AP WORLD HISTORY Review Session 5 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – AP WORLD HISTORY Review Session 5 PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 721e6a-ZWQ0Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

AP WORLD HISTORY Review Session 5

Description:

AP WORLD HISTORY Review Session 5 1750 - 1900 An Era of Incredible Change The Industrial Revolution (with increasing urbanization as a result) The Atlantic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:47
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 27
Provided by: Owne2751
Learn more at: http://www.apsva.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: AP WORLD HISTORY Review Session 5


1
AP WORLD HISTORYReview Session 5
  • 1750 - 1900

2
An Era of Incredible Change
  • The Industrial Revolution (with increasing
    urbanization as a result)
  • The Atlantic Revolutions
  • Imperialism
  • Capitalism and Socialism
  • Latin American Revolutions
  • Abolition of Slavery

3
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • Began in Britain in the late 1700s (18th
    century)
  • Spread to the U.S. and Germany and the rest of
    Europe after that
  • Began with money from colonies and was brought on
    by the 2nd Agricultural Revolution which
    increased crop yields and allowed more people to
    move to cities to find work in factories
  • The Enclosure System also contributed to
    urbanization (small farmers lost land to wealthy
    landowners and moved to cities looking for work)

4
INDUSTRIALIZATION BRINGS INNOVATION
  • To improve textile manufacturing and shipping,
    key inventions were made in the 1700s and early
    1800s
  • The Spinning Jenny
  • The Flying Shuttle
  • The Cotton Gin
  • The Steam Engine

5
AND THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BROUGHT
  • The telegraph
  • The telephone
  • The light bulb
  • The internal combustion engine
  • The radio
  • The airplane
  • All of these inventions came in the late 19th
    century

6
FACTORIES AND ASSEMBLY LINES
  • Made manufacturing more efficient and thus
    increased profits
  • Created jobs for people but these jobs were often
    very labor intensive and done in poor conditions
  • Women and children worked alongside men
  • Women had to do double duty as moms and workers
  • Children as young as six worked 16 hour days in
    deplorable conditions

7
PHILOSOPHICAL RESPONSES TO INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • A middle class develops in Europe as a result of
    Industrialization
  • People in favor of industrial productivity and
    profits maintained that Laissez Faire Capitalism
    (Adam Smith) was the best way to achieve economic
    stability and growth
  • Adam Smith taught that the government should stay
    out of the economy and let it regulate itself
    with the laws of supply and demand
  • The Wealth of Nations (1776)
  • Some people opposed to exploitation of cheap
    labor believed that Socialism was right
  • Karl Marx taught that the proletariat would
    eventually overthrow the bourgeoisie and that
    would lead to Communism once all resources had
    been redistributed equally
  • The Communist Manifesto (1848)

8
EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • Rapid urbanization (factory jobs were in cities)
  • Rough living conditions in crowded cities
  • Industrialized nations were the strongest and
    took advantage of non-industrialized nations
  • Remember the Berlin Conference in Africa and the
    Opium Wars/Spheres of Influence in China???
  • Middle class is born and even more specialization
    of labor develops

9
GENDER ISSUES
  • CHANGES
  • Poor women had to work in factories and still
    take care of family needs
  • Wealthy women stayed home and had less power
    outside the home in industrial age
  • Middle Class women became involved in reform
    movements (abolition, suffrage)
  • CONTINUITIES
  • Women still had family responsibilities
  • Society still very patriarchal

10
WOMENS SUFFRAGE
  • Women were leaders in the abolition movement to
    end slavery
  • Women were leaders in other movements as well
    (temperance, child labor, etc.)
  • These leadership roles prepare women to fight for
    their political rights (voting suffrage)
  • The right to vote came after long battles in
    Britain and the U.S. (right around World War I)

