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AP World History

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AP World History Developments in the Americas, 600 C.E. to 1400 C.E. PrePresentation Outline Neolithic Civilization in Mesoamerica (Olmecs) Maya Aztecs Inca ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AP World History


1
  • AP World History
  • Developments in the Americas, 600 C.E. to 1400
    C.E.

2
PrePresentation Outline
  1. Neolithic Civilization in Mesoamerica (Olmecs)
  2. Maya
  3. Aztecs
  4. Inca
  5. Comparisons (Social Political)

3
11) Neolithic Civilization in Mesoamerica (Olmecs)
  • Olmecs were the first civilization to emerge in
    Mesoamerica between 1600 and 400 B.C.E.

4
  • Olmecs built villages and trade networks
  • They developed the first written language
  • Olmecs did not create the kinds of institutions
    seen in Mesopotamia or Egypt

5
  • First to develop Mesoamerican ball game
  • Brutal spectator sport which also included ritual
    sacrifice

6
lOlmecs-Decline
  • Archaeological evidence suggests that several
    volcanic eruptions and devastating earthquakes
    occurred in Southern Mexico which led to the
    collapse of Olmec civilization

7
2) Maya
  • Southern Mexico (Yucatan Peninsula), Central
    America
  • Began around 800 B.C.E and lasted until around
    800C.E.

8
Maya - Political
  • The Maya were organized into city states ruled
    by a single King.
  • City-states
  • Relatively autonomous, but united under one king
  • Warfare
  • Cites within Mayan territory were often at odds
    with one another and war was for capturing slaves
    or sacrificial victims for religious purposes.

9
Maya Social, Cultural
  • Their largely agricultural peasant population
    was bound to nobility by ties of loyalty and
    religion.
  • Social structure
  • Kings, priests, nobility
  • Merchants
  • Peasants, slaves
  • Gender
  • Traditional roles for women

10
Maya - Economic
  • Agricultural
  • Slash and burn
  • Terrace, ridge field
  • Maize, cotton

11
Maya - Decline
  • The decline of the Maya is unclear.
  • Around 800 CE they bean to abandon their cities.
  • Disease, drought, internal unrest have all been
    proposed as possible reasons for their demise.

12
3)Aztecs
  • 1150 C.E.- 1450 C.E.
  • Central Mexico
  • Capital city was
  • Tenochtitlan

13
Aztecs - Political
  • More than anything the Aztecs are known for their
    expansionist policy and professional army which
    allowed them to dominate nearby states and demand
    heavy taxes and captives. Remember they are
    Expansionist militaristic
  • Built an empire of 12 million people, but despite
    this they didnt have a bureaucratic form of
    government.
  • Autonomy was given to conquered areas as long as
    they paid the tribute (taxes) demanded of them.
  • Roads built to link the empire trade grew.
  • Inter-territorial trade

14
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15
Aztecs Social, Cultural
  • Social Structure
  • Due to expansion the Warrior elite become
    dominant (majority of people were peasants or
    slaves)
  • Gender
  • Women were subordinate polygamy was common
  • Women could inherit could property
  • Generally had to run the household, skilled
    crafts (weaving) and to some extent commerce
  • Religion
  • Military and religion were interlinked
  • Obtaining sacrifices was a military goal
  • Various deities were worshiped
  • Tens of thousands killed annually.

16
4)Inca
  • Early 13th century- 1450 C.E.
  • Peruvian Andes
  • Capital city Cuzco

17
Inca - Political
  • Expansionist like the Aztecs.
  • Controlled 2000 miles of South American
    coastline.
  • Professional standing army
  • Each new ruler had to ensure his place in
    eternity by securing new land due to the practice
    of split inheritance conquest.

Most united empire! 1. Established a bureaucracy
managed by nobles 2. Had a unified spoken
language (Quechua) 3. Also built a complex system
of roads
18
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19
  • The Inca practice of Split Inheritance was the
    process in which a ruler's chosen successor
    obtained all political power and rights, while
    the ruler's other male descendants received all
    the monetary treasures
  • For this reason, effort was made by rulers to
    secure as much land as possible, to ensure not
    only wealth for one's descendants but also to
    secure a place for eternity. The Inca believed
    that the quality of afterlife one would
    experience was dependent on how much one gained
    on earth.

20
Inca Social, Cultural
  • Society
  • Like the Mayans and Aztecs they had no large
    animals the prime source of labor was human.
    (THIS WHY THEY RELIED ON SLAVES SO MUCH!!)
  • Most of the population were peasants who worked
    the land or construction projects.
  • Peasants had to give a proportion of their
    harvest to the ruling classes and to support
    famine relief and large cities.
  • Gender
  • Women subordinate - had to run the household,
    skilled crafts (weaving) and to some extent
    commerce
  • Could Inherit property and pass property onto
    daughters
  • Women could play a role in religion.

21
Inca Religion
  • Inti sun god, owns all
  • The concept of private property didnt exist.
  • The ruler was viewed as having descended from the
    sun and therefore owning everything on earth.
  • Smaller-scale sacrifice compared to the Aztecs
    and Mayans (often sacrificed material goods or
    animals)
  • Very strong Moral quality rewards for good
    behavior and punishments for bad behavior.
  • Like the Egyptians the Incas mummified their
    rulers after death.
  • Excellent builders Machu Picchu
  • But never developed a writing system.
  • They keep account of the harvests by using quipu,
    a set of knotted strings.

22
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23
5) Comparisons - Politically
  • Motivations for expansion
  • Maya slaves
  • Aztec territory, sacrifices
  • Inca religious
  • Centralization
  • Aztec and Maya city-state autonomy
  • Inca most centralized
  • Bureaucracy
  • Unified language (Quechua)
  • Roads

24
Comparison - Socially
  • All
  • Peasant majority
  • Slavery of conquered peoples
  • Women subordinate except
  • Inherit land
  • Commerce
  • Maya Priests, Merchant class
  • Aztec Warrior elite
  • Inca Religious elite, god-king (el Inca)

25
Compare Aztecs to Romans
  • 1. Both built roads to tie together their empire
  • 2. Generally they allowed the people the
    conquered to govern themselves as along as they
    paid their taxes or tribute
  • 3. Adapted ideas from conquered peoples
  • 4. Polytheistic

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