Chapter 1 History of Immunology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 1 History of Immunology PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3aecd4-MjA1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 1 History of Immunology

Description:

Chapter 1 History of Immunology Introduction Experiential Immunology period Experimental Immunology period Modern Immunology period Immunology act as an ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:2769
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 45
Provided by: jpkcSduE
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 1 History of Immunology


1
Chapter 1 History of Immunology
2
Introduction
Chapter 1 History of Immunology
  • Experiential Immunology period
  • Experimental Immunology period
  • Modern Immunology period
  • Immunology act as an independent subject
  • (In 1971, International Conference of
  • Immunology, in USA )

3
I. Experiential Immunology period (the 17th
century- the middle of 19th century)
  • In ancient times,many serious infection
    diseases,such as smallpox,plague and cholera
    etc,caused inumerable people dead.

4
Do you know ? Plague !!! --- Black Death
Disease
5
(No Transcript)
6
What disease does this man have?
7
  • In 1670,
  • Chinese medical practitioners variolation

8
  • Edward Jennar ----An English physician
  • He discovered that cowpox vaccination protected
    against smallpox in 1796

9
  • Vaccine A preparation of microbial
    antigen,often combined with adjuvants,that is
    administered to individuals to induce protective
    immunity against microbial infections.
  • Vaccination A general term for immunization
    against infectious diseases,orginally derived
    from immunization against smallpox which uses the
    Vaccinia virus.

10
They should be vaccinated first
Why do they not want to play with my kids?
11
II. Experimental Immunology period (the middle of
19th century-the middle of 20th century)
  • 1.Active immunity
  • In the middle of 19th century
  • R. Koch
  • ----Isolated and cultured bacteria
    successfully
  • Pasteur
  • ----Infectious diseases were caused
  • by pathogens

Robert Koch
12
  • In 1880, Pasteur
  • ----Anti-cholera live-attenuated
  • vaccine
  • (old culture of Chicken V.cholera)
  • ----Artificial active immunity

Louis Pasteur(1822-1895)
13
  • Active immunity
  • The form of adaptive immunity that is induced
    by exposure to a foreign antigen and in which the
    immunized individual plays an active role in
    responding to the antigen.

14
  • 2. Passive immunity
  • In the late eighties of 19th century
  • Roux and Yersin
  • ----Diphtheria was caused by exotoxin
  • produced by C.diphtheriae
  • The discovery of diphtheriae antitoxin
  • and bactericindins
  • Antitoxin----Antibody (Ab)
  • Exotoxin----Antigen (Ag)

15
  • Study on reaction of Ag and Ab in vitro
  • ----Serology
  • In 1890,Von Behring and Kitasato
  • ----diphtheriae antitoxin was applied in
    treatment of Diphtheria
  • ---- Artificial passive immunity

Von Behring
16
  • Passive immunity
  • The form of immunity to an antigen that is
    established in one individual by transfer of
    antibody or lymphocytes from another individual
    who is immune to that antigen.

17
Active immunity and passive immunity
18
  • 3. Study on antigen
  • In the early of 20th century,Landsteiner
  • ----Study on antigenic determinant(epitope)
  • ----ABO blood type

19
(No Transcript)
20
(No Transcript)
21
  • 4. Study on immunochemistry
  • In 1938,Tiselius and Kabat
  • ----Ab is ? globulin
  • In the fifties of 20th century,Porter and Edelmen
  • ----Molecular structure of Ab
  • 4 peptides

22
Albumin
glubulin
Total serum
Total serum
The electrophoresis figure of immune serum
23
  • 5. Study on immune tolerance
  • No positive response to specific Ag
  • In 1945, Oven found natural immune tolerance
  • In 1953,Medawar set up animal model of acquired
    immune tolerance in newborn period.

24
cattle of dizygotic twin
25
Calf of dizygotic twins
Commonly use one placenta
Their blood types are different and form chimeras
26
(No Transcript)
27
  • 6. Hypothesis for Ab formation
  • Templates postulate (1930,Breinl and Haurowitz)
  • Variable folding postulate (1940,Pauling)
  • Natural selection postulate (1955,Jerne)
  • Clonal selection theory (1959, Burnet)
  • Clone a group cells that stem from identical
    cell

28
Various clones
Clone deletion
birth
Clone selection
29
Clonal selection theory
  • (1)There are various lymphocyte clones in our
    body, each of them bears a unique type of Ag
    receptor which can recognize Ag specifically.

