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Title: RTI:%20Reading%20and%20Writing%20Interventions%20for%20Difficult-to-Teach%20Students%20Jim%20Wright%20www.interventioncentral.org


1
RTI Reading and Writing Interventions for
Difficult-to-Teach Students Jim
Wright www.interventioncentral.org
2
RTI Reading Writing Interventions Workshop
Agenda
3
School Instructional Time The Irreplaceable
Resource
  • In the average school system, there are 330
    minutes in the instructional day, 1,650 minutes
    in the instructional week, and 56,700 minutes in
    the instructional year. Except in unusual
    circumstances, these are the only minutes we have
    to provide effective services for students. The
    number of years we have to apply these minutes is
    fixed. Therefore, each minute counts and schools
    cannot afford to support inefficient models of
    service delivery. p. 177

Source Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon,
D. N., Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 177-193).
4
Five Core Components of RTI Service Delivery
  1. Student services are arranged in a multi-tier
    model
  2. Data are collected to assess student baseline
    levels and to make decisions about student
    progress
  3. Interventions are evidence-based
  4. The procedural integrity of interventions is
    measured
  5. RTI is implemented and developed at the school-
    and district-level to be scalable and sustainable
    over time

Source Glover, T. A., DiPerna, J. C. (2007).
Service delivery for response to intervention
Core components and directions for future
research. School Psychology Review, 36, 526-540.
5
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
6
Tier 1 Core Instruction
  • Tier I core instruction
  • Is universalavailable to all students.
  • Can be delivered within classrooms or throughout
    the school.
  • Is an ongoing process of developing strong
    classroom instructional practices to reach the
    largest number of struggling learners.
  • All children have access to Tier 1
    instruction/interventions. Teachers have the
    capability to use those strategies without
    requiring outside assistance.
  • Tier 1 instruction encompasses
  • The schools core curriculum.
  • Al published or teacher-made materials used to
    deliver that curriculum.
  • Teacher use of whole-group teaching
    management strategies.
  • Tier I instruction addresses this question Are
    strong classroom instructional strategies
    sufficient to help the student to achieve
    academic success?

7
Tier I (Classroom) Intervention
  • Tier 1 intervention
  • Targets red flag students who are not
    successful with core instruction alone.
  • Uses evidence-based strategies to address
    student academic or behavioral concerns.
  • Must be feasible to implement given the resources
    available in the classroom.
  • Tier I intervention addresses the question Does
    the student make adequate progress when the
    instructor uses specific academic or behavioral
    strategies matched to the presenting concern?

8
The Key RTI Role of Classroom Teachers as Tier 1
Interventionists 6 Steps
  1. The teacher defines the student academic or
    behavioral problem clearly.
  2. The teacher decides on the best explanation for
    why the problem is occurring.
  3. The teacher selects evidence-based
    interventions.
  4. The teacher documents the students Tier 1
    intervention plan.
  5. The teacher monitors the students response
    (progress) to the intervention plan.
  6. The teacher knows what the next steps are when a
    student fails to make adequate progress with Tier
    1 interventions alone.

9
RTI Intervention Key Concepts
10
Essential Elements of Any Academic or Behavioral
Intervention (Treatment) Strategy
  • Method of delivery (Who or what delivers the
    treatment?) Examples include teachers,
    paraprofessionals, parents, volunteers,
    computers.
  • Treatment component (What makes the intervention
    effective?) Examples include activation of prior
    knowledge to help the student to make meaningful
    connections between known and new material
    guide practice (e.g., Paired Reading) to increase
    reading fluency periodic review of material to
    aid student retention.

11
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Core Instruction. Those instructional strategies
    that are used routinely with all students in a
    general-education setting are considered core
    instruction. High-quality instruction is
    essential and forms the foundation of RTI
    academic support. NOTE While it is important to
    verify that good core instructional practices are
    in place for a struggling student, those routine
    practices do not count as individual student
    interventions.

12
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Intervention. An academic intervention is a
    strategy used to teach a new skill, build fluency
    in a skill, or encourage a child to apply an
    existing skill to new situations or settings. An
    intervention can be thought of as a set of
    actions that, when taken, have demonstrated
    ability to change a fixed educational trajectory
    (Methe Riley-Tillman, 2008 p. 37).

13
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Accommodation. An accommodation is intended to
    help the student to fully access and participate
    in the general-education curriculum without
    changing the instructional content and without
    reducing the students rate of learning (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005). An accommodation is
    intended to remove barriers to learning while
    still expecting that students will master the
    same instructional content as their typical
    peers.
  • Accommodation example 1 Students are allowed to
    supplement silent reading of a novel by listening
    to the book on tape.
  • Accommodation example 2 For unmotivated
    students, the instructor breaks larger
    assignments into smaller chunks and providing
    students with performance feedback and praise for
    each completed chunk of assigned work (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005).

14
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Modification. A modification changes the
    expectations of what a student is expected to
    know or dotypically by lowering the academic
    standards against which the student is to be
    evaluated. Examples of modifications
  • Giving a student five math computation problems
    for practice instead of the 20 problems assigned
    to the rest of the class
  • Letting the student consult course notes during a
    test when peers are not permitted to do so
  • Allowing a student to select a much easier book
    for a book report than would be allowed to his or
    her classmates.

