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AP World History

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AP World History World History Outline of Big Picture Patterns 8000 B.C.E. 1500 B.C.E. Man was gradually learning the skills that would lead to civilization ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AP World History


1
AP World History
  • World History Outline of Big Picture Patterns

2
8000 B.C.E. 1500 B.C.E.
  • Man was gradually learning the skills that would
    lead to civilization
  • Agricultural Revolution importance once man
    could control food source (domestication of
    plants (grain) and animals), only then could we
    move beyond hunter/gatherer.

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4
8000 B.C.E. 1500 B.C.E.
  • Things to focus on with the Agricultural
    Revolution
  • 1. Irrigation canals in Mesopotamia
    (technology), unpredictable flooding
    unpredictable religion.
  • 2. Reliable flooding in Egypt Gift of the
    Nile, produces food surplus and stability.
    reliable religion
  • 3. Indus River Valley monsoon produces
    unpredictable flooding, may have led to eventual
    decline.
  • 4. Early China River Valley societies developed
    along similar lines.

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6
1750 B.C.E. 500 B.C.E
  • Civilization becomes more complex
  • Agriculture City-States specialization
    (careers)
  • Classes Nobility/Priests, Commoners, slaves
  • Kings Hammurabis Law Code. Rapid turn over in
    Mesopotamia (open), long dynasties in Egypt
    (protected)
  • Trade along Nile, Mesopotamian products and
    cylinder seals found in Indus and Egypt.
    Obsidian from Catal Huyuk in Anatolia found
    hundreds of miles away.
  • Religion Organized Priests and temples. Stable
    in Egypt, messy elsewhere (affect of environment).

7
1750 B.C.E. 300 B.C.E
  • Mediterranean Middle East
  • Early Greeks (Minoan, Mycenaean establishing
    Med. Sea trading, later polis (city-states)
  • Phoenicia expands sea trade, Carthage (Cultural
    diffusion)
  • Israel monotheism
  • Assyrians (bathed in blood), Diaspora of Jews
    (Cyrus of Persia allowed to return)(Migration
    patterns forced vs. religious motivated)

8
500 B.C.E. 300 B.C.E.
  • Persians establish huge trading empire with
    Royal Road for communication and safe travel.
    (Cultural Diffusion)
  • Kings rule through a bureaucratic system of
    local rulers and religious tolerance. Cyrus the
    Great allows Jews to return to Jerusalem, rebuild
    temple.
  • Establish many traditions throughout Middle East
    that can still be seen today.
  • Persian Wars with Greece.

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11
500 B.C.E. 30 B.C.E.
  • Greece develops independent city-states (polis).
    Athens direct democracy.
  • Military Persian Wars Greek Hoplites/Phalanx
    prevent Persia from advancing west, later leading
    to Hellenistic culture influencing all of Western
    Civilization. (Cultural Diffusion)
  • Alexander the Great defeats Darius/Persians
    establishing empire from Greece to India. Builds
    cities, libraries, museums, schools spreading
    Greek culture.
  • Ptolemy Dynasty in Egypt continues Hellenism
    until Rome takes over.

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14
200 B.C.E. 200 C.E.
  • Rise of Empires with strong centralized,
    bureaucratic governments.
  • Two best examples Rome and Han Dynasty
  • Both this time period is when they are at their
    height before decline.
  • Both expand territory, develop extensive trade
    network throughout . Rome with roads, Han more
    with canals linking major rivers. (Cultural
    Diffusion)
  • Lasting influence of both Greco/Roman culture
    will shape western civilization government and
    legal systems. (republic U.S.)
  • Han Dynasty will establish the traditions that
    will shape all Chinese dynasties until the
    communist revolution in 1900s.

15
300 B.C.E. 600 C.E.
  • Trade Networks (all overland except Indian Ocean)
    expand across great distance spreading culture
    and ideas, esp. religion (Buddhism and
    Christianity).
  • Silk Road Asia spreads Buddhism
  • Indian Ocean Maritime System ruled by monsoon
    winds, sailing technology.
  • Sahara and Sub-Saharan trade networks. Spreads
    culture, language, and technology across Africa,
    esp. through Bantu Migrations and Mali salt/gold
    trade.

16
600 C.E. 1400 C.E.
  • Clashes Among Different Cultures
  • 600 1200 Rise and spread of Islam. Focus on
    Abbasid Caliphate, 661 C.E. 850 C.E., p. 203.
  • 600 - 1200 Spread of Christianity through
    Byzantine, Kiev, Western Europe.
  • 1095 1204 Crusades. Leads to lasting animosity
    between Europeans and Islam. Reestablishes trade
    networks with Europe.
  • 1200 Mongols spread throughout Asia, improves
    trade until 1500 (Pax Mongolia for 200 yrs.)
  • Threat of Mongols spur Japan to create Samurai
    and Emperor based government.

