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Chapter 1 : Methods and Concepts in Biology

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Chapter 1 : Methods and Concepts in Biology Using a Microscope How to use microscope Vocabulary Words for Chapter 1: Metabolism Homeostasis Evolution Species Genes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1 : Methods and Concepts in Biology


1
Chapter 1 Methods and Concepts in Biology
Using a Microscope
How to use microscope
2
Vocabulary Words for Chapter 1
  • Metabolism
  • Homeostasis
  • Evolution
  • Species
  • Genes
  • Reading Assignment pg. 6-9, 1040-1041

3
What is Biology?
  • Biology the study of life
  • From the Greek bios life logos study of

I. WHAT DO ALL LIVING CREATURES HAVE IN
COMMON? ?WHAT IS LIFE? 7 FEATURES
OF LIVING CREATURES
4
Cells and Genetic Material
  • composed of cells or cell fragments
  • cells come from existing cells
  • contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules
    that have instructions for assembling new
    organisms (blueprints for life)
  • DNA? instructions for new life

5
2. Reproduction
  • Transfer of hereditary information to the next
    generation
  • Production of offspring
  • Essential b/c no organism lives forever
  • Of course, individuals can have problems
    reproducing offspring and still be considered
    living

6
A Great Example of the Power of Genetics.
7
3. Metabolism
  • Energy transfer within cells
  • Requires a constant consumption of energy
    (chemical, solar)
  • sum of all chemical reactions carried out in
    organisms
  • breaking down a complex molecule to produce
    energy

8
4. Mutation of Inheritable Traits
  • Mutation any random change in the genetic
    material (DNA)
  • Organisms adapts to their environment by evolving
    (changing over time)
  • Organisms evolve over successive generations to
    survive changing environments

9
5. Sense and Respond to Environment
  • Homeostasis - maintaining constant internal
    environment in spite of external changes
  • Ex. Body temperature, glucose regulation and
    hunger, circadian (sleep) rhythms

10
6. Growth and Development
  • increase in the size and/or number of cells.
  • maturation and differentiation of cells
  • Cells develop unique functions brain cell,
    kidney cell, bone cell, liver cell, skin cell

11
7. Interdependence
  • depending on other organisms and environment as a
    source of energy or materials
  • Dependence of food, shelter, energy, oxygen

12
GSMC MRI
  • To help you guys remember these 7 features
  • Good Samaritan Medical Center
  • MRI a scan you might get at a hospital

13
II. Levels of Organization
Simplest
  1. Subatomic particle N, P, E
  2. Atom
  3. Compound
  4. Organelle
  5. Cell smallest living unit
  6. Tissue
  7. Organ
  8. Organ System
  9. Multicellular Organism
  10. Population- group of individuals from same
    species
  11. Community groups of different populations
  12. Ecosystem
  13. Biosphere includes all living things on earth

Most complex
14
III Branches of Biology
  • Anatomy (internal structure)
  • Cytology (cells)
  • Histology (tissues)
  • Biochemistry (biological reactions)
  • Physiology (internal function)
  • Genetics (heredity)
  • Embryology (development)
  • Biotechnology (genetic engineering)
  • Parasitology (parasites)
  • Taxonomy (classification)
  • Ethology (behavior)
  • Immunology (immunity)
  • Ecology (environment)
  • Pathology (disease)
  • And so many more!!!!!!

15
IV. The Scientific Method (short version)
  • A system for collecting and evaluating
    information about the natural world
  • In the simplest form, it has what steps?
  • Question
  • Hypothesis
  • Experiment Fair Test
  • Data Collection and Evaluation
  • Conclusion

16
The Scientific Method (short version)
  • Descriptive Approach
  • How many, how long, how fast, what color.etc
  • No hypothesis
  • Has a concluding statement
  • Experimental Approach
  • Question What will happen to organism X if we
    change condition Y?
  • A hypothesis is needed
  • Needs an experiment and data collection
  • Conclusion with more questions to follow
  • i.e. CONSUMER REPORTS

17
V. Biology as a Science (students have this
handout)
  • I. Human History
  • A. Early humans or close ancestors (2-300,000
    ybp)
  • - Homo sapiens var. Neanderthalensis
  • They disappear 35,000
    ybp
  • Replaced by Homo sapiens var. sapiens
  • They begin (100,000 ybp) and replace
    Neanderthals
  • 1. Interbred w/ neanderthals 2. caused
    their extinction
  • C. 10,000 to present (Advanced Civilizations)
  • Major Change is human behavior
  • Agriculture and Domestication (role of women)

18
II. Science is a form of curiosity
  • Observations lead to experimentation and
    ultimately to understanding
  • The first type of experiment Trial and Error
  • Little planning for the future b/c of daily
    stresses
  • Mans initial interests were geared towards
    taming his environment
  • 1. First experiments health, weapons, clothing,
    housing
  • 2. Kaopectate, Raspberry Leaves, Aspirin
  • C. After survival needs are met, experiments can
    be done in other areas to make life better.
  • - math, astronomy, writing, art, music

19
VI. The Scientists
  • A.Early Scientists
  • Names shaman, witch doctors
  • - They were both doctors and ministers
  • There is no knowledge that is not POWER
  • The spirit world and the physical world were
    closely associated
  • Magic, herbs, spirits, religion, superstition

20
B. Modern Scientists 1640 A.D.
  • Galileo 1. All knowledge is in vain without
    the confirmation of experimentation
  • 2. NOT white-coated madmen
  • 3. 90 of all scientists are alive today
  • 4. Use of the scientific method (the
    next topic)

21
SHORT HAND SYMBOLS
  • ? - change
  • - approximate
  • w/ - with
  • w/o without
  • _at_ - at
  • b/c because
  • mybp million years before present
  • bybp billion years before present
  • - therefore

22
MORE PREFIXES
  • lac milk (lactose, lactation)
  • hyper above (hyperglycemic, hyperactive)
  • iso same (isometric, isotonic)
  • hypo below (hypothyroid, hypoallergenic)
  • a not, without (asymmetric, atrophy)
  • geo land (geography,biogeochemical)
  • auto self (automobile, autobiography)
  • graph write (telegraph, autograph)
  • troph food (trophic level, heterotrophic)

23
Microscope Quiz Topics
  • Microscope Parts and their function
  • Skills Test
  • Magnification
  • High and Low Power Calculation
  • Microscope Maintenance (how to care for it)
  • Microscope Calculations
  • Find field of view diameter (use formula)
  • Determine size of object

24
Chapter 1 Test Topics
  • Prefixes, suffixes, and roots (from notes and
    homework
  • Vocabulary (1-5) Text Pages (6-9)
  • All Notes
  • Branches of Biology
  • Levels of Organization (13)
  • History of Humans and Scientists
  • Safety Symbols (from binder)
  • Scientific Method (short version)
  • 7 Features of Living Creatures (GSMC MRI)
  • Neanderthal Video
  • Worksheets (Analyzing Science Words w/ added
    prefixes, Neanderthal Video questions, Branches
    of Bio)
  • NO MICROSCOPE STUFF and NO GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE
    STUFF INCLUDED ON THIS TEST

25
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26
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27
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28
Monty Python-witch
29
  • Bonus pts.
  • Collect Micro Lab
  • Newspaper
  • Quiz 9/8 Thursday
  • Test 9/12 Monday
  • Discussion C.P. option
  • Contract due by 9/9
  • Important Dates
  • CP 1 9/30
  • CP 2 10/21
  • Bonus 1 9/23
  • Bonus 2 10/14
  • Summary of 2 articles due 11/4
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