15
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
16
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
17
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
  • This checklist summarizes the essential
    components of academic interventions. When
    preparing a students Tier 1, 2, or 3 academic
    intervention plan, use this document as a
    pre-flight checklist to ensure that the
    academic intervention is of high quality, is
    sufficiently strong to address the identified
    student problem, is fully understood and
    supported by the teacher, and can be implemented
    with integrity. NOTE While the checklist refers
    to the teacher as the interventionist, it can
    also be used as a guide to ensure the quality of
    interventions implemented by non-instructional
    personnel, adult volunteers, parents, and peer
    (student) tutors.

18
Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio
The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981). The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981). The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981).
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Time Allocated. The time set aside for the intervention is appropriate for the type and level of student problem (Burns Gibbons, 2008 Kratochwill, Clements Kalymon, 2007). When evaluating whether the amount of time allocated is adequate, consider Length of each intervention session. Frequency of sessions (e.g.., daily, 3 times per week) Duration of intervention period (e.g., 6 instructional weeks)
? Student-Teacher Ratio. The student receives sufficient contact from the teacher or other person delivering the intervention to make that intervention effective. NOTE Generally, supplemental intervention groups should be limited to 6-7 students (Burns Gibbons, 2008).
19
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem
Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided. Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided. Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Problem Definition. The student academic problem(s) to be addressed in the intervention are defined in clear, specific, measureable terms (Bergan, 1995 Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). The full problem definition describes Conditions. Describe the environmental conditions or task demands in place when the academic problem is observed. Problem Description. Describe the actual observable academic behavior in which the student is engaged. Include rate, accuracy, or other quantitative information of student performance. Typical or Expected Level of Performance. Provide a typical or expected performance criterion for this skill or behavior. Typical or expected academic performance can be calculated using a variety of sources,
20
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21
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.)
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Appropriate Target. Selected intervention(s) are appropriate for the identified student problem(s) (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008). TIP Use the Instructional Hierarchy (Haring et al., 1978) to select academic interventions according to the four stages of learning Acquisition. The student has begun to learn how to complete the target skill correctly but is not yet accurate in the skill. Interventions should improve accuracy. Fluency. The student is able to complete the target skill accurately but works slowly. Interventions should increase the students speed of responding (fluency) as well as to maintain accuracy. Generalization. The student may have acquired the target skill but does not typically use it in the full range of appropriate situations or settings. Or the student may confuse the target skill with similar skills. Interventions should get the student to use the skill in the widest possible range of settings and situations, or to accurately discriminate between the target skill and similar skills. Adaptation. The student is not yet able to modify or adapt an existing skill to fit novel task-demands or situations. Interventions should help the student to identify key concepts or elements from previously learned skills that can be adapted to the new demands or situations.
22
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.)
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Cant Do/Wont Do Check. The teacher has determined whether the student problem is primarily a skill or knowledge deficit (cant do) or whether student motivation plays a main or supporting role in academic underperformance (wont do). If motivation appears to be a significant factor contributing to the problem, the intervention plan includes strategies to engage the student (e.g., high interest learning activities rewards/incentives increased student choice in academic assignments, etc.) (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005 Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
23
Activity Matching the Intervention to the
Student Problem
  • Consider these critical aspects of academic
    intervention
  • Clear and specific problem-identification
    statement (Conditions, Problem Description,
    Typical/Expected Level of Performance).
  • Appropriate intervention target (e.g., selected
    intervention is appropriately matched to
    Acquisition, Fluency, Generalization, or
    Adaptation phase of Instructional Hierarchy).
  • Cant Do/Wont Do Check (Clarification of whether
    motivation plays a significant role in student
    academic underperformance).
  • What questions do you have about applying any of
    these concepts when planning classroom
    interventions?

24
Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements
These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention. These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention. These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Explicit Instruction. Student skills have been broken down into manageable and deliberately sequenced steps and the teacher provided overt strategies for students to learn and practice new skills (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008, p.1153).
? Appropriate Level of Challenge. The student experienced sufficient success in the academic task(s) to shape learning in the desired direction as well as to maintain student motivation (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008).
? Active Engagement. The intervention ensures that the student is engaged in active accurate responding (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005).at a rate frequent enough to capture student attention and to optimize effective learning.
? Performance Feedback. The student receives prompt performance feedback about the work completed (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008).
? Maintenance of Academic Standards. If the intervention includes any accommodations to better support the struggling learner (e.g., preferential seating, breaking a longer assignment into smaller chunks), those accommodations do not substantially lower the academic standards against which the student is to be evaluated and are not likely to reduce the students rate of learning (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005).
25
Activity Incorporating Effective Instructional
Elements
  • Think about the effective instructional elements
    reviewed in this workshop.
  • How can teachers ensure that all effective
    instructional elements are included in academic
    interventions?

Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Explicit Instruction.
? Appropriate Level of Challenge.
? Active Engagement..
? Performance Feedback.
? Maintenance of Academic Standards.
26
Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support
The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention. The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention. The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Teacher Responsibility. The teacher understands his or her responsibility to implement the academic intervention(s) with integrity.
? Teacher Acceptability. The teacher states that he or she finds the academic intervention feasible and acceptable for the identified student problem.
? Step-by-Step Intervention Script. The essential steps of the intervention are written as an intervention script--a series of clearly described stepsto ensure teacher understanding and make implementation easier (Hawkins, Morrison, Musti-Rao Hawkins, 2008).
? Intervention Training. If the teacher requires training to carry out the intervention, that training has been arranged.
? Intervention Elements Negotiable vs. Non-Negotiable. The teacher knows all of the steps of the intervention. Additionally, the teacher knows which of the intervention steps are non-negotiable (they must be completed exactly as designed) and which are negotiable (the teacher has some latitude in how to carry out those steps) (Hawkins, Morrison, Musti-Rao Hawkins, 2008).
? Assistance With the Intervention. If the intervention cannot be implemented as designed for any reason (e.g., student absence, lack of materials, etc.), the teacher knows how to get assistance quickly to either fix the problem(s) to the current intervention or to change the intervention.
27
Activity Verifying Teacher Understanding
Providing Teacher Support
  • In your teams
  • Review the checklist for verifying that teachers
    understand all elements of the intervention and
    actively support its use.
  • How will your school ensure that teachers will
    understand and support academic interventions
    designed to be implemented in the classroom?

Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support
Critical Item? Intervention Element
? Teacher Responsibility
? Teacher Acceptability.
? Step-by-Step Intervention Script.
? Intervention Training.
? Intervention Elements Negotiable vs. Non-Negotiable
? Assistance With the Intervention
28
Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data
Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Intervention Documentation. The teacher understands and can manage all documentation required for this intervention (e.g., maintaining a log of intervention sessions, etc.).
? Checkup Date. Before the intervention begins, a future checkup date is selected to review the intervention to determine if it is successful. Time elapsing between the start of the intervention and the checkup date should be short enough to allow a timely review of the intervention but long enough to give the school sufficient time to judge with confidence whether the intervention worked.
? Baseline. Before the intervention begins, the teacher has collected information about the students baseline level of performance in the identified area(s) of academic concern (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
? Goal. Before the intervention begins, the teacher has set a specific goal for predicted student improvement to use as a minimum standard for success (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). The goal is the expected student outcome by the checkup date if the intervention is successful.
? Progress-Monitoring. During the intervention, the teacher collects progress-monitoring data of sufficient quality and at a sufficient frequency to determine at the checkup date whether that intervention is successful (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
29
Activity Documenting the Intervention
Collecting Data
  • In your teams
  • Consider the elements of intervention
    documentation, data collection, and data
    interpretation discussed here.
  • What steps can your school take to make sure
    that data have a central focus when
    interventions are planned and implemented?

Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Intervention Documentation.
? Checkup Date.
? Baseline.
? Goal.
? Progress-Monitoring.
30
References
  • Bergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a
    problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of
    Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2),
    111-123.
  • Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
    Implementing response-to-intervention in
    elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
    York.
  • Burns, M. K., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Boice, C. H.
    (2008). Best practices in intensive academic
    interventions. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.),
    Best practices in school psychology V
    (pp.1151-1162). Bethesda, MD National
    Association of School Psychologists.
  • Haring, N.G., Lovitt, T.C., Eaton, M.D.,
    Hansen, C.L. (1978). The fourth R Research in
    the classroom. Columbus, OH Charles E. Merrill
    Publishing Co.
  • Hawkins, R. O., Morrison, J. Q., Musti-Rao, S.,
    Hawkins, J. A. (2008). Treatment integrity for
    academic interventions in real- world settings.
    School Psychology Forum, 2(3), 1-15.
  • Kratochwill, T. R., Clements, M. A., Kalymon,
    K. M. (2007). Response to intervention
    Conceptual and methodological issues in
    implementation. In Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K.,
    VanDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.), Handbook of
    response to intervention The science and
    practice of assessment and intervention. New
    York Springer.
  • Skinner, C. H., Pappas, D. N., Davis, K. A.
    (2005). Enhancing academic engagement Providing
    opportunities for responding and influencing
    students to choose to respond. Psychology in the
    Schools, 42, 389-403.
  • Witt, J. C., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Gilbertson,
    D. (2004). Troubleshooting behavioral
    interventions. A systematic process for finding
    and eliminating problems. School Psychology
    Review, 33, 363-383. 
  • Yeaton, W. M. Sechrest, L. (1981). Critical
    dimensions in the choice and maintenance of
    successful treatments Strength, integrity, and
    effectiveness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
    Psychology, 49, 156-167.

31
Reading Interventions to Promote Fluency
Comprehension Jim Wright www.interventioncentral
.org
32
Savvy Teachers Guide Reading Interventions That
Work (Wright, 2000)
33
Big Ideas in Beginning Reading
  • Phonemic Awareness The ability to hear and
    manipulate sounds in words.
  • Alphabetic Principle The ability to associate
    sounds with letters and use these sounds to form
    words.
  • Fluency with Text The effortless, automatic
    ability to read words in connected text.
  • Vocabulary The ability to understand (receptive)
    and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey
    meaning.
  • Comprehension The complex cognitive process
    involving the intentional interaction between
    reader and text to convey meaning.

