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Title: Establishing Response to Intervention in Middle and High Schools: A Step-by-Step Guide Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org


1
Establishing Response to Intervention in Middle
and High Schools A Step-by-Step GuideJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
2
Workshop Agenda
3
Download the introductory PPT and handout from
this workshop at
  • http//www.jimwrightonline.com/ESC8.php

4
Secondary Students Unique Challenges
  • Struggling learners in middle and high school
    may
  • Have significant deficits in basic academic
    skills
  • Lack higher-level problem-solving strategies and
    concepts
  • Present with issues of school motivation
  • Show social/emotional concerns that interfere
    with academics
  • Have difficulty with attendance
  • Are often in a process of disengaging from
    learning even as adults in school expect that
    those students will move toward being
    self-managing learners

5
Why Do Students Drop Out of School? Student
Survey
  • Classes were not perceived as interesting (47
    percent)
  • Not motivated by teachers to work hard (69
    percent)
  • Failing in school was a major factor in dropping
    out (35 percent)
  • Had to get a job (32 percent)
  • Became a parent (26 percent)
  • Needed to care for a family member (22 percent)

Source Bridgeland, J. M., DiIulio, J. J.,
Morison, K. B. (2006). The silent epidemic
Perspectives of high school dropouts. Seattle,
WA Gates Foundation. Retrieved on May 4, 2008,
from http//www.gatesfoundation.org/nr/downloads/e
d/TheSilentEpidemic3-06FINAL.pdf
6
Overlap Between Policy Pathways RTI Goals
Recommendations for Schools to Reduce Dropout
Rates
  • A range of high school learning options matched
    to the needs of individual learners different
    schools for different students
  • Strategies to engage parents
  • Individualized graduation plans
  • Early warning systems to identify students at
    risk of school failure
  • A range of supplemental services/intensive
    assistance strategies for struggling students
  • Adult advocates to work individually with at-risk
    students to overcome obstacles to school
    completion

Source Bridgeland, J. M., DiIulio, J. J.,
Morison, K. B. (2006). The silent epidemic
Perspectives of high school dropouts. Seattle,
WA Gates Foundation. Retrieved on May 4, 2008,
from http//www.gatesfoundation.org/nr/downloads/e
d/TheSilentEpidemic3-06FINAL.pdf
7
School Dropout as a Process, Not an Event
  • It is increasingly accepted that dropout is
    best conceptualized as a long-term process, not
    an instantaneous event however, most
    interventions are administered at a middle or
    high school level after problems are severe.

Source Jimerson, S., Reschly, A.L., Hess, R.
(2008). Best practices in increasing the
likelihood of school completion. In A. Thomas
J. Grimes (Eds). Best Practices in School
Psychology - 5th Ed (pp. 1085-1097). Bethesda,
MD National Association of School
Psychologists.. p.1090
8
Student Motivation The Need for Intervention
  • A common response to students who struggle in
    sixth grade is to wait and hope they grow out of
    it or adapt, to attribute early struggles to the
    natural commotion of early adolescence and to
    temporary difficulties in adapting to new
    organizational structures of schooling, more
    challenging curricula and assessment, and less
    personalized attention. Our evidence clearly
    indicates that, at least in high-poverty urban
    schools, sixth graders who are missing 20 or
    more of the days, exhibiting poor behavior, or
    failing math or English do not recover. On the
    contrary, they drop out. This says that early
    intervention is not only productive but
    absolutely essential.

Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
9
Five Core Components of RTI Service Delivery
  1. Student services are arranged in a multi-tier
    model
  2. Data are collected to assess student baseline
    levels and to make decisions about student
    progress
  3. Interventions are evidence-based
  4. The procedural integrity of interventions is
    measured
  5. RTI is implemented and developed at the school-
    and district-level to be scalable and sustainable
    over time

Source Glover, T. A., DiPerna, J. C. (2007).
Service delivery for response to intervention
Core components and directions for future
research. School Psychology Review, 36, 526-540.
10
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
11
Tier I Instruction/Interventions
  • Tier I instruction/interventions
  • Are universalavailable to all students.
  • Can be delivered within classrooms or throughout
    the school.
  • Are likely to be put into place by the teacher at
    the first sign that a student is struggling.
  • All children have access to Tier 1
    instruction/interventions. Teachers have the
    capability to use those strategies without
    requiring outside assistance.
  • Tier 1 instruction/interventions encompass
  • The schools core curriculum and all published or
    teacher-made materials used to deliver that
    curriculum.
  • Teacher use of whole-group teaching
    management strategies.
  • Teacher use of individualized strategies with
    specific students.
  • Tier I instruction/interventions attempt to
    answer the question Are routine classroom
    instructional strategies sufficient to help the
    student to achieve academic success?

12
Complementary RTI Models Standard Treatment
Problem-Solving Protocols
  • The two most commonly used RTI approaches are
    (1) standard treatment and (2) problem-solving
    protocol. While these two approaches to RTI are
    sometimes described as being very different from
    each other, they actually have several common
    elements, and both fit within a problem-solving
    framework. In practice, many schools and
    districts combine or blend aspects of the two
    approaches to fit their needs.

