Western Society and Eastern Europe in the Decades of the Cold War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation

Western Society and Eastern Europe in the Decades of the Cold War


Attacked western culture-including art and literature Literature remained diverse despite official controls Scientists enjoyed great prestige-discoveries in physics, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:125
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 32
Provided by: Chr4138


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Western Society and Eastern Europe in the Decades of the Cold War

Western Society and Eastern Europe in the Decades
of the Cold War
Civilian Populations
  • Germans also used female slave laborBlock 24,
    just beside the main gate of Auschwitz, became a
    brothel for German soldiers as well as their best
  • I consider it necessary to provide in the most
    liberal way hard-working prisoners with women in
    brothels. Heinrich Himmler, SS
  • 1943 Dr. Josef Mengele, an SS physician, arrived
    at Auschwitz. He conducted atrocious experiments
    on women, children, twins, infants, and others
  • Japan and comfort women
  • 50 of all deaths came from noncombatants -50
    million died
  • Populations were terrorized beyond measure during
    WWII by both Allies and Axis powers
  • From WWII emerged mass rapes. Soviets used
    sexual violence against German women and girls as
    they advanced into Germany
  • Many of these women were capture, repeatedly rape
    (sometimes 20-40 times a day) then sent to work
    in Russian Gulags

What do we do now?
  • The big three would decide (U.S., Great Britain,
    and Soviet Union) the future of Europe
  • Met during war to discuss 1943-Teheran,
    1945-Yalta, 1945-Potsdam (governments of Germany
    and Japan restructured, disarmament, war crime
  • Germany split between four zones
  • Japan emperor stepped down and U.S. installed
  • Nuremberg Trials 1945-1949 set of trials of
    officials involved in WWII and the Holocaust.
    Trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany and the
    more famous of these was the Trial of the Major
    War Criminals Before the International Military
    Tribunal (IMT) which tried 24 of the most
    important/captured leaders of Nazi Germany
  • The second set of trials of lesser war criminals
    was conducted under Control Council Law No. 10 at
    the U.S. Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMT),
    including the famous Doctors' Trial.

  • A developing world opinion against nuclear
    weapons testing. US, Soviets, French, and British
    were conducting above ground nuclear tests.
    People from around the world, especially the
    Japanese, opposed the testing and felt that it
    could harm and threatened peoples lives.
  • 1958 President Eisenhower established a testing
    moratorium (halt) and a test ban treaty was
    established by 1963.
  • US became increasingly involved in world affairs
    after WWII
  • Western Europe became increasingly democratic
    with rising consumer prosperity while Eastern
    Europe was controlled by the Soviets.

Economic Challenges
  • WWII left Europe in ruins and the Cold War
    threatened to finish the job of destruction
  • War reduced European population, destroyed
    industry, created millions of displaced peoples,
    housing shortages, agricultural shortages, and no
    internal sources of capital for rebuilding
  • European economies depended on capital from
  • The U.S. and Soviet Union provided solutions to
    these economic problems
  • Soviets recovered its sizable economic losses by
    territorial gains in Eastern Europe

  • Europe and its Colonies
  • The Cold War
  • Between the US and the Soviet Union (1945-47
  • After war-vague boundaries so Soviet troops
    started occupying most eastern European countries
    and quickly installed communistic governments
    loyal to the USSR. It was called the Eastern
    Block Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria,
    Romania, and Hungary. Soon Baltic states
    disappeared (reversed Treaty of Versailles)
  • Soviets also occupied part of Germany (Eastern
  • Offended by USSRs heavy handed manipulation of
    the Eastern Block including eastern Germany, the
    US and British countered with rivalry.
  • US-new president (Truman), the nuclear bomb, and
    feared communist aggression felt
  • Iron Curtain- divided Europe between free and
    repressed societies
  • Decolonization-much of the time it was smooth and
    fairly peaceful
  • Exception-pretty much everything involving
    France-Vietnam (1954) and Algeria(1962)
  • Exceptions to peaceful transition Kenya,
    Vietnam, and Algeria
  • Colonies still held onto cultural elements of old
    mother countries and even sometimes the mother
    country provided administrative and military help
    (France Belgium).
  • And of course, Western interested economically
    remained the same-wanted to continue to exploit
    mineral and agricultural resources
  • 1956 Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal under
    efforts by Britain and France to attack the
    independent nation
  • The West no longer dominated and controlled the