Source Big ideas in beginning reading.
University of Oregon. Retrieved September 23,
2007, from http//reading.uoregon.edu/index.php
34
  • Building Reading Fluency

35
NRP Conclusions Regarding Importance of Oral
Reading Fluency
  • An extensive review of the literature
    indicates that classroom practices that
    encourage repeated oral reading with feedback
    and guidance leads to meaningful improvements in
    reading expertise for studentsfor good readers
    as well as those who are experiencing
    difficulties.-p. 3-3

36
Interventions forIncreasing Reading Fluency
  • Assisted Reading Practice
  • Listening Passage Preview (Listening While
    Reading)
  • Paired Reading
  • Repeated Reading

37
  • The student reads aloud in tandem with an
    accomplished reader. At a student signal, the
    helping reader stops reading, while the student
    continues on. When the student commits a reading
    error, the helping reader resumes reading in
    tandem.

Paired Reading
38
  • Building Reading Comprehension

39
  • Students periodically check their understanding
    of sentences, paragraphs, and pages of text as
    they read. When students encounter problems with
    vocabulary or comprehension, they use a checklist
    to apply simple strategies to solve those reading
    difficulties.

Click or Clunk Self-Check
40
Click or Clunk Check Sheet
41
Click or Clunk? Example
The combination of lack of practice, deficient
decoding skills, and difficult materials results
in unrewarding early reading experiences that
lead to less involvement in reading related
activities. Lack of exposure and practice on the
part of the less skilled readers delays the
development of automaticity and speed at the
word-metacognition level. Slow, capacity-draining
word-recognition processes require cognitive
resources that should be allocated to
higher-level process of text integration and
comprehension. - Stanovich, K., (1986)
The combination of lack of practice, deficient
decoding skills, and difficult materials results
in unrewarding early reading experiences that
lead to less involvement in reading related
activities. Lack of exposure and practice on the
part of the less skilled readers delays the
development of automaticity and speed at the
word-metacognition level. Slow, capacity-draining
word-recognition processes require cognitive
resources that should be allocated to
higher-level process of text integration and
comprehension. - Stanovich, K., (1986)
The combination of lack of practice, deficient
decoding skills, and difficult materials results
in unrewarding early reading experiences that
lead to less involvement in reading related
activities. Lack of exposure and practice on the
part of the less skilled readers delays the
development of automaticity and speed at the
word-metacognition level. Slow, capacity-draining
word-recognition processes require cognitive
resources that should be allocated to
higher-level process of text integration and
comprehension. - Stanovich, K., (1986)
The combination of lack of practice, deficient
decoding skills, and difficult materials results
in unrewarding early reading experiences that
lead to less involvement in reading related
activities. Lack of exposure and practice on the
part of the less skilled readers delays the
development of automaticity and speed at the
word-metacognition level. Slow, capacity-draining
word-recognition processes require cognitive
resources that should be allocated to
higher-level process of text integration and
comprehension. - Stanovich, K., (1986)
The combination of lack of practice, deficient
decoding skills, and difficult materials results
in unrewarding early reading experiences that
lead to less involvement in reading related
activities. Lack of exposure and practice on the
part of the less skilled readers delays the
development of automaticity and speed at the
word-metacognition level. Slow, capacity-draining
word-recognition processes require cognitive
resources that should be allocated to
higher-level process of text integration and
comprehension. - Stanovich, K., (1986)
The combination of lack of practice, deficient
decoding skills, and difficult materials results
in unrewarding early reading experiences that
lead to less involvement in reading related
activities. Lack of exposure and practice on the
part of the less skilled readers delays the
development of automaticity and speed at the
word-metacognition level. Slow, capacity-draining
word-recognition processes require cognitive
resources that should be allocated to
higher-level process of text integration and
comprehension. - Stanovich, K., (1986)
42
Tier 1 (Classroom) Literacy Interventions for
Middle High Schools Jim Wright www.intervention
central.org
43
Risk for reading failure always involves the
interaction of a particular set of child
characteristics with specific characteristics of
the instructional environment. Risk status is not
entirely inherent in the child, but always
involves a mismatch between child
characteristics and the instruction that is
provided. (Foorman Torgesen, 2001 p. 206).


Source Foorman, B. R., Torgesen, J. (2001).
Critical elements of classroom and small-group
instruction promote reading success in all
children. Learning Disabilities Research
Practice, 16, 203-212.
44
Fifteen Elements of Effective Adolescent
Literacy Programs
  1. Extended time for literacy across classes
  2. Professional development
  3. Ongoing summative assessment of students and
    programs
  4. Teacher teams (interdisciplinary with a student
    problem-solving focus)
  5. Leadership
  6. Comprehensive and coordinated literacy program
    (interdisciplinary, interdepartmental)
  1. Direct, explicit comprehension instruction
  2. Effective instructional principles embedded in
    content
  3. Motivation and self-directed learning
  4. Text-based collaborative learning
  5. Formative student assessment
  6. Strategic tutoring
  7. Diverse texts
  8. Intensive writing
  9. Technology component

Source Biancarosa, C., Snow, C. E. (2006).
Reading nextA vision for action and research in
middle and high school literacy A report to
Carnegie Corporation of New York (2nd
ed.).Washington, DC Alliance for Excellent
Education. Retrieved from http//www.all4ed.org/fi
les/ReadingNext.pdf
45
Promoting Literacy in Middle High School
Classrooms Three Elements
  • Explicit vocabulary instruction
  • Reading comprehension
  • Extended discussion

