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U.S. History Chapter 11 Notes The Great Depression Begins


U.S. History Chapter 11 Notes The Great Depression Begins An economic crisis grips the nation during the Great Depression. President Herbert Hoover s conservative ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: U.S. History Chapter 11 Notes The Great Depression Begins

U.S. History Chapter 11 Notes The Great
Depression Begins
  • An economic crisis grips the nation during the
    Great Depression. President Herbert Hoovers
    conservative response to the nations problems
    costs him many supporters.

Section 1The Nations Sick Economy
  • As the prosperity of the 1920s ends, severe
    economic problems grip the nation.

Economic Troubles on the Horizon
  • Problems began threatening economic prosperity by
    the end of the 1920s
  • Farm debt - many farmers were forced to sell in
    the 1920's
  • Consumer debt - many people were buying goods on
  • More goods then buyers - prices rose faster than
  • Declining Trade - 1920's U.S. raised tariffs
    other countries raised tariffs to retaliate
  • Important industries struggled
  • Income disparity - Consumers farmers went
    steadily deeper into debt

Industries in Trouble
  • Key industries like railroads, textiles, steel
    barely made profit
  • Replaced by other forms of transportations
  • Mining, lumbering expanded during were no longer
    in high demand
  • Coal especially hard-hit due to availability of
    new energy sources
  • - Hydroelectricity, fuel oil, natural gas
  • Boom industries - automobiles, construction,
    consumer goods weakened
  • Housing starts declined
  • - Affected many related industries

Farm Troubles
  • International demand for U.S. grain declined
    after war
  • - prices dropped by 40 or more
  • Farmers boosted production to sell more
  • - Caused prices to drop further
  • Farm income declined farmers defaulted on loans
  • Rural banks failed
  • Congress attempted to pass the McNary- Haugen
    bill to help farmers
  • - Price-supports - government bought surplus
    crops at guarantees prices
  • - President Coolidge vetoed price-support bill

Consumers Problems
  • 1920s - rich got richer poor got poorer
  • Prices rose faster that wages
  • 70 of families earned less than minimum for
    decent standard of living
  • - 2500 annually
  • Most couldnt afford flood of products factories
  • Many people had been purchasing goods on credit
    (buy now, pay later)
  • Businesses gave easy credit consumers piled up
    large debts
  • Consumers had trouble paying off debt cut back
    on spending

OBJ 1 - Describe the CAUSES and SPARK of the
Great Depression. How did Overproduction affect
both farmers and industry? What system collapsed
and caused millions to lose their savings?
Explain how buying on Margin created the Spark.
How did people lose money because of the spark?
  • I. OBJ 1- Cause Spark of the Depression
  • A. Causes of the Depression
  • 1. Overproduction, too much stuff (Factories
    and Farms)
  • a. Factory Workers begin to get layed-off
  • - Workers cannot buy goods, even more
    goods are overproduced
  • b. Farmers Cant Survive
  • -low prices (cant pay loans / make a
  • c. Supply Demand- Prices Drop
  • 2. Bank Failures
  • a. Banks close and loose
  • b. People default on loans (Cant
    pay Back)
  • c. Banks cannot cover their
    deposits, because it was lent out to bad
    creditors 5,000 banks close between
  • d. People loose entire LIFE SAVINGS

1920s Problems
Factories making Too Much, Farms growing too much
Factories Fire Workers
(Dont need them) Farm Prices fall
(Farmers cant make )
Banks Close because they have no money Loans
have not been paid back, cant give people
their savings
Farmers Factory Workers cant pay back loans to
Banks Close
Banks have no money to give people

People Default on Loans
People Loose savings
The Election of 1928
  • Democrat Alfred E. Smith - four times governor of
    New York
  • Republican Herbert Hoover has served as secretary
    of commerce under Warren Harding Calvin
  • U.S. had experienced prosperity under Republicans
    in 1920s
  • Hoover won an overwhelming victory

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Dreams of Riches in the Stock Market
  • Late 1920s Some economist warning of weaknesses
    in the economy
  • - Most Americans ignored them
  • People began investing in stock market
  • - Looked like an easy way to make money
  • Dow Jones Industrial Average was used as
    barometer of the markets health
  • - Measure based on the stock of 30
    representative large firms trading on the New
    York Stock exchange tracks state of stock market