Source Duffy, H. (August 2007). Meeting the
needs of significantly struggling learners in
high school. Washington, DC National High School
Center. Retrieved from http//www.betterhighschool
s.org/pubs/ p. 5
13
RTI Interventions Standard-Treatment vs.
Problem-Solving
There are two different vehicles that schools can
use to deliver RTI interventions Standard-Protoco
l (Standalone Intervention). Programs based on
scientifically valid instructional practices
(standard protocol) are created to address
frequent student referral concerns. These
services are provided outside of the classroom. A
middle school, for example, may set up a
structured math-tutoring program staffed by adult
volunteer tutors to provide assistance to
students with limited math skills. Students
referred for a Tier II math intervention would be
placed in this tutoring program. An advantage of
the standard-protocol approach is that it is
efficient and consistent large numbers of
students can be put into these group
interventions to receive a highly standardized
intervention. However, standard group
intervention protocols often cannot be
individualized easily to accommodate a specific
students unique needs. Problem-solving
(Classroom-Based Intervention). Individualized
research-based interventions match the profile of
a particular students strengths and limitations.
The classroom teacher often has a large role in
carrying out these interventions. A plus of the
problem-solving approach is that the intervention
can be customized to the students needs.
However, developing intervention plans for
individual students can be time-consuming.
14
Tier 2 Supplemental (Group-Based)
Interventions(Standard Treatment Protocol)
  • Tier 2 interventions are typically delivered in
    small-group format. About 15 of students in the
    typical school will require Tier 2/supplemental
    intervention support.
  • Group size for Tier 2 interventions is limited
    to 4-7 students. Students placed in Tier 2
    interventions should have a shared profile of
    intervention need.
  • The reading progress of students in Tier 2
    interventions are monitored at least 1-2 times
    per month.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
15
Tier 3 Intensive Individualized
Interventions(Problem-Solving Protocol)
  • Tier 3 interventions are the most intensive
    offered in a school setting.
  • Students qualify for Tier 3 interventions
    because
  • they are found to have a large skill gap when
    compared to their class or grade peers and/or
  • They did not respond to interventions provided
    previously at Tiers 1 2.
  • Tier 3 interventions are provided daily for
    sessions of 30 minutes. The student-teacher ratio
    is flexible but should allow the student to
    receive intensive, individualized instruction.
  • The reading progress of students in Tier 3
    interventions is monitored at least weekly.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
16
Middle High School Lack of Consensus on an RTI
Model
  • Because RTI has thus far been implemented
    primarily in early elementary grades, it is not
    clear precisely what RTI might look like at the
    high school level.

Source Duffy, H. (August 2007). Meeting the
needs of significantly struggling learners in
high school. Washington, DC National High School
Center. Retrieved from http//www.betterhighschool
s.org/pubs/ p. 3
17
At the Federal Level A Hands-Off Approach to
RTI Implementation
  • There are many RTI models and the regulations
    are written to accommodate the many different
    models that are currently in use. The Department
    does not mandate or endorse any particular model.
    Rather, the regulations provide States with the
    flexibility to adopt criteria that best meet
    local needs. Language that is more specific or
    prescriptive would not be appropriate. For
    example, while we recognize that rate of learning
    is often a key variable in assessing a childs
    response to intervention, it would not be
    appropriate for the regulations to set a standard
    for responsiveness or improvement in the rate of
    learning. p. 46653

Source U.S. Department of Education. (2006).
Assistance to States for the education of
children with disabilities and preschool grants
for children with disabilities final rule. 71
Fed. Reg. (August 14, 2006) 34 CFR Parts 300 and
301.
18
The Purpose of RTI in Secondary Schools What
Students Should It Serve?
19
RTI Secondary Top Tasks for Implementing RTI at
the Middle High School Level Jim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
20
RTI School Readiness Survey Secondary Level
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Team Activity Rate Your Secondary Schools RTI
Readiness
  • In your elbow groups
  • Review the RTI Readiness Survey for Middle High
    School.
  • Rate your school on this survey.
  • Discuss with your group how RTI ready your
    school is at the present time.

33
Team Activity Rate Your Secondary Schools RTI
Readiness
  • In your elbow groups
  • Discuss the main points about RTI at the
    secondary level presented at this workshop.
  • What are some strengths in your school that you
    believe will help you to implement RTI?
  • What are some challenges that you believe may
    need to be overcome to implement RTI?

34
Instruction and Interventions within Response to
InterventionJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.o
rg
35
RTI Intervention Key Concepts
36
Schools Need to Review Tier 1 (Classroom)
Interventions to Ensure That They Are Supported
By Research
  • There is a lack of agreement about what is meant
    by scientifically validated classroom (Tier I)
    interventions. Districts should establish a
    vetting processcriteria for judging whether a
    particular instructional or intervention approach
    should be considered empirically based.

Source Fuchs, D., Deshler, D. D. (2007). What
we need to know about responsiveness to
intervention (and shouldnt be afraid to ask)..
Learning Disabilities Research Practice,
22(2),129136.
37
What Are Appropriate Content-Area Tier 1
Universal Interventions for Secondary Schools?
  • High schools need to determine what constitutes
    high-quality universal instruction across content
    areas. In addition, high school teachers need
    professional development in, for example,
    differentiated instructional techniques that will
    help ensure student access to instruction
    interventions that are effectively implemented.

