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Teaching on the Web III: Best Pedagogical Practices


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Title: Teaching on the Web III: Best Pedagogical Practices

Teaching on the Web III Best Pedagogical
  • Curt Bonk, Indiana University
  • President, CourseShare.com
  • cjbonk_at_indiana.edu
  • http//php.indiana.edu/cjbonk
  • http//CourseShare.com

A Vision of E-learning for Americas Workforce,
Report of the Commission on Technology and Adult
Learning, (2001, June)
  • A remarkable 84 percent of two-and four-year
    colleges in the United States expect to offer
    distance learning courses in 2002 (only 58 did
    in 1998) (US Dept of Education report, 2000)
  • Web-based training is expected to increase 900
    percent between 1999 and 2003. (ASTD, State of
    the Industry Report 2001).

Software and hardware customers e-learn the
ropes, Scott Tyler Shafer, Red Herring, Feb. 13,
  • Since Cisco is looking to educate 800,000 people
    globally, the classroom model wasnt feasible.
    Cisco selected and certified 120 partner
    training companies
  • Oracle says it has 1,000 developers signing up
    every day to take courses over the companys Web
    Oracle Network (OLN)estimates it will train 2.5
    million engineers in 2001. (this was only
    500,000 in 2000)

Are you ready?
Brains Before and After E-learning
And when use synchronous and asynchronous tools
Best of Online Pedagogical Strategieswho are the
key players?
Guy Kemshal-BellTechnical Further Education
(TAFE) in Australia (guykb_at_iprimus.com.au) (Had
Instructors Rate 21 Online Teaching Competencies
From TAFE Questionnaire)
Changing Role of the TeacherThe Online Teacher,
TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)
  • From oracle to guide and resource provider
  • From providers of answers to expert questioners
  • From solitary teacher to member of team
  • From total control of teaching environment to
    sharing as a fellow student
  • From provider to content to designer of learning

Online Teaching SkillsThe Online Teacher, TAFE,
Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)
  • Technical email, chat, Web development
  • Facilitation engaging, questioning, listening,
    feedback, providing support, managing discussion,
    team building, relationship building, motivating,
    positive attitude, innovative, risk taking
  • Managerial planning, reviewing, monitoring, time

Rate 21 Online Teaching Competencies From TAFE
Key Skills or Attributes (scale 0-3)The Online
Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)
  • Ability to provide effective online fdbk (2.86)
  • Ability to engage the learner (2.84)
  • Ability to provide direction and support (2.82)
  • Skills in online listening (2.76)
  • Ability to use email effectively (2.70)
  • Ability to motivate online learners (2.66)
  • Positive attitude to online teaching (2.66)
  • Skills in effective online questioning (2.65)

Less Impt Skills or Attributes (scale 0-3)The
Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April,
  • Higher-level Web page development (.606)
  • Use of video/audioconferencing (1.06)
  • Ability to develop simple Web pages (1.45)
  • Skills in using online chat (1.84)
  • Ability to build online teams (2.10)
  • Skills in planning, monitoring trng (2.20)

Ability to say dumb things. Ability to offend
people. Ability to sleep 24 X 7. Ability to get
Three Most Vital SkillsThe Online Teacher, TAFE,
Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)
  • Ability to engage the learner (30)
  • Ability to motivate online learners (23)
  • Ability to build relationships (19)
  • Technical ability (18)
  • Having a positive attitude (14)
  • Adapt to individual needs (12)
  • Innovation or creativity (11)

Lets brainstorm comments (words or short
phrases) that reflect your overall attitudes and
feelings towards online teaching
Feelings Toward Online TeachingThe Online
Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April,
2001)(Note 94 practitioners surveyed.)
  • Exciting (30)
  • Challenging (24)
  • Time consuming (22)
  • Demanding (18)
  • Technical issue (16) Flexibility (16)
  • Potential (15)
  • Better options (14) Frustrating (14)
  • Collab (11) Communication (11) Fun (11)

Student CommentsThe Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy
Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)
  • Positive Side intense, challenging, emotional,
    dynamic, addictive, fun, stimulating, flexible,
    empowering, intellectually stimulating.
  • Less-Positive Side Time-consuming, frustrating,
    little feedback, isolating, bewildering, a lot to
    grapple with.

Karen Lazenby Instructor Qualities(University of
Pretoria, Nov., 2001, klazenby_at_tsamail.trsa.ac.za)
  • Web-Smart (technology smart)
  • Flexible (ability to shift between roles)
  • Patient
  • Responsive
  • Friendly
  • Positive
  • Supportive

Online Strategies(Karen Lazenby, University of
Pretoria, Nov., 2001)
  • Limit lecturing onlinepromote self-directed
  • Set clear rules for posting and interaction
  • Explain tasks and overlooked info.
  • Let learners synthesize key points.
  • Publish best work of students (with permission)
  • Involve participation from outside experts

Tips for SuccessUniv of Missouri Extension,
Distance Learning Design Center
  • Give pts for participation contribution.
  • Set time limits for task, feedback, etc.
  • Set quantity for regular participation.
  • Make first online discussion an ungraded ice
  • Reward early submission.
  • Prompt and remind frequently.

E-ModeratingE-Moderating The Key to Teaching
and Learning Online, (Gilly Salmon, (1999) Kogan
  1. Know when to stay silent for a few days.
  2. Close off unused or unproductive conferences.
  3. Provide a variety of relevant conference topics.
  4. Deal promptly with dominance, harassment, etc.
  5. Weave, summarize, and archive often.
  6. Be an equal participant in the conference.
  7. Provide sparks or interesting comments.
  8. Avoid directives and right answers.
  9. Acknowledge all contributions.
  10. Support others for e-moderator role.

