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Chapter 3: Light in the Dark Ages

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Title: Chapter 3: Light in the Dark Ages


1
Chapter 3 Light in the Dark Ages
  • THE HISTORY OF THE CHURCH

2
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Identify the relationship between the following
    triads
  • Sex, money, and power
  • Chastity, poverty, and obedience

3
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • What was the impact of the fall of Rome on the
    faithful?
  • What were the causes and effects of monasticism?
  • What contributions did St. Benedict and his Rule
    and Pope St. Gregory the Great make to the
    preservation and spread of Christianity?
  •  
  • KEY IDEAS
  • Cities were sacked and depopulated, and culture
    and economic progress declined.
  • Monasticism arose out of a desire to leave
    civilization and devote oneself entirely to
    prayer and asceticism in imitation of Christ.
    Monastics gave new life to the Faith, brought
    civilization to the rural areas, preserved
    classical learning, and evangelized the Germanic
    peoples.
  • St. Benedicts Rule became the basis of Western
    monasticism. Pope St. Gregory the Great was a
    great spiritual leader who served as a temporal
    ruler as well.

4
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following
    question
  • What effect did the fall of Rome have on
    religious practice?

5
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why is there no clear date for the fall of the
    western half of the Roman Empire?
  • There was more of a gradual collapse than a
    dramatic, one-day fall. This disintegration took
    place over the course of the fifth century.
  •  
  • What did the Romans and the barbarians have in
    common with respect to human rights?
  • Neither had any conception of fundamental human
    rights, and both cultures were brutal and
    violent.
  •  
  • Why did the Romans sometimes invite barbarian
    tribes to settle along the frontiers of the
    empire?
  • They allowed tribes to settle in exchange for
    conscripts for the Roman armies and to increase
    the declining population of the Empire.

6
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What effect did the fall of Rome have on
    intellectual activity in the West?
  • It brought about a collapse of intellectual
    activity in the West, illiteracy becoming the
    norm. The study of classical literature and
    philosophy all but ceased. The Church remained
    the only center of intellectual activity.
  •  
  • What effects did the fall of Rome have on
    economic activity and demographics?
  • Economic activity fell drastically, crime
    increased, and the former city-based society
    became largely rural, centered on towns and
    villages.
  •  
  • What effect did the fall of Rome have on the
    Churchs understanding of her relationship with
    the state?
  • Many Christians and emperors had thought the
    destiny of the Catholic Church was intertwined
    with that of the empire. The collapse of Rome and
    the western half of that empire prompted
    Christians to understand the Church was not
    wedded to the empire and needed to adapt to a
    dramatic cultural shift.

7
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What was the Germanization of the Roman legions?
  • It refers to the process by which an increasing
    percentage of the soldiers in the Roman military
    was comprised of people from Germanic tribes.
  •  
  • What does the idea of waves of invaders mean with
    respect to the Germanic tribes?
  • One conquering Germanic tribe would be conquered
    by another Germanic tribe later.
  •  
  • Who were the Franks?
  • They were a Germanic people who settled in Gaul
    (modern-day France), the ancestors of the modern
    French. This was the first Germanic tribe to
    convert to orthodox (as opposed to Arian)
    Christianity.

8
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Which was the most successful Germanic tribe?
  • The Vandals were most successful.
  •  
  • Who was the Apostle to the Goths?
  • Ulphilas, the Cappadocian who translated the
    Scriptures into Gothic, enlightened the Goths.
  •  
  • What religion did the barbarian hordes profess?
  • To the extent they were not still pagan, most
    were Arian Christians.

9
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is the origin of the Huns?
  • It is not known exactly, but they swept westward
    from Central Asia.
  •  
  • What was the character of Attila the Hun, and why
    did he not attack Rome?
  • Attila was a ruthless leader who was also
    tremendously brave in battle, a skilled diplomat,
    and a keen military strategist. After Pope St.
    Leo the Great went out to meet him, Attila
    withdrew from the Italian Peninsula it is not
    known why he did not sack Rome.

10
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What did the Germanic invasions reveal to the
    Church about her universality?
  • An increasing number of Christians realized the
    Church is intended for everyone the Germanic
    tribes needed to be evangelized as the Romans had
    previously.
  •  
  • How was the Germanic character different from the
    Greco-Roman character?
  • The Germanic peoples were less philosophically
    and theologically inclined, and they placed less
    emphasis on order, culture, organization, and
    law.
  •  
  • To evangelize the Germanic peoples, what was the
    Church willing to do, and what was she unwilling
    to do?
  • The Church was willing to discard Roman culture
    without changing the doctrines of the Faith she
    was unwilling the change the Deposit of Faith for
    any reason.