Dreams of Riches in the Stock Market
  • 1920s - stock prices rose steadily Bull
  • People rushed to buy stocks bonds to make a
    quick profit
  • - Many engaged in speculation - buy on chance
    of a quick profit
  • - Began Buying on margin - pay small percent of
    price, borrow rest

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The Stock Market Crashes
  • September 1929 stock prices peaked then fell
  • Many investors lost confidence began selling
  • October 24, 1929 - Market took plunge many
    panicked investors unloaded their shares

The Stock Market Crashes
  • October 29, 1929 - Stock market crashed (Black
  • - Shareholders sold frantically
  • - Millions of shares had no buyers
  • - People who bought on credit were left with
    huge debts
  • - Others lose most of their savings

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OBJ 1- Cause Sparks of Depression
  • Causes 1. Overproduction
  • 2. Bank Closings
  • Spark 1. Stock Market Crash
  • Results 1. Unemployment
  • 2. Life Savings Lost

Financial Collapse
  • Great Depression - economy plummeted
    unemployment skyrocketed
  • - lasted from 19291940
  • After crash, people panicked withdraw money
    from banks
  • Banks that invested in stocks failed people lost
    their money
  • 1929 to1932 - gross national product was cut
    nearly in half
  • - 90,000 businesses went bankrupt
  • 1933 - 25 of workers were unemployed
  • Those with jobs received cuts in hours pay

Worldwide Shock Waves
  • Great Depression limited U.S. ability to import
    European goods
  • Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act set highest protective
    tariff ever in U.S.
  • Other countries couldnt earn American currency
    to buy U.S. goods
  • - Many countries retaliated by raising their own
  • International trade dropped unemployment soared
    around world

Causes of the Great Depression
  • Factors leading to Great Depression
  • Declining Trade - Tariffs war debts cut down
    the foreign markets for American goods
  • Farm problems - Many farmers were forced to sell
  • Easy credit Borrowed money to invest in market
  • Income disparity
  • Federal government kept interest rates low
    encouraged borrowing

Section 2Hardship and Suffering During the
  • During the Great Depression Americans do what
    they have to do to survive.

The Depression Devastates Peoples Lives
  • People lost jobs were evicted from homes
  • Had to live in parks or sewer pipes
  • Shantytowns - settlements consisting of shacks,
    arose in cities

The Depression Devastates Peoples Lives
  • People dug through garbage begged
  • - Soup kitchens offered free or low-cost food
  • - Bread lines - people lined up for food from
    charities public agencies
  • African Americans Latinos had higher
    unemployment lower pay
  • Minorities were also targets of violence
    (Lynching or deportation)

The Depression in Rural Areas
  • Most farmers could grow food for their families
  • About 400,000 farms were lost through foreclosure
  • - Many became tenant farmers worked for large
  • landowners rather than
  • themselves

The Dust Bowl
  • Farmers in Great Plains exhausted land through
  • 1930s - drought windstorms scattered for
    hundreds of miles
  • Dust Bowl - area from North Dakota to Texas that
    was hardest hit

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The Dust Bowl
  • Many farm families migrated to Pacific Coast
    states (Route 66)
  • - California towns became overcrowded
  • - Many people who moved west were from Oklahoma

OBJ 3 - Describe the natural disaster that
affected the U.S. during the Great Depression.
What was the disasters nick-name? What caused
the disaster? Where did the people go to try
and escape their troubles and how were they
treated (nick-names for these people)?
  • III. OBJ. 3- Natural Disaster The DUST BOWL
  • A. Great Plains suffers a huge Drought (1931)
  • 1. Causes
  • a. Drought . . .no rain
  • b. New technology, tractors and steel
    plows tear-up extra sod that was holding onto
    soil, drought turns open soil into sand box
  • 2. Huge Dust storms cover Great Plains
  • B. Results
  • 1. Cant pay banks- Banks take Farms
  • 2. Many Great Plains farmers move to
  • a. Try to get jobs on large farms
  • b. Treated poorly in Calif. -
  • Oakies Arkies-Not wanted in West

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Effects on the American Family
  • Family was source of strength for most Americans
  • Believed in traditional values and emphasized the
    importance of family unity
  • Many families entertained themselves with board
    games radio
  • - Monopoly was invented in 1933
  • Some families broke apart under strain of making
    ends meet