Cold War
  • Marshall Plan (1947)US started giving loans to
    postwar nations desperate for aid-of course
    influencing them to stay capitalistic and
    democratic-aimed to defeat communist movements in
    western Europe.
  • Early stages of Cold War over Germany-By 1946 US,
    F, and B started to collaborate on an effort to
    rebuild Germany politically and economically.
  • In 1947 created a stable currency to aid in this
    recovery the Soviets responded with a blockade in
    Berlin. US-massive airlifts to supply the city.
    In 1948 blockade ended and Germany became 2
    separate blocks (East and West)
  • NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) formed
    in 1949 was an alliance (western Europe, Canada,
    under US leadership) to check possible Soviet
    aggression. (SEATO and CENTO too)
  • Rearmament in western Germany to withstand
    communism and had allied soldier presence
  • Warsaw Pact 1955-Eastern European satellites
  • 1949 Soviets developed nuclear capability!
  • US more involved in Western European
    politics-provided much needed economic aid while
    Soviets funded and supported communist movements
    in Western Europe
  • Center of cold war conflict shifted from Europe
    to Korea, Vietnam, Middle East, and Latin America
  • US became the major peacetime military power

U.S. Solution
  • Office of European Economic Cooperation (OEEC)
    coordinated the Marshall Plan
  • Marshall Plan began the process of economic
    integration in Europe (economic alliances)
  • Benelux, France, Italy, West Germany formed
    European Coal and Steel Community that
    established a common market for coal and steel
    among member countries
  • Later created the European Economic Community
    known as the Common Market in 1958
  • Great Britain joined the EEC in 1973
  • Japan U.S supported economy by rapidly
    modernizing its industries. Without military
    budget capital was directed into industriesBy
    1960 Japan was an industrial giant
  • U.S sought to establish new markets in both
    Europe and Japan
  • U.S. acted to restore economies as potential
    consumers of American goods
  • Truman Doctrine American aid would be
    forthcoming to nations resistant to Communism and
    also to places like Russia upon guidelines
    cooperation and open trade
  • Soviets of course opposed plan and saw it as the
    U.S. attempt to spread capitalism
  • Marshall Plan U.S. plan to restore economies
    regulation and state intervention of economies

Marshall Plan
  • The plan was in operation for four years
    beginning in July 1947. During that period some
    13 billion of economic and technical assistance
    equivalent to around 130 billion in 2006, when
    adjusted for inflation, was given to help the
    recovery of the European countries which had
    joined in the Organization for European Economic
  • By the time the plan had come to completion, the
    economy of every participant state had grown well
    past prewar levels
  • Marshall Plan was also one of the first elements
    of European integration, as it erased tariff
    trade barriers and set up institutions to
    coordinate the economy on a continental level

Spread of Liberal Democracy
  • Fascism and other rightist movements were on the
    losing side of WWII and as such they became
    discredited after the war. This allowed for
    increasing acceptance of parliamentary democracy.
    More support for government planning and welfare
  • New governments in Germany (divided-west Germany
    Federal Republic of Germany). A new constitution
    was created that banned extremist political
  • Italy established a constitutional democracy
  • Even France established a new republic once
    German occupation ended
  • Portugal and Spain in the 1970s moved from
    authoritarian, semi-fascist to democratic
    parliamentary rule
  • Western Europe increasingly become more and more
    politically uniform

Creating the Welfare State
  • After WWII states formed welfare programs to
    provide support for citizens, particularly
    children and families
  • Tried to resolve economic issues surrounding
    birth, sickness, old age, and unemployment
  • Welfare states did not treat all of their members
    equally (women)
  • Per capital income was on the rise throughout all
    of western Europe
  • Welfare programs provided security for using
    disposable wealth
  • New consumption T.V., cars, refrigerators,
    washing machines, liquor, and vacations
  • However, wealth was not redistributedstill
    remained in the hands of few

New Challenges to Political Stability
  • Not everything could be handled through the
    parliamentary system-for example Civil Rights
    (African-Americans and other minorities), Vietnam
    war, materialism, and student rights. Many times
    there were riots and violence associated with
    these stands. Things got better in the US after
    the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964.
  • Feminism and womens economic rights
  • Green movement-environmentally aware
  • Couple this with slow economic growth led to new
    parties taking power
  • British Conservative party and in the US, the
    Republican party promised to reduce costs and
    coverage of the welfare state (does this sound
    like today?)
  • 2 main figures tried to reduce the welfare state
    Margaret Thatcher (prime minister of GB) and
    Ronald Reagan (US president)

