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Title: Cold War Confrontations: Asia, and Europe and Beginning D


1
Cold War Confrontations Asia, and Europe and
Beginning Détente
2
Advice from Eisenhower
  • In a speech given 3 days before the end of
    Eisenhower's term, he warns of the dangers of the
    growing military-industrial complex.
  • Eisenhower is clearly referring to the U.S.S.R,
    and communism in general, but he does not
    actually name them.
  • He warns his successor, JFK, of the perceived
    challenges these foes to Western freedom would
    likely bring.

3
From the Military-Industrial Complex Speech
(1961)
we yet realize that America's leadership and
prestige depend, not merely upon our unmatched
material progress, riches and military strength,
but on how we use our power in the interests of
world peace and human betterment.... We face a
hostile ideology -- global in scope, atheistic in
character, ruthless in purpose, and insidious in
method. Crises there will continue to be. In
meeting them, whether foreign or domestic, great
or small, there is a recurring temptation to feel
that some spectacular and costly action could
become the miraculous solution In the councils
of government, we must guard against the
acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether
sought or unsought, by the militaryindustrial
complex. We must never let the weight of this
combination endanger our liberties or democratic
processes.
4
The Berlin Crisis
  • The crisis over Berlin was building when JFK
    became President in 1961.
  • The conflict pitted East Germany's Walter
    Ulbricht and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev
    against West Germany's Konrad Adenaur and
    Kennedy.
  • Thousands of laborers defected from East Berlin
    to West Berlin, which had enjoyed political and
    economic assistance from the US since WW II.
  • The defections caused major strain on East
    Germany's crippled economy.

5
The Berlin Crisis
Khrushchev and Kennedy in Vienna
  • The U.S.S.R wanted Western interests out of West
    Berlin in order to deter the migration and
    strengthen the Communist bloc.
  • At Vienna Summit of June 1961, Kennedy and
    Khrushchev were odds over the proposed plan.
  • The President addressed the U.S. on the Berlin
    Crisis on July 25, 1961. His speech was
    optimistic, yet firm. Khrushchev responded with
    a defiant speech of his own.

6
The Berlin Crisis The Wall
  • With dangerously mounting tensions, Khrushchev
    and Ulbricht ultimately conceived of a plan which
    would avoid a costly conflict with the West.
  • The erection of a barrier would separate East and
    West Berlin in order to stem the influx of
    migration.
  • The building of the wall began on August 13,
    1961, with the U.S. opting not to act out in
    aggression against the U.S.S.R.

7
Vietnam The Kennedy Administration
  • The perceived threat of communism had an
    unmatched influence on American foreign policy in
    the 1960's.
  • President John F. Kennedy was determined to
    enforce the American policy of the containment of
    communism.
  • In doing so, Kennedy pledged American support of
    South Vietnam.
  • What began as financial assistance soon escalated
    into military conflict involving American troops.

8
Vietnam The Johnson Administration
LBJ and McNamara
  • The assassination of Kennedy ushered in the
    presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson.
  • Strong in his convictions, Johnson relied heavily
    on the word of Kennedy's advisors, particularly
    the Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara.
  • In March 1964, McNamara issued a statement
    concerning Vietnam in which he pushed for more
    military involvement and a continuation of
    Kennedy's policies.

9
Vietnam The Gulf of Tonkin Incident
  • Despite the optimism of U.S. policy makers,
    disaster occurred in early August of 1964.
  • Two American destroyers were attacked by North
    Vietnamese gunboats the attack caught the U.S.
    by surprise.
  • In an address to Congress, Johnson requested and
    was subsequently granted a large investment of
    money and troops to fight against North
    Vietnamese communism.
  • The events in the Gulf of Tonkin on the day of
    the incident are the subject of controversy and
    dispute to this day.
  • The years following the Gulf of Tonkin incident
    saw a huge increase in American casualties in
    Vietnam.

LBJ signing the Tonkin Gulf Resolution
10
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11
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12
Shock and Disillusionment in the Wake of the Tet
Offensive
  • As 1968 began, President Johnson and the military
    offered optimistic appraisals of the situation in
    Vietnam.
  • January 30th, North Vietnamese and Vietcong
    troops launched a massive, unexpected offensive
    on the lunar New Year holiday of Tet.
  • U.S. forces repelled enemy forces, but public
    support for the war plummeted as Americans
    recognized the inevitability of stalemate.