Source Duffy, H. (August 2007). Meeting the
needs of significantly struggling learners in
high school. Washington, DC National High School
Center. Retrieved from http//www.betterhighschool
s.org/pubs/ p. 9
38
Essential Elements of Any Academic or Behavioral
Intervention (Treatment) Strategy
  • Method of delivery (Who or what delivers the
    treatment?)Examples include teachers,
    paraprofessionals, parents, volunteers,
    computers.
  • Treatment component (What makes the intervention
    effective?)Examples include activation of prior
    knowledge to help the student to make meaningful
    connections between known and new material
    guide practice (e.g., Paired Reading) to increase
    reading fluency periodic review of material to
    aid student retention.

39
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Core Instruction. Those instructional strategies
    that are used routinely with all students in a
    general-education setting are considered core
    instruction. High-quality instruction is
    essential and forms the foundation of RTI
    academic support. NOTE While it is important to
    verify that good core instructional practices are
    in place for a struggling student, those routine
    practices do not count as individual student
    interventions.

40
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Intervention. An academic intervention is a
    strategy used to teach a new skill, build fluency
    in a skill, or encourage a child to apply an
    existing skill to new situations or settings. An
    intervention can be thought of as a set of
    actions that, when taken, have demonstrated
    ability to change a fixed educational trajectory
    (Methe Riley-Tillman, 2008 p. 37).

41
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Accommodation. An accommodation is intended to
    help the student to fully access and participate
    in the general-education curriculum without
    changing the instructional content and without
    reducing the students rate of learning (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005). An accommodation is
    intended to remove barriers to learning while
    still expecting that students will master the
    same instructional content as their typical
    peers.
  • Accommodation example 1 Students are allowed to
    supplement silent reading of a novel by listening
    to the book on tape.
  • Accommodation example 2 For unmotivated
    students, the instructor breaks larger
    assignments into smaller chunks and providing
    students with performance feedback and praise for
    each completed chunk of assigned work (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005).

42
Teaching is giving it isnt taking away.
(Howell, Hosp Kurns, 2008 p. 356).


Source Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., Kurns, S.
(2008). Best practices in curriculum-based
evaluation. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best
practices in school psychology V (pp.349-362).
Bethesda, MD National Association of School
Psychologists..
43
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Modification. A modification changes the
    expectations of what a student is expected to
    know or dotypically by lowering the academic
    standards against which the student is to be
    evaluated. Examples of modifications
  • Giving a student five math computation problems
    for practice instead of the 20 problems assigned
    to the rest of the class
  • Letting the student consult course notes during a
    test when peers are not permitted to do so

44
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
45
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
46
Academic Interventions Critical Components
Checklist
  • This checklist summarizes the essential
    components of academic interventions. When
    preparing a students Tier 1, 2, or 3 academic
    intervention plan, use this document as a
    pre-flight checklist to ensure that the
    academic intervention is of high quality, is
    sufficiently strong to address the identified
    student problem, is fully understood and
    supported by the teacher, and can be implemented
    with integrity. NOTE While the checklist refers
    to the teacher as the interventionist, it can
    also be used as a guide to ensure the quality of
    interventions implemented by non-instructional
    personnel, adult volunteers, parents, and peer
    (student) tutors.

47
Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio Allocating Sufficient Contact Time Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio
The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981). The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981). The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that interventions strength (Yeaton Sechrest, 1981).
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Time Allocated. The time set aside for the intervention is appropriate for the type and level of student problem (Burns Gibbons, 2008 Kratochwill, Clements Kalymon, 2007). When evaluating whether the amount of time allocated is adequate, consider Length of each intervention session. Frequency of sessions (e.g.., daily, 3 times per week) Duration of intervention period (e.g., 6 instructional weeks)
? Student-Teacher Ratio. The student receives sufficient contact from the teacher or other person delivering the intervention to make that intervention effective. NOTE Generally, supplemental intervention groups should be limited to 6-7 students (Burns Gibbons, 2008).
48
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem
Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided. Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided. Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to helpand which should be avoided.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Problem Definition. The student academic problem(s) to be addressed in the intervention are defined in clear, specific, measureable terms (Bergan, 1995 Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). The full problem definition describes Conditions. Describe the environmental conditions or task demands in place when the academic problem is observed. Problem Description. Describe the actual observable academic behavior in which the student is engaged. Include rate, accuracy, or other quantitative information of student performance. Typical or Expected Level of Performance. Provide a typical or expected performance criterion for this skill or behavior. Typical or expected academic performance can be calculated using a variety of sources,
49
Sample Math Problem Identification Statements
  • Problem Description
  • Conditions
  • Typical/Expected Level of Performance
  • When shown random number pairs 0-20 during a
    1-minute assessment
  • Charlie can correctly identify 6 number pairs
  • while the median rate in the 1st grade classroom
    is 22 number pairs.
  • When shown 20 key vocabulary terms required for
    grade 4 math performance
  • Haley can provide correct definitions for 10
    terms
  • while the curriculum expectation is that
    students will have 100 percent mastery of those
    terms.