11
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following
    question
  • To what extent had Christianity penetrated the
    mentality of the Germanic tribes by the end of
    the fifth century?

12
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Brainstorm reactions that Italian Christians of
    the fifth century might have had toward the
    invasions (cf. p. 98).

13
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table about the barbarian invasions of the fourth
    and fifth centuries (cf. p. 99).

14
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
15
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is monasticism?
  • It is a way of life in which one leaves the
    everyday world to live a life of self-denial and
    prayer in order to devote his or her whole life
    to God.
  •  
  • How is Christian monasticism unique?
  • Though monasticism is practiced by many of the
    worlds religions, Christian monasticism is
    unique because its aim is the imitation of
    Christ.
  •  
  • What are the two chief types of monasticism?
  • In eremetical monasticism, a person lives alone
    as a hermit. In cenobitical monasticism, a person
    lives with others in a community.

16
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table on the effects of monasticism on European
    culture.

17
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
18
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Who founded eremitical monasticism?
  • Eremitical monasticism was founded in Egypt by
    Sts. Anthony the Great and Paul of Thebes.
  •  
  • Who founded cenobitical monasticism?
  • St. Pachomius, an Egyptian hermit, began
    cenobitical monasticism (against his will) after
    people kept flocking to him.

19
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Work with a partner to prepare and present a
    brief oral report using the following guidelines.
    Given a short excerpt from the Rule of St.
    Benedict
  • Paraphrase the excerpt.
  • Interpret how this passage might relate to the
    life of a monk.
  • Do you think you could live under this rule? Why
    or why not?
  • The Rule can be found on many Web sites.

20
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How did St. Gregory the Great spend his life
    before he became a monk?
  • St. Gregory was born into an important, noble
    family, and he held important civil offices in
    Rome. After his father died, he sold everything
    he had and used the money to found seven
    monasteries and help the poor.
  •  
  • How was St. Gregory the Great elected Pope, and
    what was his reaction to this election?
  • After Pope Pelagius II had died, St. Gregory was
    universally acclaimed the new Pope by the people
    of Rome. St. Gregory refused this honor
    initially, but he accepted the election
    eventually as Gods will.
  •  
  • Why is Pope St. Gregory I called the Great?
  • He received this title because of missionary
    successes and his care for the poor.

21
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following
    question
  • What is the significance of Pope St. Gregory the
    Greats use of the title Servus Servorum Dei for
    himself and his refusal to acknowledge the title
    Ecumenical Patriarch for the Patriarch of
    Constantinople?

22
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Briefly discuss leadership using the following
    questions
  • What concept of leadership is portrayed by the
    title Servus Servorum Dei?
  • How is St. Gregory the Greats concept of
    leadership different from the traditional concept
    of leadership, for example, that practiced by the
    pagan Roman emperors?
  • How is St. Gregorys concept of leadership
    especially appropriate for anyone in the Church
    who exercises leadership?

23
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Listen to a sample of Gregorian Chant.

24
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes in response to the
    following prompt
  • Apply the words of Jesus Christ to St. Peter to
    this period of the Churchs history You are
    Peter, and on this rock I will build my church,
    and the powers of death shall not prevail against
    it (Mt 1618).

25
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  • Study Questions 111 (pp. 138139)
  • Practical Exercise 1, 3 (p. 140)
  • Workbook Questions 133
  • Read Muhammad (ca. 570632) and the Koran
    through Spain (pp. 105108)

26
1. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 94103)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes in response to the
    following prompt
  • Imagine you are a Christian living in a city in
    the western half of the Roman Empire and have
    just heard that a barbarian army is approaching
    your town.
  • Write a diary entry about how you feel and what
    you imagine is about to happen.

27
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Discuss the following question
  • Imagine you had founded a new religion, believed
    God wanted everyone to accept it, and persuaded
    everyone in your town to believe in it. What are
    some ways you could further expand your religion?

28
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • What is the origin of Islam, and what are its
    chief doctrines?
  • What key events brought about the conversion of
    the Franks and Visigoths?
  •  
  • KEY IDEAS
  • Muhammad founded a new, monotheistic religion
    based loosely on Judaism and Christianity.
  • Under the influence of his wife St. Clotilda, the
    pagan King Clovis converted to Catholicism. He
    founded the Merovingian Dynasty, which became a
    great defender of the Church in Europe. After
    much infighting among the Arian, Visigoth ruling
    familyincluding a prince who married a
    Merovingian Catholic princess, converted, and was
    killed by his own fatherKing Reccard converted
    to Catholicism, which then became the official
    religion of Spain.

29
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Search the Internet for information about the
    Battle of Badr.

30
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Read silently Matthew 103439, and then discuss
    the following question
  • What did Christ tell his disciples to expect as
    they convert to Christianity and try to live the
    Faith?