Men in the Streets
  • Many men used to working supporting families
    had difficulty coping
  • Couldnt find jobs
  • Many stopped trying
  • Some men even abandoned their families
  • - About 300,000 hoboes wandered country on
    railroad box cars
  • No federal system of direct relief - cash or food
    from government

Women Struggle to Survive
  • Women worked hard to help their families survive
    the adversity
  • Homemakers budgeted carefully, canned food,
    sewed clothes
  • Women worked outside home were resented by
    unemployed men

Women Struggle to Survive
  • Early 1930s Some cities refused to hire married
  • Many women suffered in silence were ashamed to
    stand in bread lines

Children Suffer Hardships
  • Poor diets health care led to serious health
    problems in children
  • Lack of tax revenue led to shortened school year
    school closings
  • Teenagers left home rode trains in search of
    work adventure
  • - Many died or were beaten

Social and Psychological Effects
  • 1928 to 1932 suicide rate rose over 30
  • Admissions to state mental hospitals tripled
  • People gave up health care, college
  • Put off marriage children
  • Stigma of poverty didnt disappear financial
    security became goal
  • Many people showed great kindness to strangers
  • - Gave food, clothing a place to stay
  • People developed habit of saving and thriftiness

Section 3Hoover Struggles with the Depression
  • President Hoovers conservative response to the
    Great Depression draws criticism from many

Hoover Tries to Reassure the Nation
  • President Herbert Hoover told Americans the
    economy was sound
  • Many experts believed depressions were normal
    part of business cycle
  • - Believed that it was best to do nothing let
    the economy fix itself
  • Hoover believed government should foster
    cooperation between competing groups

Hoover Tries to Reassure the Nation
  • Many believed that people should succeed through
    their own efforts
  • People should take care of own families not
    depend on government
  • Hoover opposed any form of federal welfare or
    direct relief to the needy
  • - Believed that hand-outs would weaken peoples
    self respect moral fiber
  • - Said that charities local organizations
    should help the less fortunate

Hoover Takes Cautious Steps
  • Hoover called meeting of business, banking, labor
    leaders to solve problems
  • - Asked them to work to together to solve the
  • Created organization to help private charities
    raise money for poor

Hoover Takes Cautious Steps
  • Hoovers authorized the construction of the
    Boulder Dam on Colorado River w
  • - later renamed Hoover Dam
  • - Provided electricity, flood control, water to
    states on river basin

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Democrats Win in 1930 Congressional Elections
  • People began blaming Hoover Republicans for the
    economic problems
  • Democrats won House of Representatives
  • Republican Senate majority down to 1 vote
  • People Grew frustrated with the Depression

Democrats Win in 1930 Congressional Elections
  • Farmers tried to create food shortages to raise
  • Burned fields rather than sell crops at a loss
  • Some declared a farm holiday
  • People began calling shantytowns Hoovervilles

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Hoover Takes Action
  • Hoover softened his stance on no government
    intervention in the economy
  • Hoover negotiates agreements among private
  • Backs Federal Farm Board (organization of farm
  • - buy crops, keep off market until prices rise

Hoover Takes Action
  • Got large banks to establish National Credit
  • - Loaned money to smaller banks to prevent
  • Late 1931 - Hoover persuaded Congress to pass
    measures reform banking, provide mortgage relief,
    funnel federal money into business investment
  • - Federal Home Loan Bank Act lowered mortgage

Hoover Takes Action
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation Authorized
    emergency funds for businesses
  • - Hoover believed that the money would trickle
    down to average citizens through job growth
    higher wages
  • - Critics said people couldnt wait for the
    money to trickle down
  • Hoovers measures didnt improve economy before
    presidential election

Gassing the Bonus Army
  • 1932 Incident with World War I veterans further
    damaged Hoovers image public morale
  • 1924 Congress agreed to pay a bonus to WWI vets
    who had not been adequately compensated for
    wartime service
  • - Bonus was to be paid in 1945 in the form of
    cash a life insurance policy

Gassing the Bonus Army
  • Bonus Army WWI veterans went to D.C. in 1932 to
    support Patman Bill
  • - called for immediate payment of bonus to WWI
    vets (500 per soldier)

Gassing the Bonus Army
  • Hoover opposed bill
  • Believed they were communists
  • He respected their right to protest (Provided
    food supplies for shantytown)
  • June 17, 1932 - Senate voted down Patman Bill
  • Most veterans left Washington
  • About 2,000 stayed to speak to Hoover