Pedagogical Recommendations(Berge, 1995, The
role of the online instructor/facilitator)
  • Dont expect too much/thread
  • Draw attention to conflicting views
  • Do not lecture (Long, coherent sequence of
    comments yields silence)
  • Request responses within set time
  • Maintain non-authoritarian style
  • Promote private conversations

Managerial Recommendations(Berge, 1995, The role
of the online instructor/facilitator)
  • Distribute lists of participants
  • Provide timely administrative infobooks,
    enrollment, counseling, etc.
  • Change procedures that are not working
  • Change misplaced subject headings
  • Decisively end discussion sessions
  • Dont overload

Social Recommendations(Berge, 1995, The role of
the online instructor/facilitator)
  • Use introductions
  • Be accepting of lurkers
  • Do not ignore bad discussant behaviorprivately
    request change
  • Watch for use of humor and sarcasm
  • Praise behavior you seek
  • Guard against fear or public ridicule

Vanessa Dennen San Diego State University
Research on Nine Online Courses
  • 9 case studies of online classes using
    asynchronous discussion
  • Topics sociology, history, communications,
    writing, library science, technology, counseling
  • Range of class size 15 - 106
  • Level survey, upper undergraduate, and graduate
  • Tools custom and commercial
  • Private, semi-public, and public discussion areas

  • Deadlines motivated participation
  • Message counts increased in the days immediately
    preceding a deadline
  • Deadlines inhibited dialogue
  • Students posted messages but did not discuss
  • Too much lag time between initial messages and

  • Instructor modeling increased the likelihood of
    student messages meeting quality and content
  • Modeling was more effective than guidelines

Guidelines and Feedback
  • Qualitative discussion guidelines and feedback
    helped students know what their participation
    should look like
  • Quantitative discussion guidelines and feedback
    comforted students and was readily understood by
  • Feedback of both varieties was needed at regular
    intervals, although the qualitative feedback need
    not be individualized

Poor Instructors Good Instructors
  • Little or no feedback given
  • Always authoritative
  • Kept narrow focus of what was relevant
  • Created tangential discussions, fact qs
  • Only used ultimate deadlines
  • Provided regular qual/quant feedback
  • Participated as peer
  • Allowed perspective sharing
  • Tied discussion to grades, tasks.
  • Used incremental deadlines

Common Instructor Complaints
  1. Students dont participate
  2. Students all participate at the last minute
  3. Students post messages but dont converse
  4. Facilitation takes too much time
  5. If they must be absent, the discussion dies off
  6. Students are confused

Reasons why...
  • Students dont participate
  • Because it isnt required
  • Because they dont know what is expected
  • Students all participate at last minute
  • Because that is what was required
  • Because they dont want to be the first
  • Instructor posts at the last minute

  1. A well-designed discussion prompt, followed by
  2. Clear guidelines
  3. Clear modeling
  4. Regular feedback

Asynchronous vs. TraditionalHow would you
  • What did you think of the readings?
  • Online problems
  • Too general.
  • Provides no sense of expected response.
  • Can easily lead to tangential comments.

How would you respond?
  • Who invented ______?
  • Who was the most influential political figure of
    the 1990s?
  • What were the 3 main points of the reading?

Common problems with online discussion prompts
  • Too vague
  • Learners have no idea how to respond
  • Too fact-based
  • Only one or two persons need to respond
  • Lack directions for interactions
  • Learners dont know what acceptable participation
    looks like

Elements of a good prompt
  • Specifies the desired response type
  • Allows for multiple correct answers (perspective
    sharing, unique application of knowledge)
  • Provides guidance for peer interaction
  • Fosters reflection, thinking, or collaboration

A 5-Stage Approach Async
  1. Initial topic or idea generation
  2. Initial response
  3. Respond to peers (can continue for as long as
  4. Wrap up questions
  5. Reflect

A sample 5-part prompt
  • Step 1 Idea Generation
  • Find a recent news story online or announcement
    that provides an example of one of the issues or
    concepts in our recent readings. Post the URL and
    a brief summary of the article. Do not go into
    detail of what this is an example of or how it
    relates to the reading.

A sample 5-part prompt (2)
  • Step 2 Initial Response
  • Select and read one of your classmate's
    contributions, and post a message under their
    thread that discusses what major issues this
    article relates to and support your assertions
    with references to our course readings. If there
    are secondary issues, mention those as well.
    Please respond to a message that has not yet
    received a response so that we can make sure
    everyone gets at least one response. You may, of
    course, respond to multiple threads if you wish.

Tie asynchronous discussion to rest of class
  • Provide an intro statement
  • Generate several sub-questions
  • Refer to text/readings
  • Suggest learning outcomes of discussion
  • Learners should be able to
  • Generate definitions of ...
  • Link topics
  • Provide examples of ...

Sample sub-questions
  • In the last week I've read articles in the New
    York Times and USA Today about students doing
    research on the Web -- and plagiarism!
  • What can we do? What is your position on this
  • Is the Web a great research resource, or
    encouragement to be lazy?
  • How do we teach our students to use it
    responsibly? (Do most teachers know how to use it
  • Don't forget that plagiarism has been around for
    years -- think about this issue from both the
    student AND teacher perspective (how you
    plagiarize and how you get caught)

Make Discussion an Activity
  • Debate a topic
  • Search for and share resources
  • Learn about a topic
  • Build a study guide
  • Expand on a topic
  • Find real-world cases

Require Peer Responses
  • A form of providing feedback
  • Lessens the instructors load
  • Forces students to read and consider each others

3-sentence rule
  • Avoid overwhelming I agree type messages
  • Require that all students post messages of 3
    sentences or longer
  • The result
  • I agree with you.
  • Thats a good idea
  • Ummm. I have to actually say something now!