31
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • In what two European locations was the spread of
    Islam halted?
  • In the East AD 717 and 740, Emperor Leo III
    defeated Muslims attempting to take
    Constantinople. In the West after Spain had
    fallen, Charles Martel stopped the further spread
    of Islam into Europe at the Battle of Tours (AD
    732).
  •  
  • What likely would have happened had Europeans
    lost the battles in the previous question?
  • Muslims most likely would have conquered all of
    Europe, invading from the east and the south.

32
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is the Koran?
  • According to Muhammad, the Koran is a dictation
    of the words of the Archangel Gabriel.
  •  
  • What does the word Islam mean?
  • It means submission and refers to submission to
    the will of God.
  •  
  • Why are the rise and basic beliefs of Islam
    important to the study of the history of the
    Catholic Church?
  • Islam is a monotheistic religion whose history is
    linked with the Arab, Asiatic, African, and
    European peoples, and many wars were fought
    between Christians and Muslims.

33
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What major tasks faced the Church during the
    evangelization of Europe?
  • Monks and bishops not only had to build the
    institutions of the Church but also had to raise
    the moral and cultural level of peoples so they
    could be disposed to the Gospel.
  •  
  • In general, what was the initial attitude of
    Germanic peoples toward conversion to
    Christianity?
  • They were often violent and cruel toward even a
    family member who would convert.

34
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why is France called the Churchs Eldest
    Daughter?
  • The Franks were the first of the Germanic tribes
    to convert, and they defended the Church for
    centuries.
  •  
  • How were the Franks different from most Germanic
    tribes?
  • They were completely pagan, not having had any
    exposure to Christianity, Arian or orthodox.
  •  
  • Why had Clovis considered the Christian God
    ineffective?
  • Clovis married the beautiful Christian St.
    Clotilda, who worked to convert him. Their first
    child died, and they nearly lost their second.
    Clovis might have assumed a powerful God would do
    better than that.

35
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Read silently Matthew 103439, and then discuss
    the following question
  • How were Christs words fulfilled in the Visigoth
    rulers of Spain?

36
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did Clovis convert?
  • Clovis was facing defeat against the Alemanni and
    promised the Christian God, if he won, he would
    convert and be baptized.
  •  
  • Why did Clovis army also convert?
  • They followed whatever their leader did.
  •  
  • What is the Merovingian Dynasty?
  • It is comprised of the descendants of Clovis it
    is named for Meroveus, an ancestor of Clovis.

37
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How did Catholicism become the official religion
    of Spain?
  • After much strife among the ruling family, which
    was split religiously, King Reccard ascended to
    the throne and converted to Catholicism in 587.
  •  
  • When did the Muslim invasions of the Iberian
    Peninsula begin, and when was the Reconquista of
    Spain?
  • Muslims invaded beginning in 711. The Reconquista
    was accomplished in 1492.
  •  
  • Who are Mozarabic Christians?
  • They are the Christians of Spain, centered in
    Toledo, who lived under Muslims for almost eight
    centuries.

38
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • From whom did Spain believe it had received the
    Gospel?
  • It received the Gospel from the Apostles Sts.
    Paul and James the Greater (Santiago).
  •  
  • Which tribe conquered Christian Spain, and what
    was its attitude toward the Church?
  • The Arian Visigoths conquered most of the Iberian
    Peninsula and were quite intolerant toward the
    Church.

39
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 1213 (p. 139)
  • Practical Exercises 2, 4 (p. 140)
  • Workbook Questions 3450
  • Read St. Patrick The Apostle of Ireland
    through St. Bede The Father of English
    History (pp. 108113)

40
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes in response to the
    following prompt
  • Muhammad founded a new, monotheistic religion
    based loosely on Judaism and Christianity.

41
2. Islam and the Conversion of France and Spain
(pp. 104108)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes about what you
    consider the decisive events in the conversion of
    Gaul and Spain.

42
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following
    question
  • How was the Irish Church originally governed?

43
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • What was the Celtic contribution to the
    preservation of culture, and how did the Irish
    evangelize Europe?
  • How did the conversion of the English people come
    about?
  •  
  • KEY IDEAS
  • Celtic monasticism, heavily influenced by the
    Eastern ascetical tradition, provided the
    governance structure for the Church in Ireland,
    preserved Greco-Roman learning for Europe, and
    evangelized Northern Europe.
  • Pope St. Gregory the Great sent St. Augustine of
    Canterbury, a Benedictine abbot, to England to
    convert the pagans.

