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U.S. History III Chapter 21-1


U.S. History III Chapter 21-1 An Era of Protest and Change: 1960-1980 The Counterculture Life in Haight-Asbury Haight-Ashbury: San Francisco, CA: 1967 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: U.S. History III Chapter 21-1

U.S. History IIIChapter 21-1
  • An Era of Protest and Change 1960-1980
  • The Counterculture

Which Statement do you agree with
  • A) The United States is strengthened by its
    popular culture and diversity of values.
  • B) Popular culture and diversity of personal
    values have led to moral decay in the United

Chapter 21. IntroductionHippies
  • Describe the rise of the counterculture.
  • List the major characteristics of the
  • Evaluate the impact of the counterculture on
    American values and society.

generation gap
  • The baby boomer generation distrusted tradition
    and authority.
  • In the mid-1960s, more than a third of the U.S.
    population was under 17. They became a force for
    social change.

Defining the Counterculture Music and Art Shape
Youth Culture
  • The Beatles, a British rock group, changed the
    look and lifestyles of the baby boomer
  • Folk singers such as Bob Dylan wrote protest
    songs to highlight the civil rights and peace
  • Andy Warhol Changed Pop Art Used paintings
    of normal things to criticize media

In the 1960s, youths rebelled against
long-standing customs in dress, music, and
personal behavior. The counterculture both
challenged traditional values and unleashed a
movement to reassert basic values.
1953 Playboy makes its debut 1960 The FDA
approves the birth control pill1965 Griswold
v. Connecticut legalizes contraception for
married couples1967 Loving v. Virginia makes
interracial marriage legal in all states1972
The first issue of MS. Magazine hits the
stand1972 Eisenstadt v. Baird legalizes
contraception for unmarried people1973 Roe v.
Wade makes abortion legal in the U.S.1987 The
AIDS Quilt goes on display at
Washington D.C
The Lovings returned to Virginia, but, sadly,
they enjoyed only a few years together before
Richard was killed in a car accident in
1975. Mildred survived the crash and lived an
additional 33 years.
  • The sexual revolution called for the separation
    of sex from traditional family life.
  • Some people lived together in communes small
    communities of hippies who shared common
    interests and resources.
  • Many hippies believed that drugs could free the
  • Many hippies sought religious experiences outside
    Judeo-Christian traditions.
  • They explored Eastern religions, such as
    Buddhism, or sought harmony with nature.

Life in Haight-Asbury
  • Haight-Ashbury San Francisco, CA 1967, 2,000
    people go to this district and attempt to create
    their own society (Drugs, Sexual Promiscuity,
    Unconventional Dress/Language/Music, and Concept
    of Shared Resources)
  • In other words, the hippies defied every middle
    class value and replaced it with their own.
  • Timothy OLeary One Time Harvard Researcher
    Urged teens to use drugs to free the mind and
    drop out of mainstream society
  • OLeary began selling LSD (Acid)

Exploring Different Routes to Spirituality
  • The Counterculture rejected traditional
    religions (Christianityetc) and began to focus
    on Eastern Philosophies (Buddhism)
  • The focus of the new spirituality was on harmony
    with nature (Similar to Native Americans)
  • Many hippies formed rural communes and attempted
    to live off of the land

The Counterculture Ends
  • Peace and Love descended into Paranoia and
  • Many become disillusioned with the excesses of
    the movement and return to the American middle
  • Drug overdoses/addiction rates skyrocket
  • Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin Died of Drug
  • Opportunistic criminals start to prey on naïve
    young people (Charles Manson)
  • 1969 Altamont, California During a peace
    concert, a black man was stabbed to death by
    members of the Hells Angels Motorcycle Gang
    (Gang had been hired for security)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vOdvCqUguIh8tracker

Effects of the COUNTERCULTURE on American Society
Woodstock 1999
  • "It was dangerous to be around. The whole scene
    was scary. There were just waves of hatred
    bouncing around the place, (...) It was clear we
    had to get out of there.... It was like a
    concentration camp. To get in, you get frisked to
    make sure you're not bringing in any water or
    food that would prevent you from buying from
    their outrageously priced booths. You wallow
    around in garbage and human waste. There was a
    palpable mood of anger."14 Kurt Loder MTV

Chapter 21-2The Womens Rights Movement
  • A Womens Movement Arises

  • Analyze how a movement for womens rights arose
    in the 1960s.
  • Explain the goals and tactics of the womens
  • Assess the impact of the womens movement on
    American society.