Model desired interactions
  • Provide students with a sample message
  • Share an archived discussion from a previous
    course (perhaps on a related, but different
  • Exhibit desired communication style in all
    messages to students

Provide feedback
  • Set expectations (tell learners how they will get
  • Provide quantitative feedback (numerical grade,
    rubric, count /length of messages)
  • Provide qualitative feedback
  • Try to refer to students by name and relate
    personal experiences

Ron Oliver Edith Cowan University in
Professor of Interactive Multimedia, and the
Director of the Centre for Research in
Information Technology and Communications
Collaborative and Constructivist Web Tasks
(McLoughlin Oliver, 1999 Oliver McLoughlin,
  1. Apprenticeship QA Ask an Expert (chats
  2. Case-Based and Simulated Learning exchange
    remote views enact events online.
  3. Active Learning Design Web pages and project
  4. Reflective/Metacognitive Learning Reflect in
    online journals, bulletin boards
  5. Experiential Learning Post (articulate ideas) to
    discussion groups
  6. Authentic Learning PBL, search current databases

Pedagogical Techniques of CMC(Paulsen, 1995, The
Online Report on Pedagogical Techniques for
Computer-Mediated Communication)
  • Collective databases, Access to Online Resources
  • Informal socializing (online cafes)
  • Seminars (read before going online)
  • Public tutorials
  • Peer counseling, learning partnerships
  • (Online Support Groups)
  • Simulations, games, and role plays
  • Free Flowing Discussions/Forums
  • Email interviews
  • Symposia or speakers on a theme
  • The notice board (class announcements)

Framework for Pedagogical CMC Techniques(Paulsen,
1995, The Online Report on Pedagogical
Techniques for Computer-Mediated Communication)
  1. One-alone Techniques Online journals, online
    databases, interviews, online interest groups.
  2. One-to-one Techniques Learning contracts,
    internships, apprenticeships.
  3. One-to-many Techniques Lectures, symposiums,
  4. Many-to-many Techniques Debates, simulations,
    games, case studies, discussion groups,
    brainstorming, Delphi techniques, nominal group
    process, forums, group projects.

Jennifer Hoffman, InSync Training
Ideal Environment of Synchronous Trainer
Jennifer Hoffman, Online Learning Conference
(2001, Oct.)
  • A private, soundproof room.
  • High-speed connection telephone powerful
    computer additional computer tech support phone
  • Studio microphone and speakers
  • A Do Not Disturb sign
  • Near restroom pitcher of water

Considerations The Event Jennifer Hoffman,
ASTD, Learning Circuits, (2001, March)
  • Log on early students come 15 minutes early.
  • Do tech checks of microphones (sound check).
  • Check to see if students brought needed items
  • Perhaps call or send notes to missing students
  • Vary your instructional strategies maximize
  • Make it visualcolor, sound, animation
  • Design 10-minute breaks every 90 minutes

Use Signals for Tech Checks to Clarify Tasks
Other Survival Tips Jennifer Hoffman, Online
Learning Conference (2001, Oct.)
  • Prepare a class roster prepare quick tour
  • Start promptly load applic ahead of time
  • Welcome to the session/class explain goals ask
    for feedback on goals.
  • Instruct on communication methodshand raising,
    chat, whiteboard, voice, email.
  • Provide phone number for emergencies
  • Be ready for delays with planned ad-lib stuff

Be Flexible when Guest Instructor Snowed In
Dealing with Difficult Learners
  • Situation A joke is made early in the
    synchronous discussion and a student keeps
    referring back to it even though it no longer
  • Situation Guest expert has trouble accessing the
    system and, in the meantime, students are making
    fun of him/her.
  • Situation Guest expert or instructor is located
    in one site and students are all located at
    another. Students begin to chatter about
    irrelevant things.

Redirect Off-Task Students
Dealing with Difficult Learners (Barbazette, Feb
  • Confront known disruptive participants and ask
    for help before the event
  • Know who question askers are and ask for their
    help before they interrupt
  • Ask direct questions of talkers and
  • Ask each person to make a summary of the learning
  • Acknowledge various pts of view.

Dealing with Difficult Learners (Barbazette, Feb
  • Questions to Guide Learner Behavior
  • thats an interesting question, how have you
    handled similar situations?
  • you have had a lot of knowledge management
    experiences, what would you suggest?
  • how do others of you view this issue?

Guide Behavior With Questions and Info
Reducing Online Rowdiness
  • Ask yourself, why are they off task? Look at the
  • Do they value the assignment?
  • Are tasks relevant, challenging, current?
  • Are ideas valued and woven into the discussion?
  • Are you organized?
  • Are students in the right class or level?

What to do?
  • Send out or post rules and procedures
  • Point to those on task as role models
  • Ask what interests them
  • Have an agenda or structure
  • Lead to peak moments
  • Break into small teams with goals
  • Focus participants!!!

Focus Student Attention
What else to do?Clive Sheperd, Jan 2002
  • Model behavior yourself
  • Point to problems in the past (sample archives)
  • Summarize key pts that have been made
  • Gently nudge the discussion back on task
  • Quick and tactful response to the one leading the
    group off task
  • Establish rules for communication behavior
  • Terminate participation or ask to leave
  • Have a private discussion or chat

Archive Prior Sessions
If cant control, then what to do?
  • Join up
  • Give up
  • Commit suicide
  • Find a new job
  • Protest e-learning

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Is it that simple?
To Cope with the Technology Explosion, We Need
Instructor E-Learning Support!!!
Lets summarize some of those supports
But there is still a problem
Online Training Boring? From Forrester, Michelle
Delio (2000), Wired News. (Interviewed 40
training managers and knowledge officers)
  • Motivation is critical to e-learning success.
    Would you rather go to the training room, sit
    with a friend and have a sweet roll while
    learning about the new inventory system, or stay
    in your cube and stare at your monitor all
    afternoon? Anything you do to motivate your
    students is good. Dont be afraid to entertain
    them. Good trainers do it all the time.
  • Bob Burke (2000, Sept.), 10 e-learning lessons
  • Please the customer or fail the course.
  • E-learning 1(4), 40-41.