44
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • St. Patrick is the most famous Irishman. Where
    was he born, and why did he spend his teenage and
    young adult years in Ireland?
  • St. Patrick was from Roman Britain. He was
    kidnapped by Irish pirates and spent his youth as
    a slave in the northwest of Ireland.
  •  
  • What was the religion of Ireland before St.
    Patricks evangelization?
  • The Irish were pagan Druids.
  •  
  • Why did St. Patrick decide to return to Ireland?
  • After he had escaped and returned to his family,
    a vision called him to return to Ireland. Soon he
    began to study for the priesthood.

45
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How long did the conversion of Ireland take?
  • It took about one generation.
  •  
  • Which tradition did Irish monasticism follow
    Eastern or Benedictine?
  • Irish monasticism followed the Eastern tradition,
    in which monks practiced severe asceticism,
    producing spiritual athletes who could endure any
    hardship.
  •  
  • What made Irish monasteries the intellectual
    centers of Europe?
  • The Irish monastic scriptoria and libraries saved
    a great deal of the Greco-Roman literary
    tradition, including the ability to read
    classical Greek.

46
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What does St. Columbas name mean in Latin?
  • It means dove.
  •  
  • Why did St. Columba leave Ireland?
  • It may have been a penance for having been
    involved in a civil war.
  •  
  • What king did St. Columba baptize?
  • He baptized the new Scottish King, which led to
    the conversion of the Scots.

47
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table on public and private penance.

48
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
49
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What areas did St. Columbanus evangelize?
  • He evangelized the northern coast of France and
    Switzerland.
  •  
  • Given what is known about St. Columbanuss
    physical presence, how does the selection from
    his Instruction reveal Christs transforming
    grace?
  • He could have been a successful despot, yet he
    wanted to become a man of peace in the image of
    the Prince of Peace.
  •  
  • What kind of penance did St. Columbanus and
    Celtic spirituality promote?
  • St. Columbanus promoted the practice of private,
    frequent, sacramental Penance.

50
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Who sent St. Augustine of Canterbury to
    evangelize England?
  • Pope St. Gregory the Great commissioned his
    missionary journey personally.
  •  
  • Which Germanic tribes almost wiped out
    Christianity in England?
  • The Jutes, Angles, and Saxons nearly annihilated
    the native Roman Christians. Celtic missionaries
    from Ireland had no success converting them.
  •  
  • How did the missionaries react when they heard
    about the ferocity of Anglo-Saxons?
  • St. Augustine of Canterbury asked permission to
    return to Rome, but Pope St. Gregory the Great
    denied this request.

51
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How successful was St. Augustine of Canterbury as
    a missionary?
  • On Christmas Day 597 alone, some 10,000 Saxons
    were baptized. Conversions spread throughout
    England.
  •  
  • Was the full conversion of England quick or easy?
  • No there were six kingdoms in England, and many
    tended to revert to paganism. Celtic missionaries
    played an important role in the ongoing
    Christianization of England.
  •  
  • What conflict arose within the Church in England,
    and what was the result?
  • There were ongoing tensions between the Celtic
    and Roman traditions. Eventually, the English
    accepted the Roman traditions, including
    Benedictine monasticism over Celtic monasticism.
    England became identified especially with the
    Roman Pontiff.

52
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How long did it take for England to become a
    center of Christian learning after the beginning
    of its evangelization?
  • It took about one century.
  •  
  • What is The Ecclesiastical History of the English
    People?
  • Written by St. Bede, it is the first English
    history. It portrays the Catholic Church as the
    center of the development of English culture.

53
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What contribution did St. Bede make to the
    measurement of time?
  • St. Bede popularized Dionysius Exiguuss BC/AD
    system of calculating years.
  •  
  • Why is St. Bede called Venerable?
  • Within a century of his death, he was declared
    Venerable because of his holy life. Extension In
    1899 Pope Leo XIII named him a Doctor of the
    Church.
  •  
  • What happened to the Faith in England from the
    year 800 to 1000?
  • Though England supplied some of the greatest
    evangelizers of Europe, the Church underwent a
    decline partly because of the ravages of the
    Vikings.

54
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Open-workbook quiz using one or two questions
    from last nights homework.

55
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 1420 (p. 139)
  • Practical Exercise 5 (p. 140)
  • Workbook Questions 5176
  • Read The Conversion of Germany and the Low
    Countries through St. Vladimir The Apostle of
    the Russians and Ukrainians (pp. 114118)

56
3. The Conversion of Ireland and England (pp.
108113)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Write a one-paragraph summary of public vs.
    private penance using the completed Graphic
    Organizer on page 110.

57
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114118)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Discuss how cutting down a single tree was the
    beginning of the conversion of the pagan Germans.