What led to the rise of the womens movement, and
what impact did it have on American society?
After World War II, women gave up their jobs and
returned to their homes to raise families. In
the 1960s and 1970s, however, the womens
movement worked to attain equality for women and
change American life.
Terms and People
  • feminism - the theory of the political, social,
    and economic equality of men and women
  • Betty Friedan - author of the groundbreaking book
    The Feminine Mystique
  • NOW - the National Organization for Women, which
    worked for true equality for all women
  • ERA - the Equal Rights Amendment, a proposed
    Constitutional amendment to guarantee gender
    equality under the law

In 1963, journalist and housewife Betty Friedan,
wrote The Feminine Mystique, a book that helped
to launch the feminist movement.
Friedan helped to establish NOW, the National
Organization for Women.
NOW attacked stereotypes and identified two main
  • Passage of the ERA, the Equal Rights Amendment
  • Protecting womens reproductive rights

NOWs goal was to achieve true equality for all
Terms and People (continued)
  • Gloria Steinem - a feminist leader and writer who
    sought to raise the publics awareness of gender
  • Phyllis Schlafly - a conservative political
    activist who opposed the womens movement
  • Roe v. Wade - the controversial Supreme Court
    case that legalized abortion

The Equal Rights Amendment was a proposed
Constitutional amendment to guarantee equality
between men and women.
Political conservatives such as Phyllis Schlafly
opposed the ERA, arguing it would hurt families
and allow the military to draft women.
In the end, the ERA narrowly failed to become
part of the Constitution.
In 1973, the Supreme Courts decision in Roe v.
Wade granted women the right to legal abortions.
Before this decision, most states outlawed or
restricted abortion. Roe remains a controversial
and divisive decision today.
The long history of struggle for womens rights
The struggle for womens rights began with the
Declaration of Sentiments at Seneca Falls in the
Women won the right to vote in the 1920s,
culminating the first wave of feminism.
However, women made little legal or social
headway in the decades that followed.
The civil rights struggles of the 1960s prompted
women to examine their roles and rights in
American society.
  • They rejected the stereotypical view of women as
  • They analyzed how society discriminated against
  • They sought equality in jobs and job training.

This gave rise to the second wave of feminism.
The womens rights movement made legal progress
in the 1960s and 1970s.
  • NOW filed many lawsuits with the Equal Employment
    Opportunity Commission to stop workplace
  • Title IX of the 1972 Higher Education Act banned
    discrimination in education.
  • In 1974, the Equal Opportunity Credit act made
    it illegal to deny a woman credit because of her

Women play a larger role in todays workforce.
  • Over 60 of women now work.
  • Medicine, law, accounting, and other
    traditionally male fields now routinely accept
  • However, for the same jobs, women still earn less
    than men.

Chapter 21-3The Rights Revolution Expands
  • The Latino Population Grows

A Spanish Speaking Population
  • 1846-48 Mexican-American War (U.S. Acquired
    Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, and Parts of Nevada,
    Utah, California)
  • Many Mexican citizens living in these areas
    become American citizens
  • Late 1800s and Early 1900s (Land rights for
    Latinos are being threatened)
  • 1942 4,000,000 Mexican Migrant Workers come to
    United States under the bracero program
  • 1950s U.S. Government deported Bra ceros and
    other illegal immigrants
  • 1960s 400,000 Mexican Immigrants Arrived
  • 1970s 630,000
  • 1980 1,500,000

Emerging Latino Communities on the East Coast
  • Post WWII Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and Cubans
    began immigrating to the United States
  • Puerto Ricans came legally while Cubans and
    Dominicans usually risked their lives on small
  • Tended to settle in NYC and Miami

Pressing for Equal RightCesar Chavez Organizes
Farm Workers
  • Cesar Chavez Chavez fought for the rights of
    farm laborers who were being exploited for profit
  • Migrant Farmers Farmers who moved from state to
    state (with the seasons). Usually faced low
    wages, and work conditions, and no benefits while
    the companies that hired them made millions of
  • United Farm Workers Chavez merged Mexican
    farmers from Delano, CA with Filipino farm
    laborers to form a union
  • The union implemented a strike and grape boycott
  • 1975- California passed a law collective
    bargaining between growers and union
  • Delores Huerta------------?