50
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.)
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Appropriate Target. Selected intervention(s) are appropriate for the identified student problem(s) (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008). TIP Use the Instructional Hierarchy (Haring et al., 1978) to select academic interventions according to the four stages of learning Acquisition. The student has begun to learn how to complete the target skill correctly but is not yet accurate in the skill. Interventions should improve accuracy. Fluency. The student is able to complete the target skill accurately but works slowly. Interventions should increase the students speed of responding (fluency) as well as to maintain accuracy. Generalization. The student may have acquired the target skill but does not typically use it in the full range of appropriate situations or settings. Or the student may confuse the target skill with similar skills. Interventions should get the student to use the skill in the widest possible range of settings and situations, or to accurately discriminate between the target skill and similar skills. Adaptation. The student is not yet able to modify or adapt an existing skill to fit novel task-demands or situations. Interventions should help the student to identify key concepts or elements from previously learned skills that can be adapted to the new demands or situations.
51
Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.)
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Cant Do/Wont Do Check. The teacher has determined whether the student problem is primarily a skill or knowledge deficit (cant do) or whether student motivation plays a main or supporting role in academic underperformance (wont do). If motivation appears to be a significant factor contributing to the problem, the intervention plan includes strategies to engage the student (e.g., high interest learning activities rewards/incentives increased student choice in academic assignments, etc.) (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005 Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
52
Activity Matching the Intervention to the
Student Problem
  • In your teams
  • Consider these critical aspects of academic
    intervention
  • Clear and specific problem-identification
    statement (Conditions, Problem Description,
    Typical/Expected Level of Performance).
  • Appropriate intervention target (e.g., selected
    intervention is appropriately matched to
    Acquisition, Fluency, Generalization, or
    Adaptation phase of Instructional Hierarchy).
  • Cant Do/Wont Do Check (Clarification of whether
    motivation plays a significant role in student
    academic underperformance).
  • What steps can your RTI Team and school take to
    ensure that each of these intervention elements
    is taken into consideration?

53
Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements
These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention. These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention. These effective building blocks of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Explicit Instruction. Student skills have been broken down into manageable and deliberately sequenced steps and the teacher provided overt strategies for students to learn and practice new skills (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008, p.1153).
? Appropriate Level of Challenge. The student experienced sufficient success in the academic task(s) to shape learning in the desired direction as well as to maintain student motivation (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008).
? Active Engagement. The intervention ensures that the student is engaged in active accurate responding (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005).at a rate frequent enough to capture student attention and to optimize effective learning.
? Performance Feedback. The student receives prompt performance feedback about the work completed (Burns, VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008).
? Maintenance of Academic Standards. If the intervention includes any accommodations to better support the struggling learner (e.g., preferential seating, breaking a longer assignment into smaller chunks), those accommodations do not substantially lower the academic standards against which the student is to be evaluated and are not likely to reduce the students rate of learning (Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005).
54
Activity Incorporating Effective Instructional
Elements
  • In your teams
  • Think about the effective instructional elements
    reviewed in this workshop.
  • How can your school assist teachers to ensure
    that effective instructional elements are
    included in math interventions?

Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Explicit Instruction.
? Appropriate Level of Challenge.
? Active Engagement..
? Performance Feedback.
? Maintenance of Academic Standards.
55
Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support
The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention. The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention. The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention.
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Teacher Responsibility. The teacher understands his or her responsibility to implement the academic intervention(s) with integrity.
? Teacher Acceptability. The teacher states that he or she finds the academic intervention feasible and acceptable for the identified student problem.
? Step-by-Step Intervention Script. The essential steps of the intervention are written as an intervention script--a series of clearly described stepsto ensure teacher understanding and make implementation easier (Hawkins, Morrison, Musti-Rao Hawkins, 2008).
? Intervention Training. If the teacher requires training to carry out the intervention, that training has been arranged.
? Intervention Elements Negotiable vs. Non-Negotiable. The teacher knows all of the steps of the intervention. Additionally, the teacher knows which of the intervention steps are non-negotiable (they must be completed exactly as designed) and which are negotiable (the teacher has some latitude in how to carry out those steps) (Hawkins, Morrison, Musti-Rao Hawkins, 2008).
? Assistance With the Intervention. If the intervention cannot be implemented as designed for any reason (e.g., student absence, lack of materials, etc.), the teacher knows how to get assistance quickly to either fix the problem(s) to the current intervention or to change the intervention.
56
Activity Verifying Teacher Understanding
Providing Teacher Support
  • In your teams
  • Review the checklist for verifying that teachers
    understand all elements of the intervention and
    actively support its use.
  • How will your school ensure that teachers in
    Tier 1 will understand and support the math
    interventions such as the example selected by
    your team?

Verifying Teacher Understanding Providing Teacher Support
Critical Item? Intervention Element
? Teacher Responsibility
? Teacher Acceptability.
? Step-by-Step Intervention Script.
? Intervention Training.
? Intervention Elements Negotiable vs. Non-Negotiable
? Assistance With the Intervention
57
Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data Documenting the Intervention Collecting Data
Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are fatally flawed (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
Critical Item? Intervention Element Notes
? Intervention Documentation. The teacher understands and can manage all documentation required for this intervention (e.g., maintaining a log of intervention sessions, etc.).
? Checkup Date. Before the intervention begins, a future checkup date is selected to review the intervention to determine if it is successful. Time elapsing between the start of the intervention and the checkup date should be short enough to allow a timely review of the intervention but long enough to give the school sufficient time to judge with confidence whether the intervention worked.
? Baseline. Before the intervention begins, the teacher has collected information about the students baseline level of performance in the identified area(s) of academic concern (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
? Goal. Before the intervention begins, the teacher has set a specific goal for predicted student improvement to use as a minimum standard for success (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004). The goal is the expected student outcome by the checkup date if the intervention is successful.
? Progress-Monitoring. During the intervention, the teacher collects progress-monitoring data of sufficient quality and at a sufficient frequency to determine at the checkup date whether that intervention is successful (Witt, VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004).
58
Activity Putting Math Interventions into a
Data Context
  • In your teams
  • Appoint a recorder.
  • For the math intervention that your team
    selected, brainstorm methods to measure student
    progress.
  • Discuss how teachers would collect baseline data,
    set a goal for improvement.
  • How frequently should progress-monitoring data be
    collected?