58
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114118)
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • What were St. Bonifaces accomplishments?
  • Who were Sts. Cyril and Methodius?
  •  
  • KEY IDEAS
  • Though temperamentally averse to suffering, St.
    Boniface effected the conversion of the German
    people and laid a monastic foundation that
    endured for three centuries.
  • Sts. Cyril and Methodius were brothers who
    adapted the Faith to Slavic culture, even
    inventing a written alphabet so the Slavs could
    read the Bible in their own language
    unfortunately, many Slavs turned away from
    Catholicism because some Popes refused to
    recognize the use of the Slavic language for
    liturgical worship.

59
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114118)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How long did it take to evangelize Germany and
    the Low Countries?
  • It took many centuries. Some tribes had been
    evangelized before the Fall of Rome, and others
    were still being converted in the eleventh
    century.
  •  
  • What connection exists between the first
    Anglo-Saxon missionaries and Rome?
  • St. Willibrord sought and received papal support
    for his mission to the Frisians.
  •  
  • What kind of temperament did St. Boniface have in
    his youth?
  • St. Boniface was unsteady, timid, and tended
    toward discouragement and despair. Nevertheless,
    he converted the Germans and laid a monastic
    foundation that endured for three centuries.

60
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114118)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What did St. Boniface hope to find when he
    studied the lives of the early Christians?
  • He hoped to discover saints who did not have to
    suffer. When he could not, he struggled to be
    courageous and began to consider ferocious
    barbarians his brothers.
  •  
  • How did Pope St. Gregory II show his confidence
    in the discouraged Winfrid?
  • When Winfrid felt like a failure and asked the
    Pope if he should return to England, St. Gregory
    gave Winfrid the new name Boniface, meaning doer
    of good.

61
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114118)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following
    question
  • Who was St. Bonifaces secular patron, and how
    did this patron help him?

62
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114118)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Discuss the following question
  • What aspects of the Passion of Christ might have
    appealed to the German people, and why?

63
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114118)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What tree did Boniface cut down, and what was the
    result?
  • St. Boniface chopped down the Oak of Thor,
    considered sacred to the pagan Germans, which
    proved to the German people that Thor had no
    power to hurt him.
  •  
  • What did St. Boniface accomplish during his
    lifetime?
  • Before he died a martyr, he converted German
    pagans, founded monasteries, established Church
    structure in Germany, and reformed the Church in
    Frankish lands.

64
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114118)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How were Sts. Cyril and Methodius related?
  • They were two highly intelligent and well
    educated brothers who devoted their entire lives
    to God and evangelization.
  •  
  • What is Glagolithic script?
  • St. Cyril invented this alphabet to write the
    spoken Slavic language.
  •  
  • What is the historical relationship between
    Poland and the papacy?
  • Duke Mieszko made Poland a vassal land of the
    Pope after he had converted under the influence
    of his Christian wife, Dubraka.

65
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114118)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did St. Vladimir investigate the major
    religions of the world?
  • St. Vladimir thought that allying himself with a
    major religion might solidify his rule.
  •  
  • What deal did the Roman (Byzantine) emperor Basil
    II make with St. Vladimir?
  • St. Vladimir wanted to help Basil with his army
    of 6000 Viking warriors. It was finally agreed
    that, if St. Vladimir would be baptized, he could
    marry Basils sister, Anna, and then St.
    Vladimirs army would go to work to quell
    rebellions within the Roman (Byzantine) Empire.

66
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114118)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How might people have expected St. Vladimir to
    have behaved once his 6000 warriors had entered
    the Roman (Byzantine) Empire?
  • Given his previous behavior, it is predictable he
    would have gone after them to pillage.
  •  
  • How did St. Vladimir actually behave after he had
    been baptized?
  • He changed in a miraculous manner. He dismissed
    his previous, pagan wives in favor of the
    Christian Anna destroyed idols and shrines,
    building churches in their place established
    monasteries and Christian schools threw banquets
    for the poor and made Baptism compulsory.

67
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114118)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table about St. Vladimirs religious
    investigations.

68
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114118)
69
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114118)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes about the conversion
    of Germany and the Low Countries.

70
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114118)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 2125 (p. 139)
  • Practical Exercises 67 (p. 140)
  • Workbook Questions 7794
  • Read Byzantium The Long View through The
    Feast of the Triumph of Orthodoxy (pp. 118125)

71
4. The Conversion of Germany and the Slavs (pp.
114 118)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Write a paragraph comparing the initial attitudes
    of St. Augustine of Canterbury and St. Boniface
    toward doing missionary work among the Germanic
    pagans.

72
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Search the Internet to view several icons.
    Research and print an icon you particularly like.