Diplomatic Context
  • Problem in democracies has always been
    nationalistic rivalry. After war there was plea
    for harmony and for European states to work
    together as opposed to against one another
    (Christian Democratic party).
  • 1947 US led recovery of Western Europe-Marshall
    Plan and the US wanted German rearmament and
    participation in NATO
  • How do you allow Germany grow, but no overwhelm?
  • Tie German economics to internat. framework to
    keep peace
  • Institution established to link policies across
    Europe-faster growth
  • 1958 Western Europe (west Germany, F, I, Belgium,
    L, and Netherlands) set up the European Economic
    Community or Common Marketlater called the
    European Union. It was to create a single
    economic entity across national political
  • Tariffs reduced then eliminated in European Union
    countries, single currency 2001 (euro), and
    overall much growth

Economic Expansion
  • Time of large economic growth! Welfare state and
    European Union assisted in this growth.
  • Better farming productivity and techniques more
    exports, textiles and metallurgical products
    increased, and consumer products (car/appliances)
    increased too
  • National product surpassed rates since Industrial
    Revolution and also surpassed the US economy
  • Technology was the backbone to this growth-with
    less people did more work! More people started
    working in leisure industry teachers, bank,
    medical etc.
  • Immigration-needed more workers and many
    immigrated from other parts of Europe, Asia,
    Africa, and the Middle East.
  • Unprecedented economic growth and low
    unemployment more people bought consumer
    goods (affluent society in Western society
  • TV, cars, shopping malls, supermarkets, vacations
  • Was this good for all? Guest workers

Former Dominions
  • After WWII Australia and New Zealand moved beyond
    British influence. In 1951 Defense Pact with US
    against communism in the Pacific-backed US in
    Korea and Vietnam wars
  • 80s both began distancing itself from US policies
  • Great Britain aligned with European Union-free
    colonies created their own alliances.
  • Australia-high Asian immigration
  • Canada-became a welfare state and had
    nationalized health care
  • Relationship with US-US invested and traded
  • 1988 North American Free Trade Agreement-between
    Canada and US
  • Started to stand on their own and develop and
    Canadian identity
  • Quebec question-French independence

U.S. Century?
  • Direct confrontation in Korea between Communist
    China support North Korea and the U.S. supporting
    South Korea
  • After 3 years of warfare, Korea was permanently
    divided in 1953
  • US alliances-U.S. alliances NATO, SEATO
    (southeast Asia Treaty Organization), CENTO
    (Central Treaty Organization-Middle E)
  • US defender of capitalism and democracy
  • British couldnt police the world and Soviets
    quick growth into Eastern Europe caused U.S. to
    step up (Truman Doctrine-support for those
    against communism directed at Greece and Turkey)
  • Cold War brought about in US fear-you could lose
    your job if you were suspected of being a
    communist. (conspiracies and spies-time of

Cold War
  • Latin America U.S. acted to prevent spread of
    communism with heavy-handed policiescaused
  • Erupted in Cuba with the successful communist
    revolution led by Fidel Castro in 1959
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 USSR and U.S.
    threatening war over the existence of missiles in
    Cuba.. Threat passed when Khrushchev order the
    dismantling of missile bases
  • Middle East oil
  • Both Soviets and U.S. fought for oil control
  • U.S killed leader of Iran and put a puppet
    government in place
  • Egypt and Syria looked toward Soviets-nationalized
    Suez Canal
  • Creation of the state of Israel in 1948
    destabilized Middle East-Western aid

(No Transcript)
Vietnam War
  • US developed a containment policy to
    communism-contain growth. Considered communism to
    have a domino effect-wanted to see it contained!
  • So US basically got involved anywhere there was a
    communist threat like Korea and Vietnam ?
  • In 1965 US began bombing communist North Vietnam
    and later US troops sent in
  • US spend 2 billion dollars a week on the war that
    produced no results
  • By 1970 more bombs dropped on Vietnam than anyone
    else anywhere in the world in the entire 20th
  • Pressures from home-many protests
  • Nixon tried to put more pressure on Vietnam, but
    by 1973 both agreed to a cease-fire. 1975 war
    ended and Vietnam was in communist hands (Ho Chi
  • US continued Reagan-Middle East and terrorism
    and weapons, Bush-1st Gulf War (1991-Iraq), and
    Clinton in Kosovo.