11
SOCIAL DARWINISM
  • Many European and American people took Darwins
    theory of evolution and survival of the fittest
    and applied it to humans
  • Belief that advances and conquest surely meant
    that the white man was superior to all other
    races, making subjugation and/or extermination of
    inferior races the natural thing to do
  • Some used Social Darwinism to inspire missionary
    efforts, educational efforts, etc. while others
    used the theory as justification for everything
    from slavery to genocide (Nazi Germany in WWII)
  • During this time period, Europeans and Americans
    colonize and attempt to civilize huge areas of
    Africa, Asia, and Oceania
  • The White Mans Burden by Rudyard Kipling

12
EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM
  • England defeated France to take over land in
    North America and India in the 18th century
  • The Raj began as the British East India Company
    took over trading ports (mercantilism)
  • Eventually the British government claimed India
    as a colony and ruled it for almost 100 years
  • England took raw materials (such as cotton) out
    of India and shipped it to England to manufacture
    textiles and then sold those textiles to the
    world, including to India!
  • Profit!
  • Indians benefitted little from colonialism, but
    Britain became even more wealthy and powerful as
    a result of their Indian colony
  • The Sepoy Rebellion was an attempt at Indian
    nationalism and independence in the mid-1800s
    but it failed to overthrow the Raj however,
    Indian nationalism will only get stronger over
    the next century and paves the way for Mohandas
    K. Gandhi

13
MIGRATIONS DURING THIS PERIOD
  • Many people moved during this era
  • European migration to the Americas
  • Chinese and Japanese migration to the U.S. and
    parts of Latin America too
  • Slavery ending in the 19th century meant a need
    for workers in Cuba for example (Chinese coolies)
  • African migration to Europe (colonialism brain
    drain)
  • Indians to Africa and the Americas
  • REASON For Work or better living conditions

14
THE BEGINNING OF NATIONALISM
  • Previous state structures decentralized, feudal
    system monarchies
  • From the 1200s forward, central authority
    becomes the norm in Europe with a monarch and the
    nobility in charge (Great Britain and the Magna
    Carta)
  • French Revolution in late 18th century fueled
    French nationalism, seen later under Napoleon and
    conquests
  • Loyalty to the state, a national consciousness
    emerges
  • Nationalism, however, is seen as a threat to
    empires (Ottoman, Russian, Austrian) because
    these were diverse empires with different groups
    within

15
You Say You Want a Revolution?
  • American Revolution 1776-1783
  • French Revolution 1789-1799
  • Haitian Revolution 1793-1802
  • Latin American Revolutions 1820-1848
  • Meiji Restoration in Japan 1867
  • Mexican Revolution 1910-1920

16
Latin American Revolutions
  • Inspired by American, French Revolutions the
    Enlightenment
  • Resentment over Spanish colonial policy and
    Peninsulares power led Creoles to lead the
    revolutionary cause
  • Mexico Father Hidalgo, Morelos, Iturbide
  • S. America Simon Bolivar, Jose de san Martin
  • Brazil peaceful break from Portugal
  • Haiti slave revolt led by Toussaint Louverture
  • Post-independence struggles lack of
    industrialization and wealth inequalities will
    make these nations struggle for stability and
    will cause them to be vulnerable to foreign
    domination of industries (railroads, factories)

17
WESTERN HEGEMONY
  • The powerful core states of Europe and the U.S.
    will become dominant in Asia, Africa, and Latin
    America in the 18th and 19th centuries
  • Spain and Portugal are declining as Britain,
    France, Holland, and the U.S. gain strength
    (Germany will come along and be a real force in
    the late 19th century)
  • Imperialism going strong for the core states,
    gaining resources and markets from the periphery
    states they dominate (think Britain/India
    relationship and U.S./Japan)

18
IMPERIALISM AND COLONIALISM
  • Imperialism powerful nations extend control over
    less-powerful nations
  • Colonialism powerful nations conquer and settle
    in less-powerful nations
  • Control can be direct (British Raj in India) or
    indirect (American railroads in Argentina)
  • Nationalism in Europe and the U.S. helped spur on
    more imperialism (dont want to lose out to
    England if you are France)
  • Industrial Revolution increased Imperialism
    (needed raw materials and open markets for your
    own manufactured products)
  • Imposition of culture, values, and religious
    systems on the colonized people