59
References
  • Bergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a
    problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of
    Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2),
    111-123.
  • Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
    Implementing response-to-intervention in
    elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
    York.
  • Burns, M. K., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Boice, C. H.
    (2008). Best practices in intensive academic
    interventions. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.),
    Best practices in school psychology V
    (pp.1151-1162). Bethesda, MD National
    Association of School Psychologists.
  • Haring, N.G., Lovitt, T.C., Eaton, M.D.,
    Hansen, C.L. (1978). The fourth R Research in
    the classroom. Columbus, OH Charles E. Merrill
    Publishing Co.
  • Hawkins, R. O., Morrison, J. Q., Musti-Rao, S.,
    Hawkins, J. A. (2008). Treatment integrity for
    academic interventions in real- world settings.
    School Psychology Forum, 2(3), 1-15.
  • Kratochwill, T. R., Clements, M. A., Kalymon,
    K. M. (2007). Response to intervention
    Conceptual and methodological issues in
    implementation. In Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K.,
    VanDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.), Handbook of
    response to intervention The science and
    practice of assessment and intervention. New
    York Springer.
  • Skinner, C. H., Pappas, D. N., Davis, K. A.
    (2005). Enhancing academic engagement Providing
    opportunities for responding and influencing
    students to choose to respond. Psychology in the
    Schools, 42, 389-403.
  • Witt, J. C., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Gilbertson,
    D. (2004). Troubleshooting behavioral
    interventions. A systematic process for finding
    and eliminating problems. School Psychology
    Review, 33, 363-383. 
  • Yeaton, W. M. Sechrest, L. (1981). Critical
    dimensions in the choice and maintenance of
    successful treatments Strength, integrity, and
    effectiveness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
    Psychology, 49, 156-167.

60
Screening Monitoring Student Progress at the
Secondary Level Jim Wrightwww.interventioncent
ral.org
61
RTI Literacy Assessment Progress-Monitoring
  • To measure student response to
    instruction/intervention effectively, the RTI
    model measures students academic performance and
    progress on schedules matched to each students
    risk profile and intervention Tier membership.
  • Benchmarking/Universal Screening. All children in
    a grade level are assessed at least 3 times per
    year on a common collection of academic
    assessments.
  • Strategic Monitoring. Students placed in Tier 2
    (supplemental) reading groups are assessed 1-2
    times per month to gauge their progress with this
    intervention.
  • Intensive Monitoring. Students who participate in
    an intensive, individualized Tier 3 intervention
    are assessed at least once per week.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Routledge.
62
Local Norms Using a Wide Variety of Data
(Stewart Silberglit, 2008)
  • Local norms can be compiled using
  • Fluency measures such as Curriculum-Based
    Measurement.
  • Existing data, such as office disciplinary
    referrals.
  • Computer-delivered assessments, e.g., Measures of
    Academic Progress (MAP) from www.nwea.org

Source Stewart, L. H. Silberglit, B. (2008).
Best practices in developing academic local
norms. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best
practices in school psychology V (pp. 225-242).
Bethesda, MD National Association of School
Psychologists.
63
Universal Screening at Secondary Schools Using
Existing Data Proactively to Flag Signs of
Disengagement
  • Across interventions, a key component to
    promoting school completion is the systematic
    monitoring of all students for signs of
    disengagement, such as attendance and behavior
    problems, failing courses, off track in terms of
    credits earned toward graduation, problematic or
    few close relationships with peers and/or
    teachers, and then following up with those who
    are at risk.

Source Jimerson, S., Reschly, A.L., Hess, R.
(2008). Best practices in increasing the
likelihood of school completion. In A. Thomas
J. Grimes (Eds). Best Practices in School
Psychology - 5th Ed (pp. 1085-1097). Bethesda,
MD National Association of School
Psychologists.. p.1090
64
Mining Archival Data What Are the Early Warning
Flags of Student Drop-Out?
  • A sample of 13,000 students in Philadelphia were
    tracked for 8 years. These early warning
    indicators were found to predict student drop-out
    in the sixth-grade year
  • Failure in English
  • Failure in math
  • Missing at least 20 of school days
  • Receiving an unsatisfactory behavior rating
    from at least one teacher

Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
65
What is the Predictive Power of These Early
Warning Flags?
Number of Early Warning Flags in Student Record Probability That Student Would Graduate
None 56
1 36
2 21
3 13
4 7
Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
66
Curriculum-Based Measurement Advantages as a Set
of Tools to Monitor RTI/Academic Cases
  • Aligns with curriculum-goals and materials
  • Is reliable and valid (has technical adequacy)
  • Is criterion-referenced sets specific
    performance levels for specific tasks
  • Uses standard procedures to prepare materials,
    administer, and score
  • Samples student performance to give objective,
    observable low-inference information about
    student performance
  • Has decision rules to help educators to interpret
    student data and make appropriate instructional
    decisions
  • Is efficient to implement in schools (e.g.,
    training can be done quickly the measures are
    brief and feasible for classrooms, etc.)
  • Provides data that can be converted into visual
    displays for ease of communication

Source Hosp, M.K., Hosp, J. L., Howell, K. W.
(2007). The ABCs of CBM. New York Guilford.
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Team Activity Creating a Screening Plan for Your
Middle or High School
  • Review the measures just discussed for screening
    students at the middle and high school level.
  • Have a discussion about what measures you might
    use in a screening program for your school. Who
    would be involved in developing such a screening
    plan? When would it start?