  • Social Structure
  • Womens Revolution
  • Economic growth eased social conflicts as the
    standard of living increased for almost all.
    Social mobility increased and education became
    its tool for improvement. Size of peasantry cut
    while much unskilled work went to immigrants.
  • Class distinctions remained and crime went up in
    Western societies. US also had racial riots and
    civil rights issues to deal with.
  • Women went to work in very large numbers-44 by
    the 70s. Mostly entry level jobs and were paid
    less then men.
  • Women gained right to vote-F/S
  • Women gained more education-still male dominated
    fields (s)
  • Divorces increased
  • Birth control (pill) and abortion
  • After WWII surge in births followed by a rapid
    decline-more stuff you can buy with less kids!
  • Family pressures led to more divorces
  • New Feminism-economic gap, focus on what women
    want, family less important and seen even as

Western Culture
                  Bernard Buffet, Portrait de
Maurice Combe, 1950, (c)Adagp,
  • Shift towards US as center of Western culture
  • US had after WWII and many intellectuals
    immigrated here to work. Francis Crick (B) and
    James Watson (US) DNA.
  • New York replaced Paris as art center. Return to
    modern style seen prior to WWI (non
    representational techniques). Became increasingly
    accepted. Some artists even used popular items in
    their art.
  • Artistic film-Europe
  • Social Science changed-studied data looked at
    cycles. Developed Social history!

Bernard Buffet paintings
Popular Culture
  • US pop culture influenced western
    culture-Hollywood, coca-cola, jeans, gum,
    shaving, tv series. All this came to represent US
    to Europeans and others.
  • British-popular music groups like the Beatles
  • Interesting styles-punk
  • Sexpersonal pleasure and tv relaxed its
    standards and shops developed
  • Sexual behavior changed as pre-marital sex became
    more common and age decreased.

Cast of Dallas
Eastern Bloc and Recovery
  • Stalin was able to make the USSR into an
    industrial giant steel, coal, and crude oil
  • Post WWII, USSR also began to developed a nuclear
    arsenal and space exploration programvery
  • Able to achieve this by maintaining a war economy
  • USSR citizens did not enjoy a consumer revolution
  • Russian standard of living remained relatively
  • The nature of the planned Soviet economy, which
    focused on heavy industrial expansion, was at a
    cost to agriculture and consumer durables
  • Although industrial output was significant,
    collectivization and high defense expenditures
    led to much social unrest

Soviet Union
  • Foreign policy directed by the aims to regain
    lands, expand lands, active role in diplomacy,
    and create a buffer to protect itself.
  • Focus on heavy industry and weapons developments
  • Warsaw Pact
  • Soviets seized some islands north of Japan,
    protectorate of North Korea, aided China in
    becoming communist, and allied with Vietnam.
  • They got more military bases
  • By 1949 it was a world power
  • Soviets kept pushing west after WWII and were
    unwilling to relax its grip on Eastern Europe.
    Small countries -new or revived and were weak.
    Taken over by Nazis for years. Democratic
    government failed.
  • Dominant force in EE was Soviet army. They worked
    with local communist movements. By 1948
    opposition parties crushed.
  • (exceptions Greece/ Yugoslavia)

Soviet Union
  • Soviet and east European trade zones separated
    from international commerce
  • Soldiers stationed in eastern European countries
    to keep out west and keep communism
  • In 1953 Stalin died leaving a struggle for power
    in the Communist party Nikita Khrushchev became
    premier in 1958 ousted in 1964
  • He denounced Stalin and many felt reforms were
    sure to come and began movements in homelands.
    They were repressed with violence by the Russian
  • East Berlin posed problems for communist rule due
    to the western portion having better living
    conditions. Many would immigrate over to the
  • In 1961 Soviets responded to this problem by
    constructing the Berlin Wall. It was heavily
    policed and violence was used to maintain control
  • Berlin wall symbolized the divide in during the
    Cold War
  • Soviets did allow for some more popular leaders
    to take power (Poland). Halted collectivism and
    moved towards ownership of land and Catholic
    Church allowed back in.
  • New regime in Hungary crushed