Source Kamil, M. L., Borman, G. D., Dole, J.,
Kral, C. C., Salinger, T., Torgesen, J. (2008).
Improving adolescent literacy Effective
classroom and intervention practices A practice
guide (NCEE 2008-4027). Washington, DC National
Center for Education Evaluation and Regional
Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S.
Department of Education. Retrieved from
http//ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc.
46
RTI Secondary Literacy Explicit Vocabulary
Instruction
47
Vocabulary Why This Instructional Goal is
Important
  • As vocabulary terms become more specialized in
    content area courses, students are less able to
    derive the meaning of unfamiliar words from
    context alone.
  • Students must instead learn vocabulary through
    more direct means, including having opportunities
    to explicitly memorize words and their
    definitions.
  • Students may require 12 to 17 meaningful
    exposures to a word to learn it.

48
Provide Dictionary Training
  • The student is trained to use an Internet lookup
    strategy to better understand dictionary or
    glossary definitions of key vocabulary items.
  • The student first looks up the word and its
    meaning(s) in the dictionary/glossary.
  • If necessary, the student isolates the specific
    word meaning that appears to be the appropriate
    match for the term as it appears in course texts
    and discussion.
  • The student goes to an Internet search engine
    (e.g., Google) and locates at least five text
    samples in which the term is used in context and
    appears to match the selected dictionary
    definition.

49
Enhance Vocabulary Instruction Through Use of
Graphic Organizers or Displays A Sampling
  • Teachers can use graphic displays to structure
    their vocabulary discussions and activities
    (Boardman et al., 2008 Fisher, 2007 Texas
    Reading Initiative, 2002).

50
4-Square Graphic Display
  • The student divides a page into four quadrants.
    In the upper left section, the student writes the
    target word. In the lower left section, the
    student writes the word definition. In the upper
    right section, the student generates a list of
    examples that illustrate the term, and in the
    lower right section, the student writes
    non-examples (e.g., terms that are the opposite
    of the target vocabulary word).

51
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52
Semantic Word Definition Map
  • The graphic display contains sections in which
    the student writes the word, its definition
    (what is this?), additional details that extend
    its meaning (What is it like?), as well as a
    listing of examples and non-examples (e.g.,
    terms that are the opposite of the target
    vocabulary word).

53
Word Definition Map Example
54
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55
Semantic Feature Analysis
  • A target vocabulary term is selected for
    analysis in this grid-like graphic display.
    Possible features or properties of the term
    appear along the top margin, while examples of
    the term are listed ion the left margin. The
    student considers the vocabulary term and its
    definition. Then the student evaluates each
    example of the term to determine whether it does
    or does not match each possible term property or
    element.

56
Semantic Feature Analysis Example
  • VOCABULARY TERM TRANSPORTATION

57
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58
Comparison/Contrast (Venn) Diagram
  • Two terms are listed and defined. For each term,
    the student brainstorms qualities or properties
    or examples that illustrate the terms meaning.
    Then the student groups those qualities,
    properties, and examples into 3 sections
  • items unique to Term 1
  • items unique to Term 2
  • items shared by both terms

59
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60
Promote Wide Reading
  • Students read widely in the content area, using
    texts that supplement and extend information
    supplied by the textbook. Wide reading results
    in substantial increases in student vocabulary
    over time due to incidental learning. To
    strengthen the positive impact of wide reading on
    vocabulary development, have student texts
    available that vary in difficulty and that are of
    high interest. Discuss readings in class.
    Experiment with ways to document student
    independent reading and integrate that wide
    reading into an effort grade for the course. If
    needed, build time into the students school
    schedule for supervised wide reading time.

61
Hold Read-Alouds
  • Select texts that supplement the course textbook
    and that illustrate central concepts and contain
    important vocabulary covered in the course. Read
    those texts aloud for 3 to 5 minutes per class
    session--while students follow along silently.
    Read-alouds provide students with additional
    exposure to vocabulary items in context. They can
    also lower the threshold of difficulty Students
    may be more likely to attempt to read an assigned
    text independently if they have already gotten a
    start in the text by listening to a more advanced
    reader read the first few pages aloud.
    Read-alouds can support other vocabulary-building
    activities such as guided discussion, vocabulary
    review, and wide reading.

62
Provide Regular In-Class Instruction and Review
of Vocabulary Terms, Definitions
  • Present important new vocabulary terms in class,
    along with student-friendly definitions. Provide
    example sentences to illustrate the use of the
    term. Assign students to write example sentences
    employing new vocabulary to illustrate their
    mastery of the terms.

63
Generate Possible Sentences
  • The teacher selects 6 to 8 challenging new
    vocabulary terms and 4 to 6 easier, more familiar
    vocabulary items relevant to the lesson.
    Introduce the vocabulary terms to the class. Have
    students write sentences that contain at least
    two words from the posted vocabulary list. Then
    write examples of student sentences on the board
    until all words from the list have been used.
    After the assigned reading, review the possible
    sentences that were previously generated.
    Evaluate as a group whether, based on the
    passage, the sentence is possible (true) in its
    current form. If needed, have the group recommend
    how to change the sentence to make it possible.