77
RTI Intervention Teams in Middle High Schools
Challenges and OpportunitiesJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
78
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
79
Tier 3 Intensive Individualized Interventions
  • Tier 3 interventions are the most intensive
    offered in a school setting.
  • Students qualify for Tier 3 interventions
    because
  • they are found to have a large skill gap when
    compared to their class or grade peers and/or
  • They did not respond to interventions provided
    previously at Tiers 1 2.
  • Tier 3 interventions are provided daily for
    sessions of 30 minutes. The student-teacher ratio
    is flexible but should allow the student to
    receive intensive, individualized instruction.
  • The reading progress of students in Tier 3
    interventions is monitored at least weekly.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
80
Secondary Level Classroom Performance Rating
Form
81
Tier 3 Interventions Are Developed With
Assistance from the Schools RTI
(Problem-Solving) Team
  • Effective RTI Teams
  • Are multi-disciplinary and include classroom
    teachers among their members
  • Follow a structured problem-solving model
  • Use data to analyze the academic problem and
    match the student to effective, evidence-based
    interventions
  • Develop a detailed research-based intervention
    plan to help staff with implementation
  • Check up on the teachers success in carrying out
    the intervention (intervention integrity)

82
The Problem-Solving Model Multi-Disciplinary
Teams
  • A school consultative process (the
    problem-solving model) with roots in applied
    behavior analysis was developed (e.g., Bergan,
    1995) that includes 4 steps
  • Problem Identification
  • Problem Analysis
  • Plan Implementation
  • Problem Evaluation
  • Originally designed for individual consultation
    with teachers, the problem-solving model was
    later adapted in various forms to
    multi-disciplinary team settings.

Source Bergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a
problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of
Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2),
111-123.
83
Tier 3 Targets Intervention, Curriculum, and
Environment
  • For a tier 3 intervention to be effective and
    robust, it must focus on the specific needs of
    the student. It should also address the reason
    that the student is experiencing difficulty.
    Rather than considering a student problem to be
    the result of inalterable student
    characteristics, teams are compelled to focus on
    change that can be made to the intervention,
    curriculum or environment that would result in
    positive student outcome. The hypothesis and
    intervention should focus on those variables that
    are alterable within the school setting. These
    alterable variables include learning goals and
    objectives (what is to be learned), materials,
    time, student-to-teacher ratio, activities, and
    motivational strategies. p. 95

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
84
How Is a Secondary RTI Team Like a MASH Unit?
  • The RTI Team must deal with complex situations
    with limited resources and tight timelines, often
    being forced to select from among numerous
    intervention targets (e.g., attendance,
    motivation, basic skill deficits, higher-level
    deficits in cognitive strategies) when working
    with struggling students.
  • The problem-solving approach is flexible,
    allowing the RTI Team quickly to sift through a
    complex student case to identify and address the
    most important blockers to academic success.
  • Timelines for success are often short-term (e.g.,
    to get the student to pass a course or a state
    test), measured in weeks or months.

85
The RTI Team Definition
  • Teams of educators at a school are trained to
    work together as effective problem-solvers.
  • RTI Teams are made up of volunteers drawn from
    general- and special-education teachers and
    support staff.
  • These teams use a structured meeting process to
    identify the underlying reasons that a student
    might be experiencing academic or behavioral
    difficulties
  • The team helps the referring teacher to put
    together practical, classroom-friendly
    interventions to address those student problems.

86
Teachers may be motivated to refer students to
the RTI Team because they
  • can engage in collegial conversations about
    better ways to help struggling learners
  • learn instructional and behavior-management
    strategies that they can use with similar
    students in the future
  • increase their teaching time
  • are able to access more intervention resources
    and supports in the building than if they work
    alone
  • feel less isolated when dealing with challenging
    kids
  • have help in documenting their intervention
    efforts

87
Team Roles
  • Coordinator
  • Facilitator
  • Recorder
  • Time Keeper
  • Case Manager

88
RTI Team Consultative Process
  • Step 1 Assess Teacher Concerns 5 Mins
  • Step 2 Inventory Student Strengths/Talents 5
    Mins
  • Step 3 Review Background/Baseline Data 5 Mins
  • Step 4 Select Target Teacher Concerns 5-10 Mins
  • Step 5 Set Academic and/or Behavioral Outcome
    Goals and Methods for Progress-Monitoring 5 Mins
  • Step 6 Design an Intervention Plan 15-20 Mins
  • Step 7 Plan How to Share Meeting Information
    with the Students Parent(s) 5 Mins
  • Step 8 Review Intervention Monitoring Plans 5
    Mins

89
Secondary RTI Teams Recommendations
  • Secondary RTI Teams should be multi-disciplinary,
    to include teachers, administration, and support
    staff (e.g., school psychologist, guidance
    counselors).
  • Fixed times should be set aside each week for the
    RTI Team to meet on student referrals.
  • Sufficient time (i.e., 30 minutes) should be
    reserved for initial student referrals to allow
    adequate discussion and intervention planning.