19
EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM (continued)
  • China represented another key market for European
    domination
  • After the failed Macartney Mission of 1793,
    Britain shipped tons of opium into China during
    the 1800s and got Qing Dynasty China hooked a
    weakened China was no match for British forces
    and the Treaty of Nanking opened up China to
    trade (spheres of influence) and foreign
    domination
  • Open Door Policy (U.S. domination)
  • Boxer Rebellion attempted to stop foreign
    domination but it failed, and the Qing Dynasty
    fell in 1911

20
JAPAN IN THE 19th CENTURY
  • From the 1600s on, Japan had chosen the path of
    isolation, fearing too much western influence
    would damage them
  • In 1854, they were surprised by the black ships
    of Admiral Perry as the U.S. demanded trading
    privileges with the Japanese in the Treaty of
    Kanagawa
  • Frightened into action, the Japanese got
    organized and changed greatly as a result
  • Centralized government (ended Shogunate)
  • Actively sought western help in industrialization
    and modernization to become a dominating power
    instead of the one being dominated (like China)
  • Built up their military too, fighting successful
    wars against Russia and China
  • The Meiji Restorations ended Japanese seclusion
    but saved them from foreign domination in the
    long run

21
Berlin Conference and the Scramble for Africa,
1884-1885
  • European powers met to divide up Africa for
    themselves
  • If you could control it, you could have it
  • Interested in resources and markets for products
  • Major players included Britain, France, Belgium,
    Spain, Portugal, and Germany
  • Led to colonization of the whole continent and
    control of Africa for the next 80 years
  • Slavery, although officially outlawed, was still
    the norm in many colonies (Belgian King Leopolds
    Congo Free State)

22
China, Japan, and the Ottoman Empire A Case
Study in Responses to Imperialism
  • China refused to acknowledge western threats and
    paid dearly for not innovating to meet the
    challenge (Opium Wars, Treaty of Nanking, and
    Spheres of Influence followed by collapse of the
    Qing Dynasty in 1911
  • Japan was scared straight in 1854 by Admiral
    Perrys black ships, and the Meiji Restoration
    brought centralized government and
    industrialization to Japan, making it a new world
    power by the 20th century
  • The Ottomans waited too long to reform, but did
    try to westernize/modernize with the Tanzimat
    Reforms and the Young Turk Movement in the end
    it was too little too late as they lost World War
    I and saw the empire collapse and get divided up
    among European powers Britain and France

23
Egypt, East Africa, and Southern Africa
Responses to Imperialism
  • Egypt tried to modernize while still part of the
    Ottoman Empire under leadership of Muhammad Ali,
    but Europeans do not allow Egyptians to gain
    control of their own land and defeat them and
    took the Suez Canal away from Egyptian control
  • Ethiopia is a success story of African resistance
    as the leader Menelik II helped fight off Italys
    attempt at colonizing Ethiopia
  • Zulus in Southern Africa fight European
    settlement but superior British army and weapons
    defeat the Zulu and later diamond and gold
    discoveries bring even more European settlements
  • South Africa created in 1910 (Apartheid
    government)

24
COMPARATIVE ESSAY PRACTICE Pre-Writing/Thesis
  • Analyze the similarities and differences in the
    industrialization of Western Europe and Eastern
    Asia

25
CHANGE/CONTINUITY OVER TIME ESSAY PRACTICE
  • Analyze the changes and continuities in the role
    of women in Europe from 1600-1900.

26
PARTING WISDOM
  • Immerse yourself in World History for the next
    week and a half
  • Study group in Coach Biggers room after school
  • Study groups this weekend
  • Review Sprite Charts while eating meals
  • Every Night next week (SUN-WED) look over the
    power point review online and your notes
  • Memorize the basic essay pointers for each type
    of essay
About PowerShow.com