Gassing the Bonus Army
  • Hoover feared violence called on U.S. Army to
    disband Bonus Army
  • - Led by General Douglass Macarthur Major
    Dwight Eisenhower

Gassing the Bonus Army
  • Infantry tear gassed over 1,000 people, including
  • Many people were injured (11 month old baby
  • Public was stunned outraged by governments

OBJ 2 -Describe how the Great Depression
affected people. Who was the president when it
started, and what did he do to help? Who tried
to help the poor and what problems did they have?
How did people try to escape the Great
  • II. OBJ. 2 Affects of the Depression
  • A. Jobless / Homeless
  • 1. 1930-1932 Jobless goes from 4 to 12
  • 2. Houses are lost, people become homeless
  • 3. People are Desperate!!!!
  • B. Hatred for President Hoover
  • 1. Says it is NOT Governments job to fix the
  • a. Say Churches and other groups should help
  • b. PROBLEM People too poor to help churches
    so churches cant help as much!!!
  • 2. People name Poor Places after Hoover
  • a.Hooverville- Shanty towns / Hoovermobile-
    cars pulled by mules
  • b. HOBOS- look for jobsHooverblankets-
    newspapers used as traveling the
    rails blankets by homeless

OBJ 2- Affects of the Great Depression
  • C. Escaping the Depression
  • 1. Radio- Comedies, Soap Operas
  • 2. Movies- Shirley Temple, Child Actors
  • a. Snow White (first full-length
  • b. Wizard of OZ
  • Small girl escaping the Dust Bowl
  • 3. Literature
  • a. Steinbeck, Grapes of Wrath
  • About a family of Okies escaping the Dust
    Bowl and how horribly they
    were treated

U.S. History Chapter 13 NotesThe New Deal
  • President Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal
    programs stimulate the economy and the arts. The
    New Deal leaves a lasting, yet controversial mark
    on American government.

Section 1A New Deal Fights the Depression
  • After becoming president, Franklin Delano
    Roosevelt uses government programs to combat the

Election of 1932
  • Democrats nominated NY governor Franklin Delano
  • - reform-minded
  • projected friendliness confidence
  • Democrats overwhelmingly won presidency, Senate,

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Election of 1932
  • Roosevelt had to wait 4 months to take over
  • 20th Amendment wasnt rarified until 1933 (Move
    inauguration to January)
  • FDR worked with advisors known as Brain
    Trust, to formulate policies to alleviate
  • New Deal FDRs program to alleviate the
    problems of the Great Depression focused on 3 Rs
  • Relief for needy
  • Economic recovery
  • Financial reform

The Hundred Days
  • March 9 to June 16, 1933 - FDR took office
    launched Hundred Days
  • Congress passed over 15 major New Deal laws that
    expanded the federal governments role in the
    nations economy

Bank Holiday
  • March 5, 1933 one day after taking office FDR
    declared a bank holiday closed all banks to
    prevent further withdrawals
  • Emergency Banking Relief Act - Permitted
    Treasury Dept. to inspect banks
  • Sound banks were allowed to reopen
  • Banks that needed help received loans
  • Insolvent ones remained closed (unable to pay
  • Bank Holiday revived public confidence in banks
  • - Believed that the banks remained open were in
    good shape

An Important Fireside Chat
  • FDR gave fireside chats - radio talks explaining
    New Deal measures
  • March 12, 1933 FDR gave 1st fireside chat the
    day before the banks reopened after holiday
  • - Discussed need for public support of
    government, banks

Regulating Banking and Finance
  • Congress took another step to reorganize the
    banking system
  • Glass-Steagall Act - Established Federal Deposit
    Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
  • insured individual bank accounts up to 5000
  • Regulates banking practices ( forced them to act
    cautiously with money)

Regulating Banking and Finance
  • Federal Securities Act Required companies must
    give all information on stocks
  • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) created
    to regulate stock market
  • FDR got law allowing production of some alcoholic
  • 21st Amendment repealed prohibition by end of

Helping the American People
  • Roosevelt administration implemented programs
    aimed at helping farmers other workers to
    stimulate economy
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) raised food
    prices by lowering supply
  • - Government paid farmers not to plant crops

Helping the American People
  • Tennessee Valley Authority - Created jobs
    renovating building dams
  • - Also provided flood control hydroelectric
    power to region