30

Clonal selection theory
  • (2)The clones of lymphocytes that can
    recognize self-Ags will be destroyed or learn to
    tolerance to self Ags (forbidden clones) at the
    early stage of their development.
  • ----clone deletion

31

Clonal selection theory
  • (3)The clones of lymphocytes that can be
    interacted with corresponding Ag will be
    selected and lead to activation, proliferation
    , produce Ab and specific memory cells.
  • ---- clone selection

32

Clonal selection theory
  • (4) Forbidden clones can be revival and cause
    antoimmunity.

33
Clonal selection theory
  • There are various lymphocyte clones, each clone
    only bears a unique type of Ag receptor
  • The clones of lymphocyte that can recognize
    self-Ags will be destroyed or learn to tolerance
    to self Ags (forbidden clones) at the early
    stage of their development---clone deletion
  • The clones of lymphocytes that can be interacted
    with corresponding Ag (by Ag receptors ) can be
    selected and lead to activation, proliferation
    , produce Ab and specific memory cells---clone
    selection
  • Forbidden clones can be revival and cause
    antoimmunity.

34
  • 7. Mechanism of protective immunity
  • Cell mediated immunity(CMI) -----1883-1884,Metchn
    ikoff
  • Microorganisms were engulfed and destroyed
  • by phagocytic cells
  • Humoral immunity(HI) ----1897,Ehrlich
  • Ab in serum played important roles in
    protective immunity
  • Both HI and CMI were very important for
    protective immunity,
  • Ab in serum could promote the phagocytosis of
    phagocytic cells
  • ---- 1903, Wright Dauglas

35
  • 8. Study on immune-pathology immune disease
  • In 1902,Richet and Portier----Anaphylaxis
  • Pirquet and Shick----Hypersensitivity
  • In 1903,Arthus----Arthus phenomenon
  • In 1906,Pirquet ---- Allergy
  • In 1907,Donath and Landsteiner
  • ----Autoantibody cause autoimmune disease

36
III. Modern Immunology period (the middle of
20th century-the 21th century)
  • 1. Study on immune system
  • In 1957,Glick Fabricius and Xianguang Zhang
  • ----Chicken without bursa can not produce Ab
  • ----B cell
  • In 1961,Good and Miller
  • ----cell mediated immune of new born mice whose
    thymus were taken away are defective
  • ----T cell

37
(No Transcript)
38
  • 2. Study on monoclonal antibody
  • ----In 1975,Kohler and milstein
  • 3. Study on immune genetics
  • ----In 1978,genetic control of antibody
    diversity
  • ----Discovery of accurate mechanism of immune
    response on gene level (MHC, TCR , BCR)
  • 4. Study on molecular mechanism of T/B lymphocyte
    activation and signal transduction
  • 5. Study on effective mechanism of immune cells

39
MHC ?? ????????????????
Jean Dauset 1916-, Nobel Prize 1980 for study on
immunogenetics
40
TCR and BCR
41
  • 6. Study on clinical immunology
  • Organ transplantation
  • Autoimmune disease
  • Tumor immunology
  • Infectious diseases

42
  • 7. Study on applied immunology
  • Preparation of monoclonal antibody and genetic
    engineering antibody
  • Preparation of recombinant cytokines
  • Study on DNA vaccine
  • Study on treatment with immune cells

43
  • 8. New techniques of modern immunology and
    application
  • Separation of immune cells
  • Protein analysis technique
  • Phage display technique
  • Preparation of new animal model

44
Reference
  • 1.Roitt. Immunology
  • 2.Abbas AK.Cellular and molecular immunology
  • 3.Lydyard PM. Instant Notes in Immunology
  • 4.???.?????(???????)
  • 5.???.?????(?????)
  • 6.???.?????????
  • 7.???.?????????
About PowerShow.com