13
Walter Cronkites We are Mired in Stalemate
Broadcast (February 27, 1968)
To say that we are closer to victory today is to
believe, in the face of the evidence, the
optimists who have been wrong in the past. To
suggest we are on the edge of defeat is to yield
to unreasonable pessimism. To say that we are
mired in stalemate seems the only realistic, yet
unsatisfactory, conclusion. On the off chance
that military and political analysts are right,
in the next few months we must test the enemy's
intentions, in case this is indeed his last big
gasp before negotiations. But it is increasingly
clear to this reporter that the only rational way
out then will be to negotiate, not as victors,
but as an honorable people who lived up to their
pledge to defend democracy, and did the best they
could.
14
The Sino-Soviet Split
  • By the 1960s, China and the U.S.S.R. felt mutual
    distaste for the others' interpretations of
    communist doctrine.
  • The Soviets accused the Chinese of desiring a
    split, which would weaken communism.
  • China was dissatisfied with what it considered to
    be concessions made by the Soviets to Western
    imperialists, namely the U.S.
  • China was unhappy with the Soviet treatment of
    the Berlin crisis and the Cuban Missile crisis,
    believing the U.S.S.R to be to compliant with the
    U.S.
  • In 1964, China severed its relationship with the
    U.S.S.R.

"Arise, all people of the world, to topple
Imperialist America! To topple Soviet
revisionism! To topple the reactionary parties of
all nations!" Chinese Propaganda, 1969
15
The Sino-Soviet Split Border Clashes
  • Border clashes between the U.S.S.R. and China
    ensued.
  • The clashes were seen as a major threat to the
    stability of communism.
  • The conflict raised the specter of a major-power
    war.
  • Diplomacy was resumed between the Soviets and the
    Chinese, and an end to the border clashes was
    suggested by the Chinese Premier to Chairman of
    the Soviet Council of Ministers in 1969.
  • The Sino-Soviet split served to usher in the era
    of détente.
  • The Soviets began to recognize the advantages to
    good relations with the West, particularly in the
    realm of armaments.

16
Beginning Detente
Outer Space Treaty green signed and ratified,
yellow signed only
  • Detente, or a relaxing of Cold War tensions,
    began to be realized in the late 1960's under
    Richard Nixon.
  • Early detente began with the signing of two
    monumental treaties between the West and the
    Soviet Union.
  • The first treaty in 1967 barred the use of outer
    space for military purposes, admonishing the
    placement of weapons in space and declaring
    celestial bodies for peaceful use.

17
Beginning Detente
  • The second treaty was the Treaty on the
    Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons signed on
    July 1, 1968 and put into effect on March 5,
    1970.
  • This treaty served not only as an arms control
    between the West and the Soviets, it also
    admonished the free trade of nuclear secrets.
  • The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was viewed
    as both hopeful and advantageous to both the
    United States and the Soviet Union.

18
Beginning Detente
  • The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I)
    lasted from November of 1969 to May of 1972.
  • The talks, which involved diplomats from the U.S.
    and the U.S.S.R were groundbreaking in the level
    of cooperation between the two powers.
  • This photo shows Henry Kissinger, the National
    Security Advisor under Nixon and Anatoly
    Dobrynin, the Soviet Ambassador to the U.S.
  • Relations between Dobrynin and past
    administrations were strained, but the
    relationship between Kissinger and Dobrynin was
    amicable.

19
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20
Citations Slide 2 http//images.usatoday.com/lif
e/_photos/2006/01/20/inside-eisenhower-fight.jpg S
lide 3 http//www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/preside
n/speeches/eisenhower001.htm Slide 4
http//www.redruth.cornwall.sch.uk/content/departm
ents/history/coldwar-rev/coldwar.htm Slide 5
http//www.coldwarfiles.org/images/events/k_k_vien
na_main.jpg Slide 6 http//www.cs.utah.edu/hatc
h/berlin_wall.html Slide 7 http//www.britannica
.com/eb/art/print?id61022articleTypeId0 Slide
8 http//www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.
hom/oralhistory.hom/images/mcnamarar_oh.jpg Slide
9 http//www.presidentialtimeline.org/html/educa
tors/LBJ/tonkin_wq/task.php Slide 10
http//faculty.smu.edu/dsimon/Change-Viet2.html Sl
ide 11 http//faculty.smu.edu/dsimon/Change-Viet
2.html Slide 12 http//faculty.smu.edu/dsimon/Ch
ange-Viet2.html Slide 13 http//faculty.smu.edu/
dsimon/Change20--Cronkite.html Slide 14
http//content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thum
b/1/1b/325px-Ac.maoposter.jpg Slide 15
http//www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/15/s
potlight/poster.gif Slide 16 http//en.wikipedia
.org/wiki/Outer_Space_Treaty Slide 17
http//usinfo.state.gov/journals/itps/0305/ijpe/si
gning.jpg Slide 18 http//history.sandiego.edu/g
en/20th/RN/Page001.htm.
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