What is the single biggest obstacle to e-learning
continuing to grow and fulfilling its
potential?1. The cost of development?2. Lack
of human contact?3. Reluctance of training
departments to change?
The problem is much more likely to be plain
Wheres the Quality? (Michael Rosenberg, April
2002, e-learning)
  • Preassessments not thorough
  • Content too generic and simplified
  • Buyers not demanding enough
  • Minimal focus on affect, just cognition
  • Target audience too broad
  • The tools used to create courses are not advanced
  • Interactivity defined as points and clicks (need
    to connect with personal experiences and
    real-life scenarios)

From Learning Designers to Experience Designers
(Reinhard Ziegler, March 2002, e-learning)
  • How are we going to create environments,
    simulations, and real learning experiences unless
    theyve participated in them and reflected on
    their importance for themselves?the key is how
    to design the interaction so the user lives the

Lack of Motivation or Incentive to Complete!!!
  • Corporate Study
  • 55 did not track or did not know their
    completion rates
  • Of those that did, 22 reported completion rates
    of less than a fourth of students.
  • Nearly half reported less than 50 completion
  • Only 2 reported 100 completion.

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Were Handing out degrees in electronic page
  • To get the certificate, learners merely needed to
    read (i.e. click through) each screen of

But How Avoid Shovelware???This form of
structure encourages teachers designing new
products to simply shovel existing resources
into on-line Web pages and discourages any
deliberate or intentional design of learning
strategy. (Oliver McLoughlin, 1999)
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How Bad Is It?
  • Some frustrated Blackboard users who say the
    company is too slow in responding to technical
    problems with its course-management software have
    formed an independent users group to help one
    another and to press the company to improve.
  • (Jeffrey Young, Nov. 2, 2001, Chronicle of Higher

Must Online Learning be Boring?
What Motivates Adult Learners to Participate?
Intrinsic Motivation
  • innate propensity to engage ones interests and
    exercise ones capabilities, and, in doing so, to
    seek out and master optimal challenges
  • (i.e., it emerges from needs, inner strivings,
    and personal curiosity for growth)

See Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic
motivation and self-determination in human
behavior. NY Plenum Press.
Extrinsic Motivation
  • is motivation that arises from external
    contingencies. (i.e., students who act to get
    high grades, win a trophy, comply with a
    deadlinemeans-to-an-end motivation)
  • See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others
    Nurturing inner motivational resources. Boston
    Allyn Bacon.

E-Learning Pedagogical Strategies
Motivational/Ice Breakers 8 Noun Introductions Coffee House Expectations Scavenger Hunt Two Truths, One Lie Public Commitments Share-A-Link Creative Thinking Brainstorming Role Play Topical Discussions Web-Based Explorations Readings Recursive Tasks Electronic Séance
Critical Thinking Electronic Voting and Polling Delphi Technique Reading Reactions Summary Writing and Minute Papers Field Reflection Online Cases Analyses Evaluating Web Resources Instructor as well as Student Generated Virtual Debates Collaborative Learning Starter-Wrapper Discussions Structured Controversy Symposium or Expert Panel Electronic Mentors and Guests Round robin Activities Jigsaw Group Problem Solving Gallery Tours and Publishing Work Email Pals/Web Buddies and Critical/Constructive Friends
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Motivational Terms?See Johnmarshall Reeve
(1996). Motivating Others Nurturing inner
motivational resources. Boston Allyn Bacon.
  1. Tone/Climate Psych Safety, Comfort, Belonging
  2. Feedback Responsive, Supports, Encouragement
  3. Engagement Effort, Involvement, Excitement
  4. Meaningfulness Interesting, Relevant, Authentic
  5. Choice Flexibility, Opportunities, Autonomy
  6. Variety Novelty, Intrigue, Unknowns
  7. Curiosity Fun, Fantasy, Control
  8. Tension Challenge, Dissonance, Controversy
  9. Interactive Collaborative, Team-Based, Community
  10. Goal Driven Product-Based, Success, Ownership

Encourage activities that motivate
thinking.(Sheinberg, April 2000, Learning
Tone Ice Breakers
  • a. Introductions require not only that students
    introduce themselves, but also that they find and
    respond to two classmates who have something in
    common (Serves dual purpose of setting tone and
    having students learn to use the tool)
  • b. Peer Interviews Have learners interview each
    other via e-mail and then post introductions for
    each other.

1. Tone/ClimateIce Breakers
  • c. Eight Nouns Activity
  • 1. Introduce self using 8 nouns
  • 2. Explain why choose each noun
  • 3. Comment on 1-2 peer postings
  • d. Coffee House Expectations
  • 1. Have everyone post 2-3 course expectations
  • 2. Instructor summarizes and comments on how they
    might be met
  • (or make public commitments of how they will fit
    into busy schedules!)

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1. Tone/ClimateLike Ice Breakers
  • Scavenger Hunt
  • 1. Create a 20-30 item online scavenger hunt
    (e.g., finding information on the Web)
  • 2. Post scores
  • 99 Seconds of Fame In an online synchronous
    chat, give each student 99 seconds to present
    themselves and field questions.
  • Chat Room Buds Create a discussion prompt in one
    of X number of chat rooms. Introduce yourself
    in the chat room that interests you.