Soviet Union
  • Prague Spring 1968 reform movement in
    Czechoslovakia which had a goal of bringing about
    a more humanistic socialism with limits (such as
    remaining in the Soviet Bloc)-violently repressed
    by Soviets
  • Poland 1970s Solidarity movement-Polish army took
    over state under Soviet supervision.
  • Eastern Europe changed due to communism classes,
    education, industry, and collectivization.
  • Soviets got-protection against Germany, allies to
    help them, an supplies
  • Soviets maintained war economy!
  • Fear of the US and its distorted society caused
    many Russians to support a continued strong
    government presence-allowing for rapid postwar
  • Stalin tried to keep contact with foreigners
    limited-limits on travel and media.
  • Government-importance of bureaucracy ed.,
    welfare, police
  • Education allowed talented people to rise up to
    work for government.
  • New candidates had to be nominated by 3 party
    members and membership was very low

Soviet Culture Promoting New Beliefs and
  • Soviet government was successful at created
    direct loyalties with citizens due to its
    cultural agenda. Regime declared war on Orthodox
    Church and other religions soon after 1917 b/c it
    wanted a secular population loyal to Marxism and
    a scientific orthodoxy. Church did remain, but
    under tight controls
  • Art/ literature monitored to reflect communist
  • Education-used to created loyal and right
    thinking citizens
  • Ceremonies and parades to stimulate devotion to
    communism and state
  • Orthodox church not banned, but limited-couldnt
    preach to anyone under 18, taught in school that
    religion was superstition, limited freedom of
    Jews yet gave more to Muslims.
  • Attacked western culture-including art and
  • Literature remained diverse despite official
  • Scientists enjoyed great prestige-discoveries in
    physics, chemistry, and math. Helped improve
    technology for society and military. Biology-had
    to reject evolution-could be jailed for that.

Economy and Society-USSR
  • Life-rapid pace of work-rewarded through
    incentives, leisure activities-vacations, sports,
    films, TV
  • Class emerges (workers vs. middle class-ed).
    Different standard of living.
  • Soviet family-lower amount of children
  • Focus on child education, but still emphasis on
  • Fully industrialized society, rapid manufacturing
    and urban growth
  • State controlled economy so focus was on heavy
    industry not on consumer goods-lagged behind west
  • Over time living standards improved and welfare
    helped, but still limited consumer products
  • Industry caused environmental damage-waste dumped
  • Problem in agriculture-capital diverted to
    industry and not to purchase farm equipment. Many
    workers not motivated. More workers retained on
    farms while food supply was at time problematic

  • Stalin died in 1953-USSR ruled by committee
  • 1956 Nikita Khrushchev. He denounced Stalin and
    many felt reforms were sure to come and began
    movements in homelands. These were repressed
    with violence by the Russian military. Little
    reform ever actually happened. He tried to open
    up Siberian lands for farming but failed and
    offended many Stalin loyalists. He was ousted in
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
  • Soviets ahead of US in space race Sputnik first
    space satellite in 1957 and in 80s led in manned
    space flights
  • China rift with China b/c of new alliances
  • In 1979 USSR invaded Afghanistan to put in a
    friendly puppet gov.-ended in a long drawn out
    guerrilla war lasting to end of 80s.
  • Low worker motivation and discipline led to lower
    productivity (alcoholism got so bad it actually
    increased death rates in adult males)-wanted
    consumer goods and western culture!
  • In 80s economic conditions started to deteriorate
    rapidly in Russia fall of USSR was shocking to
    some and the question arose of how to replace it?

Global Connections
  • Massive competition between West and Soviets
    dominated between 1945-1992
  • Communism vs. Capitalism
  • Key role in decolonization both urged by US and
  • Played roles in nationalism
  • Gave ability of other countries to pit 2
    superpowers against each other
  • Western and Soviet ideas not completely
    contradictory-both largely secular and both
    societies emphasized science. Both societies
    challenged social traditions like womens roles.
    Both sold weapons on world market. Both could
    influence and pressure changes across the globe.

Works Cited
  • http//www.amorosart.com/prints-buffet-175-1-en.ht
    ml Buffet paintings
  • http//www.ultimatedallas.com/dallas/ Dallas
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com