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Helping the American People
  • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) - public works
    jobs for young men 18 to 25
  • - Built road, planted trees helped in soils
    erosion flood control projects
  • - Men sent 25 out of 30 home to family each

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  • National Industrial Recovery Act - established
    codes of fair practice for industries
  • Created National Recovery Administration (NRA)
  • NRA sets standards, prices, limits production

  • 1933 - Public Works Administration (PWA) was
    established as part of the NIRA
  • It provided money to states to create jobs
    chiefly in the construction of schools other
    community buildings

Food, Clothing, and Shelter
  • Home Owners Loan Corporation gave loans to
    prevent foreclosures
  • Federal Housing Administration gives loans for
    mortgages repairs (FHA)

Food, Clothing, and Shelter
  • Federal Emergency Relief Administration -direct
    relief to needy

The New Deal Comes Under Attack
  • Deficit spending - spending more money than
    government takes in
  • - funded New Deal
  • Opposition rose when the New Deal didnt stop
    the Depression
  • Liberals didnt think New Deal did enough to help
    poor, fix economy
  • Conservatives believed Roosevelt used the New
    Deal to control business socialize economy

The Supreme Court Reacts
  • Supreme Court struck down NIRA AAA as
  • FDR proposed Court-packing bill
  • Change the Supreme Court from 9 to 15 justices
  • Would enable FDR to appoint 6 new justices
  • Congress press protested
  • Starting in 1937 - justices retire FDR
    appointed seven new ones

Huey Long Attacked the New Deal
  • Governor of Louisiana "King Fish"
  • Built schools and hospitals
  • Ruled Louisiana like a dictator
  • Wanted to be president
  • Decided to challenge FDR
  • Offered new deal "Share our wealth"
  • - Called for every family to get yearly income
    money to buy food and housing
  • - Taxed the rich heavily
  • Made enemies in his attempt to become president
  • - Shot and killed in 1935

Section 2The Second New Deal Takes Hold
  • The Second New Deal includes new programs to
    extend federal aid and stimulate the nations

The Second Hundred Days
  • By 1935, economic recovery not as great as FDR
    had expected
  • Unemployment remained high
  • Work programs productions still behind 1920s
  • FDR launched second phase
  • Provided more relief for farmers, workers

The Second Hundred Days
  • First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt a social reformer
    prodded president
  • She traveled the country observing the social
    conditions reminding FDR about the suffering
  • She also pushed for him to appoint women to
    government positions

Election of 1936
  • 1936 - Democrats won presidency large
    majorities in both houses
  • First time most African Americans voted
  • First time labor unions supported presidential
  • Election was a vote of confidence in FDR the
    New Deal

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Helping Farmers
  • 1936 - Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment
    Act replaced AAA
  • - Rewarded farmers for practicing soil
  • New Agricultural Adjustment Act avoided
    unconstitutional provision
  • Resettlement Administration gave loans to small
    farmers to buy land
  • Farm Security Administration - loaned to tenant
    farmers to buy land
  • - FSA hires photographers to shoot pictures of
    rural towns farms

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Roosevelt Extends Relief
  • 2nd New Deal established a series of programs to
    help youths, professionals other workers
  • Works Progress Administration (WPA)
  • - WPA workers built airports, roads, public
  • - Women workers sewed clothes for the needy
  • - WPA employed professional writers, artists,
  • - Gave aid to students in exchange for part-time

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Roosevelt Extends Relief
  • National Youth Administration (NYA) - provided
    education, jobs, counseling recreation to young

Improving Labor and Other Reforms
  • Wagner Act - replaced NIRA
  • - Protected right to join unions collective
  • - Prohibited unfair labor practices (threatening
    workers or firing union members)
  • - Established National Labor Relations Board
    that heard testimony about labor practices
  • - Held elections to determine if workers wanted
  • 1938 - Fair Labor Standards Act sets maximum
    hours minimum wage
  • - 44 hrs per week decreasing to 40 in two years
    25 cents per hr.

Social Security Act
  • 1935 - Social Security Act created Social
    Security system
  • Provided insurance for retirees 65 or older
  • Unemployment compensation
  • Aid to disabled families with children

Expanding and Regulating Utilities
  • Rural Electrification Administration (REA)
    brought electricity to farms
  • - Rose from 12.6 in 1935 to 48 in 1945 to 90
    in 1949
  • Public Utility Holding Company Act aims to stop
    financial corruption

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Section 3The New Deal Affects Many Groups
  • New Deal policies and actions affect various
    social and ethnic groups.