1. Tone/ClimateIce Breakers
  • Storytelling Cartoon Time Find a Web site that
    has cartoons. Have participants link their
    introductionsor stories to a particular cartoon
    URL. Storytelling is a great way to communicate.
  • Favorite Web Site Have students post the URL of
    a favorite Web site or URL with personal
    information and explain why they choose that one.
  • Two Truths, One Lie
  • Tell 2 truths and 1 lie about yourself
  • Class votes on which is the lie

1. Tone/ClimateIce Breakers
  • KNOWU Rooms
  • Create discussion forums or chat room topics for
    people with diff experiences (e.g., soccer
    parent, runner, pet lovers, like music, outdoor
    person). Find those with similar interests.
  • Complete eval form where list people in class and
    interests. Most names wins.
  • Public Commitments
  • Have students share how they will fit the
    coursework into their busy schedules.

Multiple Rooms for Chat
2. FeedbackA. Requiring Peer Feedback
  • Alternatives
  • 1. Require minimum of peer comments and give
    guidance (e.g., they should do)
  • 2. Peer Feedback Through Templatesgive templates
    to complete peer evaluations.
  • 3. Have e-papers contest(s)

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2. FeedbackB. Web-Supported GroupReading
  • Give a set of articles.
  • Post reactions to 3-4 articles that intrigued
  • What is most impt in readings?
  • React to postings of 3-4 peers.
  • Summarize posts made to their reaction.
  • (Note this could also be done in teams)

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2. Feedback (Instructor)C. Anonymous Suggestion
  • George Watson, Univ of Delaware, Electricity and
    Electronics for Engineers
  • Students send anonymous course feedback (Web
    forms or email)
  • Submission box is password protected
  • Instructor decides how to respond
  • Then provide response and most or all of
    suggestion in online forum
  • It defuses difficult issues, airs instructor
    views, and justified actions publicly.
  • Caution If you are disturbed by criticism,
    perhaps do not use.

2. FeedbackD. Double-Jeopardy Quizzing
  • Gordon McCray, Wake Forest University, Intro to
    Management of Info Systems
  • Students take objective quiz (no time limit and
    not graded)
  • Submit answer for evaluation
  • Instead of right or wrong response, the quiz
    returns a compelling probing question, insight,
    or conflicting perspective (i.e., a counterpoint)
    to force students to reconsider original
  • Students must commit to a response but can use
    reference materials
  • Correct answer and explanation are presented

2. FeedbackE. Async Self-Testing and
2. FeedbackF. Synchronous Testing
Assessment(Giving Exams in the Chat Room!, Janet
Marta, NW Missouri State Univ, Syllabus, January
  1. Post times when will be available for 30 minute
    slots, first come, first serve.
  2. Give 10-12 big theoretical questions to study
  3. Tell can skip one.
  4. Assessment will be a dialogue.
  5. Get them there 1-2 minutes early.
  6. Have hit enter every 2-3 sentences.
  7. Ask qs, redirect, push for clarity, etc.
  8. Covers about 3 questions in 30 minutes.

2. Feedback (Instructor)G. Reflective Writing
  • Alternatives
  • Minute Papers, Muddiest Pt Papers
  • PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting), KWL
  • Summaries
  • Pros and Cons
  • Email instructor after class on what learned or
    failed to learn
  • (David Brown, Syllabus, January 2002, p. 23
  • October 2001, p. 18)

3. EngagementA. Questioning(Morten Flate
Pausen, 1995 morten_at_nki.no)
  1. Shot Gun Post many questions or articles to
    discuss and answer anystudent choice.
  2. Hot Seat One student is selected to answer many
    questions from everyone in the class.

3. EngagementA. Questioning XanEdu Coursepacks
3. EngagementB. Annotations and Animations
MetaText (eBooks)
4. Meaningfulness A. Perspective Taking Oral
Histories and Interviews
  • 1. Perspective sharing discussions Have learners
    relate the course material to a real-life
  • Example In a course on Technology Culture,
    students freely shared experiences of visiting
    grandparents on rural farms. The discussion led
    to a greater interest in the readings.

4. Meaningfulness B. Perspective Taking
Foreign Languages
  • Katy Fraser, Germanic Studies at IU and Jennifer
    Liu, East Asian Languages and Cultures at IU
  • Have students receive e-newsletters from a
    foreign magazine as well as respond to related
  • Students assume roles of those in literature from
    that culture and participate in real-time chats
    using assumed identity.
  • Students use multimedia and Web for self-paced
    lessons to learn target language in authentic

4. Meaningfulness C. Simulations and
Perspective Taking
  • Nick Cullather, History Professor at IU
  • Students play roles in a Vietnam War simulation
    called Escalation to rethink notions of war,
    force, and victory as well as improve decision

4. Meaningfulness D. Expert Job Interviews
  • 1. Field Definition Activity Have student
    interview (via e-mail, if necessary) someone
    working in the field of study and share their
  • As a class, pool interview results and develop a
    group description of what it means to be a
    professional in the field

4. MeaningfulnessE. Job or Field Reflections
  1. Instructor provides reflection or prompt for job
    related or field observations
  2. Reflect on job setting or observe in field
  3. Record notes on Web and reflect on concepts from
  4. Respond to peers
  5. Instructor summarizes posts

4. MeaningfulnessF. Case-Based Learning
Student Cases
  • Model how to write a case
  • Practice answering cases.
  • Generate 2-3 cases during semester based on field
  • Link to the text materialrelate to how how text
    author or instructor might solve.
  • Respond to 6-8 peer cases.
  • Summarize the discussion in their case.
  • Summarize discussion in a peer case.
  • (Note method akin to storytelling)

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10 Ways of Using Cases on Web
  • 1. Build Web weekly work around case.
  • 2. Include cases on Web exams or readings.
  • 3. Put video of case on Web.
  • 4. Read diff cases form database.
  • 5. Use prepackaged Web simulations or cases.
  • 6. One team writes case another answers.
  • 7. Small interest groups post cases.
  • 8. Publish class cases and enter competitions.
  • 9. Students generate discuss cases.
  • 10. Instructor repurposes student cases.