73
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • How did Constantinople fare culturally and
    politically after the Fall of Rome?
  • What is iconoclasm, and what lessons can be drawn
    from it?
  •  
  • KEY IDEAS
  • Constantinople did not descend into chaos after
    the Fall of Rome rather, it grew superior
    culturally and politically to the West.
  • Emperor Leo IIIbecause of abuses regarding the
    veneration of icons the influences of Judaism,
    Islam, lingering Manichaeism, and Monophysitism
    and for political reasonsordered their
    destruction, which was opposed by the Popes in
    the West and monks in the East. St. John of
    Damascus wrote sublime defenses of icons.

74
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How did the Christian population of the Roman
    (Byzantine) Empire compare with that of Rome and
    the West?
  • The Roman (Byzantine) Empire had a much higher
    Christian population.
  •  
  • What relationship within the Roman (Byzantine)
    Empire tended to undermine the authority of the
    Pope among Eastern Christians?
  • The intimate relationship between the Roman
    (Byzantine) emperor and the Patriarch of
    Constantinople came to overshadow even that
    between the Roman Pontiff and the Patriarch of
    Constantinople.

75
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following
    question
  • What early disasters did Islam inflict upon the
    Roman (Byzantine) Empire?

76
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How long did the Roman Empire endure centered in
    Constantinople?
  • The Roman (Byzantine) Empire lasted more than
    1100 years. Extension The Roman Republic lasted
    about 700 years, and then the Roman Empire (with
    its capital in Rome and then Constantinople)
    lasted about 1400 years.
  •  
  • In terms of the Faith, what did the Byzantine
    Empire enjoy that the Roman Empire did not?
  • The Byzantine Empire enjoyed a wholly Christian
    orientation and development.

77
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What political situation in the West tended to
    increase the sense of the universality of the
    Church?
  • Because of the collapse of the Roman Empire and
    the absence of strong political communities with
    which Christians could identify, the Church
    tended to be viewed as an institution that
    transcended political boundaries and allegiances.
  •  
  • What feature of the relationship between throne
    and altar in the East tended to cause schisms?
  • The close identification of the Church with the
    secular authority resulted in the de facto
    creation of national churches defined by specific
    political boundaries. Burgeoning nationalism
    often resulted in schisms.

78
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What is caesaropapism, and how did it sometimes
    put a Byzantine emperor in conflict with a Pope?
  • Caesaropapism is a political and religious system
    in which the political ruler extends his
    authority into ecclesiastical and theological
    matters. Roman (Byzantine) emperors appointed
    bishops, especially the Patriarch of
    Constantinople, and directed the development of
    liturgical practices, even recruiting monks,
    which sometimes put them into conflict with
    Popes. Extension The desire of the secular ruler
    to control the Church within his realm was not
    limited to the East (nor even to Christian
    rulers, for that matter) it appeared often in
    the history of the Western Church as well, but
    temporal rule over Church matters never became as
    solidified as it was while the Roman Empire had
    its capital in Constantinople.

79
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table on the effects of Emperor Justinians
    various military campaigns.

80
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
81
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Other than Muslims, who threatened the empire
    during Justinians reign?
  • His reign was threatened by Persians in the east
    and Bulgars and Slavs from the north.
  •  
  • What was the importance of the Codex Justinianus?
  • Emperor Justinian I collected and systematized
    all of Roman law from its founding in order to
    have a uniform rule of law throughout his empire.
    The resulting Codex Justinianus was the highest
    achievement in classical legal scholarship, and
    it became the basis of the canon law of the
    Church and the civil law of many European
    nations.
  •  
  • What negative influence did Empress Theodora have
    on her husband?
  • Emperor Justinians beautiful wife convinced him
    to conspire against the Pope and replace him with
    someone she hoped would support her heretical
    position.

82
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Review the following terms
  • Nestorianism
  • Monophysitism
  • Hypostatic Union

83
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Mini-lecture Pope Vigilius and papal
    infallibility.

84
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table to explain five arguments against the
    existence and use of icons.

85
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
86
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is an icon?
  • It is a stylized, two-dimensional portrayal of
    Christ, the Blessed Virgin Mary, one of the
    saints or angels, or a scene from the Gospels. It
    can be painted, a mosaic, or bas-relief.
  •  
  • How is a Christian work of art to be used?
  • It should be used as an aid to piety or prayer
    and as a reminder of the communion of saints.

87
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is an iconoclast?
  • An icon-breaker believes it is wrong to have or
    produce images of Christ and the saints, most
    often because it is supposedly against the First
    Commandment.
  •  
  • What were the motivations of the first
    iconoclasts?
  • They wanted to guard against the idolatrous use
    of icons by destroying them.
  •  
  • Of adoration and honor, which is appropriate
    to what beings?
  • A human being or angel depicted in an icon may
    legitimately be venerated with the respect and
    honor called, in Greek, dulia. God alone is
    worthy of the true worship or adoration, called
    latria.