The Chicano Movement Grows
  • Chicano Movement- The name given to the
    Mexican-American political/social effort that
    grew out of the boycott
  • brown-power Jose Angel Gutierrez La Raza
    Unida Fought for better housing, jobs,
    American opportunities
  • 1980 6 Hispanic members sat in Congress
  • 2011 30 Hispanic members sit in Congress

Native Americans and Asian Americans Battle
  • American Indian Movement- Chippewa Activists
    started to help Native Americans in urban
  • Later, AIM addressed reservation issues, land
    rights, and self-government issues
  • 1969 Alcatraz Standoff Members of the Sioux
    tribe asserted that the land belonged to them
    because of a treaty that allowed Native Americans
    to have any abandoned federal land
  • 1972 Long March AIM supporters marched from San
    Francisco to Washington, D.C. and took control of
    the Indian Affairs building
  • 1973 Wounded Knee II Members of AIM took over
    the village of Wounded Knee and a shootout killed
    2 members
  • The government agreed to investigate reservation
    conditions and treaty rights

Native Gains
  • The Sioux Nation v. United States The Supreme
    Court ruled that the U.S. Government violated the
    Ft. Laramie Treaty of 1868
  • Government ordered to pay Sioux for land taken
  • Sioux have refused to accept the est.
    570,000,000 because they want the Black Hills
    Land-not money
  • 8 of the 10 poorest
    counties in America are on
  • Indian Reservations

Asian Americans Fight Discrimination
  • Japanese American Citizens League- 1929 Founded
    to protect Japanese American Rights
  • 1800s Chinese Exclusion Act
  • 1900s Immigration Quota laws limited Asian
  • 1940s Japanese families interred while many of
    their relatives fought for the U.S. Army

New Rights for Consumers and the Disabled
  • Ralph Nader Unsafe at Any Speed criticized
    auto safety issues- led to the passage of vehicle
    safety laws (Seat-belts)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    OSHA established by Nixon to mandate safe
    workplace conditions
  • Americans tended to still discriminate against
    people with physical/mental disabilities
  • FDR hid that fact that his legs were paralyzed
  • Eunice Shriver (JFKs Sister)- Started an
    athletic camp for kids with disabilities that
    eventually became the Special Olympics
  • Americans with Disabilities Act Passed to ensure
    physical, social, and economic opportunities were
    available for those that were disabled. (This
    echoes the basic American Principle that everyone
    deserves OPPORTUNITY)

Chapter 21-4The Environmental Movement
  • Environmental Activists Speak Out

Silent Spring Sparks a Movement
  • Toxic Waste- poisonous by-product of human
  • Ex. Coal Smog, Acid Rain, Air Pollution, Water
  • 1962 Rachel Carson Silent Spring discussed the
    deadly impact pesticides (DDT) were having on
    birds and other animals
  • 1969 Cuyahoga River, Cleveland Ohio Caught fire
    because of industrial waste

Inaugurating Earth Day
  • Earth Day- Nationwide protest of environmental
  • Gaylord Nelson- Wisconsin Senator wanted to
    shake up the establishmentnational issue
  • April 22nd, 1970 20,000,000 Americans took part
    in Earth Day events across the nation.
  • Sierra Club Founded by John Muir in 1892
  • Wilderness Society Founded in 1935
  • wanted Conservation and stricter pollution laws
    (regulations) for companies

A President Turns Environmentalist
  • Nixon about the 1970s must be the years when
    America pays its debts to the past by reclaiming
    the purity of its air, its water, and our living
    environment. -1969
  • Environmental Protection Agency Created in 1970.
  • Formed to protect the entire ecological chain
  • Clean Air Act 1970 limit factory/automobile
  • Clean Water Act 1973 limited industrial/agricult
    ural dumping
  • Endangered Species Act 1973 protected
    endangered animals/plants
  • Nuclear Regulatory Commission Ford 1974
    Investigated the dangers of Nuclear Power

Environmental Setbacks
  • Love Canal- New York
  • Community had extremely high rate of birth
  • Toxic chemicals that had been buried in metal
    drums were leaking into the ground water
  • children would return from play with burns on
    their hands and faces.
  • Town was abandoned in 1979 and Congress set up
    SUPERFUND taxes oil and other polluters to
    clean up dangerous areas
  • Love Canal was considered safe in 2004
  • Three Mile Island- Pennsylvania
  • A overheated nuclear reactor almost melted down
    released radiation
  • Town was evacuated
  • Building of new nuclear plants was banned

Questioning Environmental Regulations
  • Conservatives
  • Stripped individual property rights
  • People would better care of their own land than
    government could
  • Destroy business and jobs would be lost to other
    countries because of the cost of regulations
  • Liberals
  • Property rights does not take priority over
    public health
  • Business owners did not live in same
    neighborhoods as factories
  • Business should pay for damage done to environment
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