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4. MeaningfulnessG. Case-Based Laboratories
  • Virginia Polytechnic Institute Veterinary
    Medicine (Active learning goal access diagnostic
    test results, interpret significance, read ref
  • Instructors provide all materials for case-based
    labs WP files, patient photos materials, color
    slides of specimens
  • Create Web images through scanning photos,
    slides, radiographs, and computed scans.
  • Find approp sound files on educational sites.
  • Students view patient info (photo, lesion photos,
    history, physical exam findings)
  • Can click on active links of sounds (breath,
    cardiac, etc.)
  • Students must answer questions
  • Students encouraged to discuss cases before class
  • Students and instructors discuss in class.

4. MeaningfulnessH. Authentic Data Analysis
  • Jeanne Sept, IU, Archaeology of Human Origins
    Components From CD to Web
  • A set of research qs and problems that
    archaeologists have posed about the site (a set
    of Web-based activities)
  • A complete set of data from the site and
    background info (multimedia data on sites from
    all regions and prehistoric time periods in
  • A set of methodologies and addl background info
    (TimeWeb tool to help students visualize and
    explore space/time dimensions)
  • Students work collaboratively to integrate
    multidisciplinary data interpret age of site
  • Interpret evidence for sites ancient
  • Analyze info on artifacts and fossils from the

5. ChoiceA. Multiple Topics
  • Generate multiple discussion prompts and ask
    students to participate in 2 out of 3
  • Provide different discussion tracks (much like
    conference tracks) for students with different
    interests to choose among
  • List possible topics and have students vote
    (students sign up for lead diff weeks)
  • Have students list and vote.

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5. ChoiceB. Discussion Starter-Wrapper (Hara,
Bonk, Angeli, 2000)
  • Starter reads ahead and starts discussion and
    others participate and wrapper summarizes what
    was discussed.
  • Start-wrapper with roles--same as 1 but include
    roles for debate (optimist, pessimist, devil's
  • Alternative Facilitator-Starter-Wrapper
    (Alexander, 2001)
  • Instead of starting discussion, student acts as
    moderator or questioner to push student thinking
    and give feedback

5. ChoiceC. Web Resource Reviews
6. VarietyA. Roundrobin
  • Select a topic
  • Respond to it
  • Pass answer(s) to next person in group
  • Keep passing until everyone contributes or ideas
    are exhausted
  • Summarize and/or report or findings

6. VarietyB. Just-In-Time-Teaching
  • Gregor Novak, IUPUI Physics Professor (teaches
    teamwork, collaboration, and effective
  • Lectures are built around student answers to
    short quizzes that have an electronic due date
    just hours before class.
  • Instructor reads and summarizes responses before
    class and weaves them into discussion and changes
    the lecture as appropriate.

6. VarietyC. Just-In-Time Syllabus(Raman,
Shackelford, Sosin) http//ecedweb.unomaha.edu/j
  • Syllabus is created as a "shell" which is
    thematically organized and contains print, video,
    and web references as well as assignments.
  • Goal critical thinking (analysis, evaluation),
    developing student interests, collaboration,
  • e.g., Economics instructors incorporate
    time-sensitive data, on-line discussions as well
    as links to freshly-mounted websites into the
    delivery of most of the undergraduate courses in
    economics. Instructor reads and summarizes
    responses before class and weaves them into
    discussion and changes the lecture as
  • e.g., To teach or expand the discussion of supply
    or elasticity, an instructor would add new links
    in the Just-in-Time Syllabus to breaking news
    about gasoline prices or the energy blackouts in

6. Variety D. Virtual Classroom
  • Joachim Hammer, University of Florida, Data
    Warehousing and Decision Support
  • Voice annotated slides on Web 7 course modules
    with a number of 15-30 minutes units
  • Biweekly QA chat sessions moderated by students
  • Bulletin Board class discussions
  • Posting to Web of best 2-3 assignments
  • Exam Qs posted to BB answers sent via email
  • Team projects posted in a team project space
  • Addl Web resources are structured for students
    (e.g., white papers, reports, project and product
    home pages)
  • Email is used to communicate with students

7. CuriosityA. Electronic Seance
  • Students read books from famous dead people
  • Convene when dark (sync or asynchronous).
  • Present present day problem for them to solve
  • Participate from within those characters (e.g.,
    read direct quotes from books or articles)
  • Invite expert guests from other campuses
  • Keep chat open for set time period
  • Debrief

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7. Curiosity
  • B. Online Fun and Games
  • (see Thiagi.com
  • Or deepfun.com)
  • Puzzle games
  • Solve puzzle against
  • timer
  • Learn concepts
  • Compete
  • Get points

C. SimulationsGames E-Learners Play, 2001, Clive
  • For people-oriented subjects, SmartForce is
    using role-play simulations that challenge
    students to solve real-life problems in realistic
    situations. The student interacts with virtual
    characters and consults a wide variety of
    resources, including white papers, presentations
    and web links, in order to realize the goals of
    the scenario.