88
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did Empress Irene want the Ecumenical Council
    to be held in Nicæa?
  • Nicæa was the site of the First Ecumenical
    Council. Irene and the iconophiles hoped the
    bishops in attendance would be reminded of Nicæa
    I and restore orthodoxy.
  •  
  • Why could the patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch,
    and Jerusalem not attend the Second Ecumenical
    Council of Nicæa?
  • They lived in Muslim-conquered territory the
    caliph would not let them attend.
  •  
  • What was the result of the Second Ecumenical
    Council of Nicæa?
  • Iconoclasm was condemned as heresy, and East-West
    communion was restored.

89
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Mini-lecture Iconoclasm and the development of
    doctrine.

90
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is an iconophile?
  • An icon-lover defends the proper use of icons
    in Christian worship.
  •  
  • How did St. John of Damascus defend the existence
    and veneration of of icons? How was this a
    defense of all Christian art?
  • God took on human nature in the Person of Jesus
    Christ. He is the image of the invisible God
    (Col 1 15), which provides implicit permission
    to depict Christs human form. All such dignified
    and respectful depictions are praiseworthy.

91
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did Emperor Constantine V oppress monks?
  • Most monks were adamantly opposed to iconoclasm.
    Some 300 monks were put to death by Constantine
    V.
  •  
  • What brought about the second period of
    iconoclasm?
  • Because many members of the military and the
    upper echelons of Byzantine society still adhered
    to iconoclasm, a series of emperors tried to
    revive this heresy to secure their support.

92
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share about the following
    question
  • How did iconoclasm finally come to an end?

93
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes in response to the
    following question
  • Why is it not only permissible but praiseworthy
    to create artistic images of Christ and the
    saints? 

94
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 2631 (p. 139)
  • Practical Exercise 8 (p. 140)
  • Workbook Questions 95123
  • Read The Origin of the Carolingian Line through
    Conclusion (pp. 126136)

95
5. The Iconoclastic Controversy (pp. 118125)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Write a paragraph about the cultural and
    spiritual life within the Eastern half of the
    Roman Empire after the Fall of Rome.

96
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Discuss the following question
  • If you had lived in the time of Pope St.
    Silverius (cf. p. 122), what might you have
    wanted in a right relationship between the
    government and the Church?

97
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • How was the relationship between the papacy and
    the Carolingian Dynasty formed, and what were its
    effects?
  • What were the causes of the Great Schism in 1054?
  •  
  • KEY IDEAS
  • In the West, the Pope established a line of
    Frankish kings that resulted in protection of the
    papacy and the unification of Europe through
    Charlemagne.
  • Numerous differences, misunderstandings,
    heresies, political intrigues, and individual
    sins contributed to divisions between the East
    and West, resulting in the Great Schism of 1054.

98
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How did Pepin the Short become the King of
    France?
  • He asked the Pope to give him and his heirs
    kingship over France, which he did.
  •  
  • What did Pope Stephen IIs coronation of Pepin
    show?
  • It demonstrated that Pope Stephen and King Pepin
    believed the Pope could bestow secular authority
    on kings.
  •  
  • What were the Papal States, what was unique about
    them for the Church, and how long did the Church
    hold them?
  • The Papal States were lands around Rome Pepin
    had won them from the Lombards and secured them
    for the Pope. For the first time in the history
    of the Church, the Pope became not just a
    spiritual leader but also a temporal. This
    arrangement lasted until 1870, some 1100 years.

99
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How did Charlemagne show his devotion to the
    Faith in his public and private life?
  • In his public life, Charlemagne modeled civic
    legislation on the laws of the Church, tried to
    reform the clergy, established new dioceses, and
    raised funds to support them. His throne was
    simple and unadorned. In his private life,
    Charlemagne lived the Faith, prayed, fasted, and
    read the Bible daily.
  •  
  • What was Charlemagnes relationship with the
    Popes?
  • He protected Rome twice from invading Lombards
    and rescued Pope Leo III from some Roman
    noblemen who had imprisoned him.

100
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What did Charlemagnes coronation mean for the
    Germanic tribes?
  • His crowning signified that the Germans were
    incorporated finally into Roman civilization.
  •  
  • How did the Roman (Byzantine) emperors view Pope
    St. Leo IIIs coronation of Charlemagne?
  • Initially, they were infuriated since they were
    the emperors of the Roman Empire, whose capital
    Constantine had moved from Rome to
    Constantinople.
  •  
  • What are some examples of Charlemagnes
    misapplication of force?
  • Charlemagne sometimes forced conversions. At one
    time he ordered the execution of 4000 rebellious
    pagan Saxons. He applied capital punishment to
    infringements against Church practices, including
    eating meat on Friday. These practices contradict
    the message of the Gospel.