64
RTI Secondary Literacy Extended Discussion
65
Extended Discussions Why This Instructional Goal
is Important
  • Extended, guided group discussion is a powerful
    means to help students to learn vocabulary and
    advanced concepts. Discussion can also model for
    students various thinking processes and
    cognitive strategies (Kamil et al. 2008, p. 22).
    To be effective, guided discussion should go
    beyond students answering a series of factual
    questions posed by the teacher Quality
    discussions are typically open-ended and
    exploratory in nature, allowing for multiple
    points of view (Kamil et al., 2008).
  • When group discussion is used regularly and
    well in instruction, students show increased
    growth in literacy skills. Content-area teachers
    can use it to demonstrate the habits of mind
    and patterns of thinking of experts in various
    their discipline e.g., historians,
    mathematicians, chemists, engineers, literacy
    critics, etc.

66
Use a Standard Protocol to Structure Extended
Discussions
  • Good extended classwide discussions elicit a
    wide range of student opinions, subject
    individual viewpoints to critical scrutiny in a
    supportive manner, put forth alternative views,
    and bring closure by summarizing the main points
    of the discussion. Teachers can use a simple
    structure to effectively and reliably organize
    their discussions

67
Standard Protocol Discussion Format
  1. Pose questions to the class that require students
    to explain their positions and their reasoning .
  2. When needed, think aloud as the discussion
    leader to model good reasoning practices (e.g.,
    taking a clear stand on a topic).
  3. Supportively challenge student views by offering
    possible counter arguments.
  4. Single out and mention examples of effective
    student reasoning.
  5. Avoid being overly directive the purpose of
    extended discussions is to more fully investigate
    and think about complex topics.
  6. Sum up the general ground covered in the
    discussion and highlight the main ideas covered.

68
RTI Secondary Literacy Reading Comprehension
69
Reading Comprehension Why This Instructional
Goal is Important
  • Students require strong reading comprehension
    skills to succeed in challenging content-area
    classes. At present, there is no clear evidence
    that any one reading comprehension instructional
    technique is clearly superior to others. In fact,
    it appears that students benefit from being
    taught any self-directed practice that prompts
    them to engage more actively in understanding the
    meaning of text (Kamil et al., 2008).

70
Assist Students in Setting Content Goals for
Reading
  • Students are more likely to be motivated to
    read--and to read more closelyif they have
    specific content-related reading goals in mind.
    At the start of a reading assignment, for
    example, the instructor has students state what
    questions they might seek to answer or what
    topics they would like to learn more about in
    their reading. The student or teacher writes down
    these questions. After students have completed
    the assignee reading, they review their original
    questions and share what they have learned (e.g.,
    through discussion in large group or cooperative
    learning group, or even as a written assignment).

71
Teach Students to Monitor Their Own Comprehension
and Apply Fix-Up Skills
  • Teachers can teach students specific strategies
    to monitor their understanding of text and
    independently use fix-up skills as needed.
    Examples of student monitoring and repair skills
    for reading comprehension include encouraging
    them to
  • Stop after every paragraph to summarize its main
    idea
  • Reread the sentence or paragraph again if
    necessary
  • Generate and write down questions that arise
    during reading
  • Restate challenging or confusing ideas or
    concepts from the text in the students own words

72
Collect a Bank of Intervention Scripts to Teach
Specific Comprehension Strategies
  • Teachers can collect intervention scripts to
    address different comprehension issues that arise
    in their classrooms.

73
Activity Tier 1 Interventions
74
Tier I Intervention Menu Activity
  • Consider the intervention resources from your
    workshop packet and available on the conference
    webpage.
  • Draft a school plan for creating (or growing) an
    academic intervention menu for classroom
    teachers
  • Who will develop the intervention menu?
  • Where will your school find intervention ideas?
  • How will the completed intervention menu be
    shared with teachers?
  • How will you keep the menu updated with new
    intervention ideas?

75
RTI Writing Interventions Jim
Wright www.interventioncentral.org
76
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77
Defining Student Writing Problems
78
  • "If all the grammarians in the world were placed
    end to end, it would be a good thing."
  • Oscar Wilde

79
  • Domains of writing to be assessed (Robinson
    Howell, 2008)
  • Fluency/Text Generation Facility in getting text
    onto paper or typed into the computer. (NOTE
    This element can be significantly influenced by
    student motivation.)
  • Syntactic Maturity This skill includes the
  • Ability to discern when a word string meets
    criteria as a complete sentence
  • Ability to write compositions with a diverse
    range of sentence structures
  • Semantic Maturity Writers use of vocabulary of
    range and sophistication

Source Robinson, L. K., Howell, K. W. (2008).
Best practices in curriculum-based evaluation
written expression. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 439-452). Bethesda, MD National Association
of School Psychologists.
80
Domains of writing to be assessed (Robinson
Howell, 2008)
  • 5-Step Writing Process (Items in bold are
    iterative)
  • Planning. The student carries out necessary
    pre-writing planning activities, including
    content, format, and outline.
  • Drafting. The student writes or types the
    composition.
  • Revision. The student reviews the content of the
    composition-in-progress and makes changes as
    needed. After producing an initial written draft,
    the student considers revisions to content before
    turning in for a grade or evaluation.
  • Editing. The student looks over the composition
    and corrects any mechanical mistakes
    (capitalization, punctuation, etc.).
  • Publication The student submits the composition
    in finished form.