I. eDrama (Front Desk Hiring)
II. Indeliq Permanent or Indelible Learning
  • Simulations include
  • Strategic Selling
  • Supply Chain Management
  • Customer Relations Management
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Leadership
  • Capturing Global Markets
  • Managing in a Dynamic Environment
  • Evaluating Strategic Growth Opportunities

  • Simulation Perform Real-World Tasks
  • Conduct analyses, make decisions, see immediate
    results, model expert decisions and behaviors
  • Feedback Evaluate and Coach
  • Identify mistakes, reinforce best practices,
    provide individualized coaching, offer feedback
    unique to each learner
  • Reference Fill Knowledge Gaps
  • Access expert war stories and perspectives, read
    industry examples and cases consult rich
    glossary, complete practice activities

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III. Intermezzon MoneyMaker Sales Training
V. Ninth House Management Scenarios
Games and Simulations
  • Theres something new on the horizon, though
    computer-based soft skills simulations, which let
    learners practice skills such as negotiation and
    team building.
  • Clark Aldrich, The State of Simulations, Sept.
    2001, Online Learning

VI. SimuLearns Virtual Leader
Virtual Leader Components
  • Power explores the effects of informal (i.e.,
    expertise and recognized alliances) and formal
    (e.g., title) power
  • Ideas explores effective strategies for
    generating ideas
  • Tension looking at how tension affects
  • Once the 3 ingredients are aligned and balanced,
    the leaders commit to a course of action.

VII. Wisdom Tools Time-Revealed Scenarios (TRS)
1. Story-Based a contextually-rich format.2.
Distributed accessed anywhere, at any time.3.
Collaborative active sharing of ideas among
users.4. Facilitated raises probing issues,
responds to questions.5. Integrated. embed work
tools to overcome the disconnect between work and
learning.6. Global and Diverse. characters
custom-created to reflect company's culture
Scenario Components
7. Curiosity D. Electronic Guests Mentoring
  • Find article or topic that is controversial
  • Invite person associated with that article
    (perhaps based on student suggestions)
  • Hold real time chat
  • Pose questions
  • Discuss and debrief (i.e., did anyone change
    their minds?)
  • (Alternatives Email Interviews with experts
  • Assignments with expert reviews)

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News Flash Instant Messenger (IM) is a huge
corporate tool, yet rarely mentioned in corporate
productivity or learning plans. TechLearn
TRENDS, Feb. 6, 2002
  • Jupiter Media Metrix
  • 8.8 million AOL IM users at work
  • 4.8 million MSN users at work
  • 3.4 million Yahoo! Messenger users at work
  • Doubled from 2.3 billion minutes in Sept. 2000 to
    4.9 billion minutes in Sept. 2002.
  • It can connect learners to each other and provide
    easier access to the instructor (the MASIE

Synchronous Presentation Tools What Are the
Common Tools and Features?
Synchronous WBT Products Jennifer Hoffman, ASTD,
Learning Circuits, (2000, Jan)
  • Deluxe (InterWise, LearnLinc, Centra)
  • 2-way audio using VOIP, one-way or two-way video,
    course scheduling, tracking, text chat,
    assessment (requires thick client-side software)
  • Standard (HorizonLive, PlaceWare)
  • One-way VOIP or phone bridge for two-way audio,
    text chat, application viewing, (requires thin
    client-side app or browser plug-ini)
  • Economy (Blackboard, WebCT)
  • Browser-based, chat, some application viewing
    (Requires Java-enabled browsers, little cost,

There are, say, 20 features that encompass live
e-learning, and all the products have 17 of
them.Jennifer Hofmann, quoted by Wendy Webb,
Online Learning, November, 2001, p. 44.
Web Conferencing Features
  • Audio (VOIP, bridge) and Videostreaming
  • Application Sharing or Viewing (e.g., Word and
    PowerPoint) Includes remote control and emoticons
  • Text (QA) Chat (private and public)
  • Live Surveys, Polls, and Reports
  • Synchronous Web Browsing
  • File Transfer

Web Conferencing Features
  • Content WindowsHTML, PowerPoint
  • Discussion Boardspost info, FAQs, post session
  • Archive Meetingrecord and playback
  • Breakout Rooms
  • Shared Whiteboards
  • Hand-Raising and Yes/No Buttons

7. CuriosityE. Synchronous Chats
  1. Webinar, Webcast
  2. Guest speaker moderated (or open) QA forum
  3. Instructor meetings, private talk, admin help
  4. Quick Polls/Quizzes, Voting Ranking
  5. Surveys
  6. Team activities or meetings or Peer QA
  7. Collaborative writing
  8. Brainstorming ideas, What-Ifs, Quick reflections
  9. Graphic Organizers in Whiteboard (e.g., Venn)
  10. Online Mentoring or Language Learning

1. Webinar, Webcast
2. Discussion plus Chat (e.g., Starter-Wrapper
Sync Guest Chat)
3. Instructor Meetings and Support
4. Electronic Voting and Polling
  • 1. Ask students to vote on issue before class
    (anonymously or send directly to the instructor)
  • 2. Instructor pulls our minority pt of view
  • 3. Discuss with majority pt of view
  • 4. Repoll students after class
  • (Note Delphi or Timed Disclosure Technique
    anomymous input till a due date
  • and then post results and
  • reconsider until consensus
  • Rick Kulp, IBM, 1999)

Poll Your Students Online
5. Survey Student Opinions (e.g., InfoPoll,
SurveySolutions, Zoomerang, SurveyShare.com)
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6. Peer Questions Team Meeting
7. Collaborative Document Writing
Online Peer-to-Peer Collaboration
8. Brainstorming
  • Come up with interesting or topic or problem to
  • Anonymously brainstorm ideas in a chat discussion
  • Encourage spin off ideas
  • Post list of ideas generated
  • Rank or rate ideas and submit to instructor
  • Calculate average ratings and distribute to group

9. Graphic Organizers (e.g., Digital Whiteboards)
AC3-DL Course Tools
  • Asynchronous
  • Learning Management System
  • E-mail
  • Synchronous Virtual Tactical Operations Center
    (VTOC) (7 rooms 15 people/extension)
  • Avatar
  • Audio conference by extension/room (voice over
  • Text Chat Windowsglobal and private
  • Special tools for collaboration

Mapedit Tool
  • Mapedit allows multiple users to add, delete, and
    move symbols and lines on the map overlay. The
    Mapedit program, was developed to create map
    overlays, emulating plastic sheets on which
    symbols are drawn that are laid onto a map. And
    if students want a whiteboard, they simply have
    to open a blank overlay (no map background).