101
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What did Charlemagne contribute to learning and
    art?
  • Charlemagne emphasized education and artistic
    excellence and mandated that every monastery and
    parish have a school.
  •  
  • What was the result of the Carolingian
    Renaissance?
  • The clergy was better educated in classical and
    biblical texts. This renewed enthusiasm for the
    Faith and literature paved the way for renewed
    missionary activity.
  •  
  • Who was Alcuin?
  • A monk and later abbot, Alcuin was the most
    renowned Latin scholar of the Carolingian
    Renaissance.

102
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What are the two basic kinds of Eastern Churches
    today?
  • The two basic kinds are Orthodox and Catholic.
  •  
  • What are the similarities between the Eastern
    Catholic Churches and Eastern Orthodox Churches?
  • They share the same liturgies, customs, and
    practices.
  •  
  • What major difference divided eastern and western
    Christianity with respect to the use of the
    vernacular in their liturgies?
  • Liturgical worship within the Eastern Churches
    has always utilized the vernacular in their
    liturgies, whereas liturgical worship within the
    Latin Church was by and large conducted in Latin.

103
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table according to the map The Empire of
    Charlemagne (p. 129).

104
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
105
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following
    question
  • How was the relationship between Charlemagne and
    the Pope the opposite of caesaropapism?

106
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table about emerging differences between the East
    and West.

107
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
108
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Make the Sign of the Cross in the method of
    Eastern Catholics, and then discuss the following
    question
  • What other differences and similarities do you
    know between the Western and Eastern Churches?

109
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • From the Western perspective, why was Filioque
    added to the Nicene Creed?
  • It clarified something always believed but left
    unsaid and its addition prevented a widespread
    resurgence of Arianism.
  •  
  • From the Eastern perspective, what was the
    objection to adding Filioque?
  • There were two objections First, the Council
    Fathers at the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon
    had prohibited changing the Creed. Second, some
    argued that Filioque reflected a heretical
    belief.
  •  
  • When there was a dispute over who the legitimate
    Patriarch of Constantinople was, to whom did the
    emperor and patriarch appeal?
  • They agreed the Pope had the authority to decide
    the question.

110
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did Patriarch Photius object to Western
    missionaries in Bulgaria?
  • He considered it missionary territory of Eastern
    Christians.
  •  
  • Of what did Photius accuse the Pope?
  • Photius charged the Pope with tampering with the
    Nicene Creed through the insertion of Filioque to
    describe the procession of the Holy Spirit.
  •  
  • How was the immediate problem between Emperor
    Michael III and Photius solved?
  • Michael III died and his successor removed
    Photius as patriarch in an attempt to make peace
    with the Pope.

111
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What did Patriarch Ignatius do in disobedience of
    the Pope?
  • Restored as Patriarch of Constantinople, he began
    to ordain Bulgarian bishops against the Popes
    order.
  •  
  • How did Patriarch Photius create a schism?
  • When he was legitimately installed as Patriarch
    of Constantinople after Ignatiuss death, he
    excommunicated the Latin Church for liturgical
    irregularities and the insertion of Filioque into
    the Creed.
  •  
  • What happened to Patriarch Photius?
  • The new emperor forced him to resign (just as the
    previous emperor had done), and a fragile
    communion was restored between the Eastern and
    Western Churches for the next two centuries.

112
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did Emperor Constantine IX want to establish
    peace with the West, and why was he unsuccessful?
  • He needed military help against the Normans.
    Patriarch Michael Cerularius, however, incited
    riots against the emperors call for
    reconciliation, threatening civil war.
  •  
  • How did Patriarch Michael Cerularius respond to
    Romes excommunication?
  • Cerularius excommunicated the Western Church for
    perverting the Faith.
  •  
  • What new titles did the Patriarch of
    Constantinople receive at this time?
  • Ecumenical Patriarch of the East and first
    among equals of the Eastern patriarchs.

113
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How did Patriarch Michael Cerularius view the
    papacy?
  • He viewed it with disgust.
  •  
  • To what western practices did Patriarch Michael
    Cerularius object?
  • He objected to a celibate priesthood, fasting on
    Saturday, the use of unleavened bread at Mass,
    beardless priests, eating meat with blood, and
    omitting the Alleluia during Lent.
  •  
  • What did Patriarch Michael Cerularius allow to be
    done within churches in Constantinople that
    followed Western liturgical practices?
  • He closed them and allowed their consecrated
    hosts to be trampled under foot.

114
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  • Study Questions 3240 (p. 140)
  • Workbook Questions 124155

115
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes about how the
    establishment of the Papal States was beneficial
    to the Church.

116
6. The Carolingians and the Great Schism (pp.
126136)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Discuss what you might have done to avoid the
    Great Schism had you been the Pope in 1054.

117
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