90
Secondary RTI Teams Combining Consistency
Flexibility
  • Schools should ensure that RTI Teams follow a
    structured problem-solving model.
  • Schools do have flexibility in when and where
    they use the RTI problem-solving model. For
    example
  • If a person (e.g., school psychologist, school
    administrator) is trained to facilitate an RTI
    Team meeting, that meeting can be scheduled
    during shared teacher planning times or during
    parent-teacher conferences.

91
RTI Team Effectiveness Self-Rating Scale
92
Small-Group Activity Complete the RTI Team
Effectiveness Self-Rating Scale
  • As a group, use the RTI Team Self-Rating Scale to
    evaluate your current student problem-solving
    teams level of functioning. If your school does
    not have a formal problem-solving team in place,
    rate your schools current informal
    problem-solving efforts.
  • Appoint a spokesperson to share your findings
    with the large group.
  • Effective RTI Teams
  • Are multi-disciplinary and include teachers among
    their members
  • Follow a structured problem-solving model
  • Use data to analyze the academic problem and
    match the student to effective, evidence-based
    interventions
  • Develop a detailed research-based intervention
    plan to help staff with implementation
  • Check up on the teachers success in carrying out
    the intervention (intervention integrity)

93
RTI Teams Improving Problem-Solving Through
Effective Case Management Jim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
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Case Manager Role
  • Meets with the referring teacher(s) briefly prior
    to the initial RTI Team meeting to review the
    teacher referral form, clarify teacher concerns,
    decide what additional data should be collected
    on the student.
  • Touches base briefly with the referring
    teacher(s) after the RTI Team meeting to check
    that the intervention plan is running smoothly.

96
Case Manager Pre-Meeting
  • Prior to an initial RTI Problem-Solving Team
    meeting, it is recommended that a case manager
    from the RTI Team schedule a brief (15-20 minute)
    pre-meeting with the referring teacher. The
    purpose of this pre-meeting is for the case
    manager to share with the teacher the purpose of
    the upcoming full RTI Team meeting, to clarify
    student referral concerns, and to decide what
    data should be collected and brought to the RTI
    Team meeting.

97
Case Manager Pre-Meeting Steps
  • Here is a recommended agenda for the case
    manager-teacher pre-meeting
  • Explain the purpose of the upcoming RTI
    Problem-Solving Team meeting The case manager
    explains that the RTI Team meeting goals are to
    (a) fully understand the nature of the students
    academic and/or behavioral problems (b) develop
    an evidence-based intervention plan for the
    student and (c) set a goal for student
    improvement and select means to monitor the
    students response to the intervention plan.

98
Case Manager Pre-Meeting Steps
  1. Define the student referral concern(s) in clear,
    specific terms.. The case manager reviews with
    the teacher the most important student referral
    concern(s), helping the teacher to define those
    concern(s) in clear, specific, observable terms.
    The teacher is also prompted to prioritize his or
    her top 1-2 student concerns.

99
Case Manager Pre-Meeting Steps
  1. Decide what data should be brought to the RTI
    Team meeting. The case manager and teacher decide
    what student data should be collected and brought
    to the RTI Team meeting to provide insight into
    the nature of the students presenting
    concern(s).

100
Case Manager Pre-Meeting Steps
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Case Manager Tips
  • If you discover, when you meet with a referring
    teacher prior to the RTI Team meeting, that his
    or her concern is vaguely worded, help the
    teacher to clarify the concern with the question
    What does teacher concern look like in the
    classroom?
  • After the RTI Team meeting, consider sending
    periodic emails to the referring teacher(s)
    asking them how the intervention is going and
    inviting them to inform you if they require
    assistance.

103
Breaking Down Complex Academic Goals into Simpler
Sub-Tasks Discrete Categorization
104
Identifying and Measuring Complex Academic
Problems at the Middle and High School Level
  • Students at the secondary level can present with
    a range of concerns that interfere with academic
    success.
  • One frequent challenge for these students is the
    need to reduce complex global academic goals into
    discrete sub-skills that can be individually
    measured and tracked over time.

105
Discrete Categorization A Strategy for Assessing
Complex, Multi-Step Student Academic Tasks
  • Definition of Discrete Categorization Listing
    a number of behaviors and checking off whether
    they were performed. (Kazdin, 1989, p. 59).
  • Approach allows educators to define a larger
    behavioral goal for a student and to break that
    goal down into sub-tasks. (Each sub-task should
    be defined in such a way that it can be scored as
    successfully accomplished or not
    accomplished.)
  • The constituent behaviors that make up the larger
    behavioral goal need not be directly related to
    each other. For example, completed homework may
    include as sub-tasks wrote down homework
    assignment correctly and created a work plan
    before starting homework

Source Kazdin, A. E. (1989). Behavior
modification in applied settings (4th ed.).
Pacific Gove, CA Brooks/Cole..
106
Discrete Categorization Example Math Study Skills
  • General Academic Goal Improve Tinas Math Study
    Skills
  • Tina was struggling in her mathematics course
    because of poor study skills. The RTI Team and
    math teacher analyzed Tinas math study skills
    and decided that, to study effectively, she
    needed to
  • Check her math notes daily for completeness.
  • Review her math notes daily.
  • Start her math homework in a structured school
    setting.
  • Use a highlighter and margin notes to mark
    questions or areas of confusion in her notes or
    on the daily assignment.
  • Spend sufficient seat time at home each day
    completing homework.
  • Regularly ask math questions of her teacher.