9. Graphic Organizers (e.g., Map edit tool)
10. Online Language Support (pronunciation,
communication, vocabulary, grammar, etc.)
Instructor-Led Training(e.g., GlobalEnglish)
Typical Features (e.g., Englishtown (millions of
users from over 100 countries)
  • Online Conversation Classes
  • Experienced Teachers (certified ESL)
  • Expert Mentors
  • Peer-to-Peer Conversation
  • Private Conversation Classes
  • Placement Tests
  • Personalized Feedback
  • University Certification
  • Self-Paced Lessons

8. Tension
  • A. Role Play Personalities
  • List possible roles or personalities (e.g.,
    coach, optimist, devils advocate, etc.)
  • Sign up for different role every week (or 5-6 key
  • Reassign roles if someone drops class
  • Perform within rolesrefer to different
  • B. Assume Persona of Scholar
  • Enroll famous people in your course
  • Students assume voice of that person for one or
    more sessions
  • Enter debate topic or Respond to debate topic
  • Respond to rdg reflections of others or react to

8. Tension.C. Six Hats (from De Bono, 985
adopted for online learning by Karen Belfer,
2001, Ed Media)
  • White Hat Data, facts, figures, info (neutral)
  • Red Hat Feelings, emotions, intuition, rage
  • Yellow Hat Positive, sunshine, optimistic
  • Black Hat Logical, negative, judgmental, gloomy
  • Green Hat New ideas, creativity, growth
  • Blue Hat Controls thinking process
  • Note technique used in a business info systems
    class where discussion got too predictable!

8. TensionD. Instructor Generated Virtual
Debate (or student generated)
  1. Select controversial topic (with input from
  2. Divide class into subtopic pairs one critic and
    one defender.
  3. Assign each pair a perspective or subtopic
  4. Critics and defenders post initial position stmts
  5. Rebut person in ones pair
  6. Reply to 2 positions with comments or qs
  7. Formulate and post personal positions.

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9. Interactive A. Critical/Constructive
Friends, Email Pals, Web Buddies
  • Assign a critical friend (perhaps based on
  • Post weekly updates of projects, send reminders
    of due dates, help where needed.
  • Provide criticism to peer (I.e., what is strong
    and weak, whats missing, what hits the mark) as
    well as suggestions for strengthening.
  • In effect, critical friends do not slide over
    weaknesses, but confront them kindly and
  • Reflect on experience.

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9. InteractiveB. Symposia of Experts
  1. Find topic during semester that peaks interest
  2. Find students who tend to be more controversial
  3. Invite to a panel discussion on a topic or theme
  4. Have them prepare statements
  5. Invite questions from audience (rest of class)
  6. Assign panelists to start

9. Interactive
  • C. Panels of Experts Be an Expert/Ask an Expert
    Have each learner choose an area in which to
    become expert and moderate a forum for the class.
    Require participation in a certain number of
    forums (choice)
  • D. Press Conference Have a series of press
    conferences at the end of small group projects
    one for each group)

9. InteractiveE. Secret Coaches and Proteges
  1. Input learner names into a Web site.
  2. When learners arrive it randomly assigns them a
    secret protégé for a meeting.
  3. Tell them to monitor the work of their protégé
    but to avoid being obvious by giving feedback to
    several different people.
  4. Give examples of comments.
  5. At end of mtg, have proteges guess coaches.
  6. Discuss how behavior could be used in other

9. InteractiveF. Online Co-Laborative Psych
  • PsychExperiments (University of Mississippi)
  • Contains 30 free psych experiments
  • Location independent
  • Convenient to instructors
  • Run experiments over large number of subjects
  • Can build on it over time
  • Cross-institutional

Ken McGraw, Syllabus, November, 2001
10. Goal Driven
  • A. Group Problem Solving
  • Provide a real-world problem
  • Form a committee of learners to solve the problem
  • Assign a group reporter/manager
  • Provide interaction guidelines and deadlines
  • Brainstorming
  • Research
  • Negotiation
  • Drafting
  • Editing
  • Reflecting

10. Goal Driven
  • B. Jigsaw Technique each student becomes an
    expert on a topic and teaches that to his/her
  • e.g., Assign chapters within groups
  • (member 1 reads chapters 1 2 2 reads 3 4,

10. Goal DrivenC. Gallery Toursof Individual
or Team Products
  • Assign Topic or Project
  • (e.g., Team or Class White Paper, Bus Plan, Study
    Guide, Glossary, Journal, Model Exam Answers)
  • Students Post to Web
  • Experts Review and Rate
  • Try to Combine Projects

Motivational Top Ten
  • 1. Tone/Climate Ice Breakers, Peer Sharing
  • 2. Feedback Self-Tests, Reading Reactions
  • 3. Engagement Qing, Polling, Voting
  • 4. Meaningfulness Job/Field Reflections, Cases
  • 5. Choice Topical Discussions, Starter-Wrapper
  • 6. Variety Brainstorming, Roundrobins
  • 7. Curiosity Seances, Electronic Guests/Mentors
  • 8. Tension Role Play, Debates, Controversy
  • 9. Interactive E-Pals, Symposia, Expert Panels
  • 10. Goal Driven Group PS, Jigsaw, Gallery Tours

Pick One??? (circle one)
Pick an Idea
  • Definitely Will Use ___________________________
  • May Try to Use ___________________________
  • No Way ___________________________

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