Source Robinson, L. K., Howell, K. W. (2008).
Best practices in curriculum-based evaluation
written expression. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 439-452). Bethesda, MD National Association
of School Psychologists.
81
Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing next
Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved
from http//www.all4ed.org/files/ WritingNext.pdf
82
The Effect of Grammar Instruction as an
Independent Activity
  • Grammar instruction in the studies reviewed
    for the Writing Next report involved the
    explicit and systematic teaching of the parts of
    speech and structure of sentences. The
    meta-analysis found an effect for this type of
    instruction for students across the full range of
    ability, but surprisingly, this effect was
    negativeSuch findings raise serious questions
    about some educators enthusiasm for traditional
    grammar instruction as a focus of writing
    instruction for adolescents.Overall, the
    findings on grammar instruction suggest that,
    although teaching grammar is important,
    alternative procedures, such as sentence
    combining, are more effective than traditional
    approaches for improving the quality of students
    writing. p. 21

Source Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing
next Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education.
83
Evaluating the Impact of Effect Size Coefficients
  • 0.20 Effect Size Small
  • 0.50 Effect Size Medium
  • 0.80 Effect Size Large

Source Cohen,J. (1988). Statistical power
analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nded.).
Hillsdale,NJErlbaum.
84
  • Elements of effective writing instruction for
    adolescents
  • Writing Process (Effect Size 0.82) Students
    are taught a process for planning, revising, and
    editing.
  • Summarizing (Effect Size 0.82) Students are
    taught methods to identify key points, main ideas
    from readings to write summaries of source texts.
  • Cooperative Learning Activities (Collaborative
    Writing) (Effect Size 0.75) Students are
    placed in pairs or groups with learning
    activities that focus on collaborative use of the
    writing process.
  • Goal-Setting (Effect Size 0.70) Students set
    specific product goals for their writing and
    then check their attainment of those
    self-generated goals.

Source Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing
next Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved
from http//www.all4ed.org/files/WritingNext.pdf
85
  • Elements of effective writing instruction for
    adolescents
  • Writing Processors (Effect Size 0.55) Students
    have access to computers/word processors in the
    writing process.
  • Sentence Combining (Effect Size 0.50) Students
    take part in instructional activities that
    require the combination or embedding of simpler
    sentences (e.g., Noun-Verb-Object) to generate
    more advanced, complex sentences.
  • Prewriting (Effect Size 0.32) Students learn
    to select, develop, or organize ideas to
    incorporate into their writing by participating
    in structured pre-writing activities.
  • Inquiry Activities (Effect Size 0.32) Students
    become actively engaged researchers, collecting
    and analyzing information to guide the ideas and
    content for writing assignments.

Source Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing
next Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved
from http//www.all4ed.org/files/WritingNext.pdf
86
  • Elements of effective writing instruction for
    adolescents
  • Process Writing (Effect Size 0.32) Writing
    instruction is taught in a workshop format that
    stresses extended writing opportunities,
    writing for authentic audiences, personalized
    instruction, and cycles of writing (Graham
    Perin, 2007 p. 4).
  • Use of Writing Models (Effect Size 0.25)
    Students read and discuss models of good writing
    and use them as exemplars for their own writing.
  • Writing to Learn Content (Effect Size 0.23)
    The instructor incorporates writing activities as
    a means to have students learn content material.

Source Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing
next Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved
from http//www.all4ed.org/files/WritingNext.pdf
87
Question How Does a School Use Research
Information to Influence Classroom Practice?
  • In this workshop, we reviewed recommendations
    from the Writing Next manual, a meta-analysis of
    effective writing instructional elements.
  • How might your school use information sources
    like this to influence classroom practice?

88
  • "The difference between the right word and the
    almost right word is the difference between
    lightning and the lightning bug."
  • Mark Twain

89
  • "Your manuscript is both good and original. But
    the part that is good is not original, and the
    part that is original is not good."
  • Samuel Johnson

90
Selected Writing Interventions
91
Fluency Have Students Write Every Day
  • Short daily writing assignments can build
    student writing fluency and make writing a more
    motivating activity. Poor writers gradually
    develop into better writers when they are
    prompted to write daily--and receive rapid
    feedback and encouragement about that writing.
  • The teacher can encourage daily writing by
  • giving short writing assignments
  • allowing time for students to journal about their
    learning activities
  • requiring that they correspond daily with pen
    pals via email
  • even posting a question on the board as a
    bell-ringer activity that students can respond to
    in writing for extra credit.

