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RTI: An Overview for Educators Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

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Title: RTI: An Overview for Educators Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org


1
RTI An Overview for Educators Jim
Wright www.interventioncentral.org
2
In a completely rational society, the best of us
would be teachers and the rest of us would have
to settle for something else. Lee Iocacca


3
RTI Key Concepts
4
RTI Assumption Struggling Students Are Typical
Until Proven Otherwise
  • RTI logic assumes that
  • A student who begins to struggle in general
    education is typical, and that
  • It is general educations responsibility to find
    the instructional strategies that will unlock the
    students learning potential
  • Only when the student shows through
    well-documented interventions that he or she has
    failed to respond to intervention does RTI
    begin to investigate the possibility that the
    student may have a learning disability or other
    special education condition.

5
Use Time Resources Efficiently By Collecting
Information Only on Things That Are Alterable
  • Time should be spent thinking about things
    that the intervention team can influence through
    instruction, consultation, related services, or
    adjustments to the students program. These are
    things that are alterable.Beware of statements
    about cognitive processes that shift the focus
    from the curriculum and may even encourage
    questionable educational practice. They can also
    promote writing off a student because of the
    rationale that the students insufficient
    performance is due to a limited and fixed
    potential. p.359

Source Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., Kurns, S.
(2008). Best practices in curriculum-based
evaluation. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best
practices in school psychology V (pp.349-362).
Bethesda, MD National Association of School
Psychologists.
6
RTI Focus on School Factors That We Can Control
  • Some factors in students lives (such as family
    divorce, moving frequently, drug use, and poor
    teaching) lower the probability that these
    students will learn and/or get along with others.
    These are often referred to as risk factorsRisk
    factors do not assure student failure. Risk
    factors simply make the odds of failure greater.
    Aligning assessment and instruction allows
    teachersto introduce new factors into the
    students life that raise the probability of
    learning. These are often called protective
    factors since they protect against the risks
    associated with risk factorsThe use of
    protective factors to raise the probability of
    learning is often referred to as resilience.

Source Hosp, J. L. (2008). Best practices in
aligning academic assessment with instruction. In
A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in
school psychology V (pp.363-376). Bethesda, MD
National Association of School Psychologists.
7
Essential Elements of RTI (Fairbanks, Sugai,
Guardino, Lathrop, 2007)
  1. A continuum of evidence-based services available
    to all students" that range from universal to
    highly individualized intensive
  2. Decision points to determine if students are
    performing significantly below the level of their
    peers in academic and social behavior domains"
  3. Ongoing monitoring of student progress"
  4. Employment of more intensive or different
    interventions when students do not improve in
    response" to lesser interventions
  5. Evaluation for special education services if
    students do not respond to intervention
    instruction"

Source Fairbanks, S., Sugai, G., Guardino, S.,
Lathrop, M. (2007). Response to intervention
Examining classroom behavior support in second
grade. Exceptional Children, 73, p. 289.
8
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
9
The Purpose of RTI in Schools What Students
Should It Serve?
10
Target Student
Dual-Discrepancy RTI Model of Learning
Disability (Fuchs 2003)
11
NYSED RTI Guidance Memo April 2008
12
(No Transcript)
13
The Regents policy framework for RtI Defines
RtI to minimally include Appropriate
instruction delivered to all students in the
general education class by qualified personnel.
Appropriate instruction in reading means
scientific research-based reading programs that
include explicit and systematic instruction in
phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary
development, reading fluency (including oral
reading skills) and reading comprehension
strategies. Screenings applied to all students
in the class to identify those students who are
not making academic progress at expected rates.
14
Instruction matched to student need with
increasingly intensive levels of targeted
intervention and instruction for students who do
not make satisfactory progress in their levels of
performance and/or in their rate of learning to
meet age or grade level standards. Repeated
assessments of student achievement which should
include curriculum based measures to determine if
interventions are resulting in student progress
toward age or grade level standards. The
application of information about the students
response to intervention to make educational
decisions about changes in goals, instruction
and/or services and the decision to make a
referral for special education programs and/or
services.
15
Written notification to the parents when the
student requires an intervention beyond that
provided to all students in the general education
classroom that provides information about the
-amount and nature of student performance data
that will be collected and the general education
services that will be provided -strategies for
increasing the students rate of learning
and -parents right to request an evaluation for
special education programs and/or services.
16
RTI Intervention Key Concepts
17
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Core Instruction. Those instructional strategies
    that are used routinely with all students in a
    general-education setting are considered core
    instruction. High-quality instruction is
    essential and forms the foundation of RTI
    academic support. NOTE While it is important to
    verify that good core instructional practices are
    in place for a struggling student, those routine
    practices do not count as individual student
    interventions.

18
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Intervention. An academic intervention is a
    strategy used to teach a new skill, build fluency
    in a skill, or encourage a child to apply an
    existing skill to new situations or settings. An
    intervention can be thought of as a set of
    actions that, when taken, have demonstrated
    ability to change a fixed educational trajectory
    (Methe Riley-Tillman, 2008 p. 37).

19
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Accommodation. An accommodation is intended to
    help the student to fully access and participate
    in the general-education curriculum without
    changing the instructional content and without
    reducing the students rate of learning (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005). An accommodation is
    intended to remove barriers to learning while
    still expecting that students will master the
    same instructional content as their typical
    peers.
  • Accommodation example 1 Students are allowed to
    supplement silent reading of a novel by listening
    to the book on tape.
  • Accommodation example 2 For unmotivated
    students, the instructor breaks larger
    assignments into smaller chunks and providing
    students with performance feedback and praise for
    each completed chunk of assigned work (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005).

20
Teaching is giving it isnt taking away.
(Howell, Hosp Kurns, 2008 p. 356).


Source Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., Kurns, S.
(2008). Best practices in curriculum-based
evaluation. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best
practices in school psychology V (pp.349-362).
Bethesda, MD National Association of School
Psychologists..
21
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Modification. A modification changes the
    expectations of what a student is expected to
    know or dotypically by lowering the academic
    standards against which the student is to be
    evaluated. Examples of modifications
  • Giving a student five math computation problems
    for practice instead of the 20 problems assigned
    to the rest of the class
  • Letting the student consult course notes during a
    test when peers are not permitted to do so

22
Monitoring Student Academic Behaviors Daily
Behavior Report Cards
23
Daily Behavior Report Cards (DBRCs) Are
  • brief forms containing student behavior-rating
    items. The teacher typically rates the student
    daily (or even more frequently) on the DBRC. The
    results can be graphed to document student
    response to an intervention.

24
http//www.directbehaviorratings.com/
25
Daily Behavior Report Cards Can Monitor
  • Hyperactivity
  • On-Task Behavior (Attention)
  • Work Completion
  • Organization Skills
  • Compliance With Adult Requests
  • Ability to Interact Appropriately With Peers

26
Jim Blalock
May 5
Mrs. Williams
Rm 108
Daily Behavior Report Card Daily Version
27
Jim Blalock
Mrs. Williams
Rm 108
Daily Behavior Report Card Weekly Version
05 05 07
05 06 07
05 07 07
05 08 07
05 09 07
40
0
60
60
50
28
Daily Behavior Report Card Chart
29
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