The New Deal Brings New Opportunities for Women
  • Several women were named to important government
  • Frances Perkins became first female cabinet
    member (Secretary of Labor)
  • - FDR also appointed 2 women as diplomats 1 as
    a federal judge
  • Women still faced discrimination in workplace
    from male workers
  • National Recovery Administration (NRA) set some
    lower minimum wages for women
  • Federal work programs hired far fewer women than

African-American Activism
  • FDR appointed more than 100 African Americans to
  • Educator Mary McLeod Bethune headed Division of
    Negro Affairs of NYA
  • Helped organize Black Cabinet
  • Group of influential African-American who advised
    FDR on racial issues

The President Fails to Support Civil Rights
  • FDR was afraid of upsetting white Southern
    Democratic voters
  • Refused to approve antilynching law end to poll
  • New Deal agencies discriminated against African
  • - pay them lower wages favored whites
  • African- Americans generally supported Roosevelt
    administration New Deal
  • - Saw them as the best hope for the future

FDR Wins in 1936
  • New Deal Coalition - different groups that
    support Democratic Party
  • - Helped the democratic party dominate national
    politics throughout the 1930s 1940s
  • Political organizations in large Northern cities
    supported FDR
  • Urban, religious, ethnic groups also supported
  • - FDR appoints officials of urban-immigrant

Indian New Deal
  • Indian New Deal gave Native Americans economic
    assistance and greater control over their own

Section 4Culture in the 1930s
  • Motion pictures, radio, art, and literature
    blossom during the New Deal.

The Lure of Motion Pictures and Radio
  • About 65 of population went to movies once a
  • - Movies were still affordable
  • - People watched them to escape real life
  • - Grapes of Wrath
  • - Gone With the Wind
  • - The Wizard of OZ

The Lure of Motion Pictures and Radio
  • 90 of households had a radio
  • Families listened together every day
  • Dramas, variety shows played in evening
  • - Soap operas for homemakers broadcast in
    middle of day
  • - Childrens shows after school hours
  • - Immediate news coverage became customary
  • -

The Lure of Motion Pictures and Radio
  • Orson Welles - actor, director, producer, writer

The Arts in Depression America
  • Federal Art Project paid artists to make art,
    teach in schools
  • Aim to promote art appreciation positive image
    of America
  • Murals typically portrayed dignity of ordinary
    people at work
  • Federal Theater Project hired actors artists
  • Singer, songwriter Woody Guthrie sung songs about
    the of plight of poor

Diverse Writers Depict American Life
  • Federal Writers Project supported many who
    become major writers
  • Richard Wright - African-American author who
    wrote Native Son
  • John Steinbeck wrote The Grapes of Wrath about
    Dust Bowl migrants

Section 5The Impact of the New Deal
  • The New Deal affects American society not only in
    the 1930s but also in the decades that follow.

The New Deal Ends
  • By 1937, economic improvement convinced many that
    Depression was ending
  • Congress wanted to cut back programs
  • By 1939 - New Deal was over

Supporters and Critics of the New Deal
  • Supporters Believed the New Deal helped country
    recover from economic difficulties
  • Conservatives though FDR made federal government
    too large
  • - stifled free enterprise individual
  • Liberals thought New Deal didnt do enough to
    socialize economy end inequalities

Effects of the New Deal
  • Expanded power of federal government president
  • Social Security Act - Federal government takes
    responsibility for citizens welfare
  • - Provided aid for aged, disabled needy
  • FDIC still protects individual investors in case
    of bank failure
  • SEC still monitors stock market, enforces laws on
    stock, bond sales
  • New Deal laws set standards for wages hours
  • - banned child labor
  • - Permitted unions
  • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC ) - planted
    trees, built hiking trails, fire lookout towers

Effects of the New Deal
  • Soil Conservation Service taught farmers how to
    preserve soil
  • - Contour plowing, terraces, crop rotation
  • 1934 - Taylor Grazing Act reduced grazing on
    public lands
  • - Grazing had contributed to erosion that caused
    the dust bowl
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) created
    electricity, prevented floods
  • New Deal reduced suffering gave people hope
  • - Provided jobs, food money
  • New Deal didn't end depression WWII did
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