Source Graham, S., Harris, K. R., Larsen, L.
(2001). Prevention and intervention of writing
difficulties for students with learning
disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research
Practice, 16, 74-84.
92
Writing Support in the Classroom Essentials of
Effective Instruction
  • Teachers are most successful in reaching
    students with writing delays when they
  • Build their written expression lessons around
    the 3 stages of writing planning, writing, and
    revision and make those stages clear and
    explicit.
  • Provide students with think sheets that outline
    step-by-step strategies for tackle the different
    phases of a writing assignment (e.g., taking
    concise notes from research material building
    an outline proofreading a draft).
  • Expose students to different kinds of expressive
    text, such as persuasive, narrative, and
    expository writing-- good prose models that the
    student can review when completing a writing
    assignment.
  • Give supportive and timely feedback to students
    about their writing. When teachers or classmates
    offer writing feedback to the student, they are
    honest but also maintain an encouraging tone.

Source Gersten, R., Baker, S., Edwards, L.
(1999). Teaching expressive writing to students
with learning disabilities A meta-analysis. New
York National Center for Learning Disabilities.
93
Integrated Writing Instruction (MacArthur,
Graham, Schwarz, 1993 )
  • The instructor follows a uniform daily
    instructional framework for writing instruction.
  • Status-checking. At the start of the writing
    session, the instructor quickly goes around the
    room, asking each student what writing goal(s) he
    or she plans to accomplish that day. The
    instructor records these responses for all to
    see.
  • Mini-Lesson. The instructor teaches a mini-lesson
    relevant to the writing process. Mini-lessons are
    a useful means to present explicit writing
    strategies (e.g., an outline for drafting an
    opinion essay) as well as a forum for reviewing
    the conventions of writing. Mini-lessons should
    be kept short (e.g.,5-10 minutes) to hold the
    attention of the class.

94
Integrated Writing Instruction Cont. (MacArthur,
Graham, Schwarz, 1993 )
  • Student Writing. During the session, substantial
    time is set aside for students to write. Their
    writing assignment might be one handed out that
    day or part of a longer composition (e.g., story,
    extended essay) that the student is writing and
    editing across multiple days. When possible,
    student writers are encouraged to use computers
    as aids in composing and editing their work.
  • Peer Teacher Conferences. At the end of the
    daily writing block, the student may sit with a
    classmate to review each other's work, using a
    structured peer editing strategy. During this
    discussion time, the teacher also holds brief
    individual conferences with students to review
    their work, have students evaluate how
    successfully they completed their writing goals
    for the day, and hear writers' thoughts about how
    they might plan to further develop a writing
    assignment.

95
Integrated Writing Instruction Cont. (MacArthur,
Graham, Schwarz, 1993 )
  • Group Sharing or Publishing. At the end of each
    session, writing produced that day is shared with
    the whole class. Students might volunteer to read
    passages aloud from their compositions. Students
    are encouraged to choose more polished work and
    post it on the classroom wall or bulletin board,
    have their work displayed in a public area of the
    school, publish the work in an anthology of
    school writings, read it aloud at school
    assemblies, or publish it on a school Internet
    site.

96
Monitoring to Increase Writing Fluency (Rathvon,
1999)
  • Students gain motivation to write through daily
    monitoring and charting of their own and
    classwide rates of writing fluency.
  • Assign timed freewriting several times per week.
  • After each freewriting period, direct each
    student to count up the number of words he or she
    has written in their daily journal entry (whether
    spelled correctly or not).
  • Have students to record their personal
    writing-fluency score in their journal and also
    chart the score on their own time-series graph
    for visual feedback.
  • Collect the days writing-fluency scores of all
    students in the class, sum those scores, and
    chart the results on a large time-series graph
    posted at the front of the room.
  • Raise the class goal by five percent per week.

97
Organization Build an Outline by Talking Through
the Topic
  • Students who struggle to organize their notes
    into a coherent outline can tell others what
    they know about the topicand then capture the
    informal logical structure of that conversation
    to create a working outline.
  • The student studies notes from the topic and
    describes what he or she knows about the topic
    and its significance to a listener. (The student
    may want to audio-record this conversation for
    later playback.)
  • After the conversation, the student jots down an
    outline from memory to capture the structure and
    main ideas of the discussion.
  • This outline kernel can then be expanded and
    refined into the framework for a paper.

Source The Writing Center, University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill (n.d.). Reorganizing your
draft. Retrieved December 23, 2006, from
http//www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/organizati
on.html
98
Organization Reverse Outline the Draft
  • Students can improve the internal flow of their
    compositions through reverse outlining.
  • The student writes a draft of the composition.
  • Next, the student reads through the draft,
    jotting notes in the margins that signify the
    main idea of each paragraph or section.
  • Then the student organizes the margin notes into
    an outline to reveal the organizational structure
    of the paper.
  • This reverse outline allows the student to note
    whether sections of the draft are repetitious,
    are out of order, or do not logically connect
    with one another.

Source The Writing Center, University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill (n.d.). Reorganizing your
draft. Retrieved December 23, 2006, from
http//www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/organizati
on.html
99
A Memory Device for Proofreading SCOPE (Bos
Vaughn, 2002)
  • When students regularly use a simple, portable,
    easily memorized plan for proofreading, the
    quality of their writing improves significantly.
  • Create and have students refer to a classroom
    with the SCOPE proofreading elements Spelling
    Are my words spelled correctly Capitalization
    Have I capitalized all appropriate words,
    including first words of sentences, proper nouns,
    and proper names? Order of words Is my word
    order (syntax) correct? Punctuation Did I use
    end punctuation and other punctuation marks
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