107
Discrete Categorization Example Math Study Skills
  • General Academic Goal Improve Tinas Math Study
    Skills
  • The RTI Teamwith teacher and student
    inputcreated the following intervention plan.
    The student Tina will
  • Approach the teacher at the end of class for a
    copy of class note.
  • Check her daily math notes for completeness
    against a set of teacher notes in 5th period
    study hall.
  • Review her math notes in 5th period study hall.
  • Start her math homework in 5th period study hall.
  • Use a highlighter and margin notes to mark
    questions or areas of confusion in her notes or
    on the daily assignment.
  • Enter into her homework log the amount of time
    spent that evening doing homework and noted any
    questions or areas of confusion.
  • Stop by the math teachers classroom during help
    periods (T Th only) to ask highlighted
    questions (or to verify that Tina understood that
    weeks instructional content) and to review the
    homework log.

108
Team Activity Defining the RTI Team Pre-Meeting
  • At your table
  • Discuss how your school can structure the
    pre-meeting in which the case manager and
    teacher meet to clarify the teachers referral
    concern(s) and to decide what data to bring to
    the actual RTI Team meeting.
  • Brainstorm ideas for finding the time for such
    pre-meetings.

109
RTI Problem-Solving Teams Promoting Student
InvolvementJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org

110
Intervention Responsibilities Examples at
Teacher, School-Wide, and Student Levels
Teacher
Student
School-Wide
  • Lab services (math, reading, etc.)
  • Remedial course
  • Homework club
  • Take agenda to teacher to be reviewed and signed
  • Seeking help from teachers during free periods
  • Signed agenda
  • Attention prompts
  • Individual review with students during free
    periods

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RTI Promoting Student Involvent
  • Schools should strongly consider having middle
    and high school students attend and take part in
    their own RTI Problem-Solving Team meetings for
    two reasons. First, as students mature, their
    teachers expect that they will take
    responsibility in advocating for their own
    learning needs. Second, students are more likely
    to fully commit to RTI intervention plans if they
    attend the RTI Team meeting and have a voice in
    the creation of those plans.

113
RTI Promoting Student Involvement
  • Before the RTI Team Meeting. The student should
    be adequately prepared to attend the RTI Team
    meeting by first engaging in a pre-meeting with
    a school staff member whom the student knows and
    trusts (e.g., school counselor, teacher,
    administrator). By connecting the student with a
    trusted mentor figure who can help that student
    to navigate the RTI process, the school improves
    the odds that the disengaged or unmotivated
    student will feel an increased sense of
    connection and commitment to their own school
    performance (Bridgeland, DiIulio, Morison,
    2006).

114
RTI Promoting Student Involvement
  • A student RTI pre-meeting can be quite brief,
    lasting perhaps 15-20 minutes. Here is a simple
    agenda for the meeting
  • Share information about the student problem(s).
  • Describe the purpose and steps of the RTI
    Problem-Solving Team meeting.
  • Stress the students importance in the
    intervention plan.
  • Have the student describe his or her learning
    needs.
  • Invite the student to attend the RTI Team
    meeting.

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RTI Promoting Student Involvement
  • During the RTI Team Meeting. If the student
    agrees to attend the RTI Team meeting, he or she
    participates fully in the meeting. Teachers and
    other staff attending the meeting make an effort
    to keep the atmosphere positive and focused on
    finding solutions to the students presenting
    concern(s). As each intervention idea is
    discussed, the team checks in with the student to
    determine that the student (a) fully understands
    how to access or participate in the intervention
    element being proposed and (b) is willing to take
    part in that intervention element. If the student
    appears hesitant or resistant, the team should
    work with the student either to win the student
    over to the proposed intervention idea or to find
    an alternative intervention that will accomplish
    the same goal.
  • At the end of the RTI Team meeting, each of the
    intervention ideas that is dependent on student
    participation for success is copied into the
    School Success Intervention Plan.

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RTI Promoting Student Involvement
  • After the RTI Team Meeting. If the school
    discovers that the student is not carrying out
    his or her responsibilities as spelled out by the
    intervention plan, it is recommended that the
    staff member assigned as the RTI contact meet
    with the student and parent. At that meeting, the
    adult contact checks with the student to make
    sure that
  • the intervention plan continues to be relevant
    and appropriate for addressing the students
    academic or behavioral needs
  • the student understands and call access all
    intervention elements outlined on the School
    Success Intervention Plan.
  • adults participating in the intervention plan
    (e.g., classroom teachers) are carrying out their
    parts of the plan.

119
Starting RTI in Your Secondary School Enlisting
students in intervention plans
  • As a team
  • Talk about strategies to prepare students to be
    self-advocates in taking responsibility for their
    own learning.
  • Discuss ways to motivate students to feel
    comfortable in accessing (and responsible FOR
    accessing) intervention resources in the school.
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