score.
  3. The student is given a pre-selected amount of
    time (e.g., 5 minutes) to complete as many
    problems as possible. The student sets a timer
    and works on the computation sheet until the
    timer rings. Active Student Responding
  4. The student checks his or her work, giving credit
    for each correct digit (digit of correct value
    appearing in the correct place-position in the
    answer). Performance Feedback
  5. The student records the days score of TOTAL
    number of correct digits on his or her personal
    performance chart.
  6. The student receives praise or a reward if he or
    she exceeds the most recently posted number of
    correct digits.

Application of Learn Unit framework from
Heward, W.L. (1996). Three low-tech strategies
for increasing the frequency of active student
response during group instruction. In R. Gardner,
D. M.S ainato, J. O. Cooper, T. E. Heron, W. L.
Heward, J. W. Eshleman, T. A. Grossi (Eds.),
Behavior analysis in education Focus on
measurably superior instruction (pp.283-320).
Pacific Grove, CABrooks/Cole.
89
Self-Administered Arithmetic Combination
DrillsExamples of Student Worksheet and Answer
Key
Worksheets created using Math Worksheet
Generator. Available online athttp//www.interve
ntioncentral.org/htmdocs/tools/mathprobe/addsing.p
hp
90
Self-Administered Arithmetic Combination Drills
91
Cover-Copy-Compare Math Computational
Fluency-Building Intervention
  • The student is given sheet with correctly
    completed math problems in left column and index
    card. For each problem, the student
  • studies the model
  • covers the model with index card
  • copies the problem from memory
  • solves the problem
  • uncovers the correctly completed model to check
    answer

Source Skinner, C.H., Turco, T.L., Beatty, K.L.,
Rasavage, C. (1989). Cover, copy, and compare
A method for increasing multiplication
performance. School Psychology Review, 18,
412-420.
92
Math Computation Problem Interspersal Technique
  • The teacher first identifies the range of
    challenging problem-types (number problems
    appropriately matched to the students current
    instructional level) that are to appear on the
    worksheet.
  • Then the teacher creates a series of easy
    problems that the students can complete very
    quickly (e.g., adding or subtracting two 1-digit
    numbers). The teacher next prepares a series of
    student math computation worksheets with easy
    computation problems interspers
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