17
1200 1500 C.E.
  • Europe exposure to new trade and ideas leads to
    Renaissance, increased knowledge leads to
    questioning of authority.
  • Renaissance leads to Protestant Reformation, rise
    in power of kings.
  • Era of Discovery Europe wants everything Asia
    has to offer, Arabs close off all land routes
    (too many hard feelings from Crusades).
  • Prince Henry the Navigator collects technology
    related to sailing, expands range of Europeans
    God, Gold, Glory

18
1450 C.E.
  • Pivot point. Prior to this time, ALL trade
    routes were land based with the exception of the
    Indian Ocean Trade.
  • The few long distance trade routes were coast
    huggers since they couldnt carry enough
    supplies.
  • Caravel ships, compass, astrolabe, allow
    explorers to explore the oceans and know what
    latitude they were on.

19
1492 1750 C.E. North-Atlantic crossings, search
for north-west passage
  • Columbus dispel the evil guy theory about
    disease, downfall of culture. Because he opens
    the Americas.
  • Vasco da Gama circles the cape of Good Hope and
    opens it up.
  • Magellan circumnavigates the globe
  • Pedro Cabral blown off course and ends up off of
    Brazil, which leads to the Treaty of Tordasillas.
  • Cortes and Pizzaro are a given due to Aztec/Incas
    stuff.
  •  
  • Focus on the encounter, the interaction. Push
    economics/trade. (Cultural Diffusion)

20
1492 1750 C.E.
  • The beginning of European trade empires an
    organized effort of trade. 
  • This creates a global economy, main feature was
    that it becomes monetized, based on silver.
    Leads to mercantilism.
  • Provides capital to fund increasingly larger
    explorations.
  •  
  • Leads to Columbian exchange. What goes in what
    direction? Corn, sweet potato, cacao (Aztecs
    made this a spicy drink, didnt have sugar.
    Europeans will make it a sweet drink.) Flesh,
    other than human, introduced into Aztec diet.
  • Diseases, of course. Small pox, measles,
    Europeans got new strains of influenza and
    syphilis.
  • Religious Ideas Spread Christianity, Islam
    spread to new world African Muslims enslaved in
    the new world (Islam forbids enslavement of
    fellow Muslims typically). Mixture of forms of
    Christianities with native religions. Today,
    this causes issues like voodoo, etc.

21
1750 - 1870
  • Triangular Slave Trade
  • 1. Slaves go from Africa to Latin America and N.
    America (Native American laborers dead within 30
    years due to diseases).
  • 2. Raw materials (gold, silver, gems, lumber for
    ship building) go from Americas back to Mother
    countries.
  • 3. Manufactured goods from Europe go back to
    Americas for colonialists.
  • Muslim presence continues to rise in Middle East
    through Ottoman Empire, Safavid Empire.

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24
1750-1815
  • Revolutions
  • 1. American Revolution 1775-1800 due to long
    distance rule and taxes.
  • 2. French Revolution 1789 1815 due to example
    of Am. Rev. and response to dictatorship of
    government.
  • 3. Haitian Revolution 1789 1804 due to its
    being a French colony (influence of Fr. Rev.) and
    slave revolts.

25
1760 - 1890
  • Industrial Revolution begins in England, moves to
    United States, then goes to Europe. Begin of
    change from agricultural societies to factories
    and urban societies.
  • Series of independence movements throughout Latin
    America and eventual end of slavery.

26
1800 1914 Age of Empires
  • The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire
    colonial rule in India, Australia, some of
    Africa.
  • Napoleonic Empire in Europe leads to European
    strength.
  • Russian Empire expands throughout Northern Asia.
  • China Qing Empire suffers rebellions.
  • Ottoman Empire takes on European characteristics.
  • Japan Empire modernizes Japan.
  • Rise of Nationalism throughout Eurasia leads to
    Socialist movements.

27
1870 1914 Age of Imperialism
  • America and Spain vie for control of Latin
    America, leads to Spanish-American War 1898.
    America wins Puerto Rico, Guam, Hawaii
  • Scramble for Africa colonial powers in Europe
    grab whatever territory in Africa they can
    (Britain, France, Belgium, Portugal, more).
  • 1914 Ottoman Empire is collapsing, rise in
    nationalism throughout Europe leads to World War
    I.
  • 1917 Russian Revolution due to Socialist
    movements (Anastasia)

28
1914 - 1945
  • 1914-1918 WWI Treaty of Versailles blames the
    entire war on Germany.
  • Europe is redrawn, Ottoman Empire collapses,
    Russia unstable, China unstable, Japan begins to
    expand empire throughout the Pacific.
  • Middle East redrawn.
  • 1930s World wide Great Depression
  • Unrest from aftermath of WWI and economy leads to
    rise in Fascism in Italy, Spain, Germany. Hitler
    uses this to start WWII.
  • 1900 1949 colonies in Africa, India, Mexico,
    Latin America push for independence.

29
1945 - 1989
  • Aftermath of WWII leads to stronger Communist
    government in Russia.
  • Chinese civil war leads to communist takeover
    (cont. to this day).
  • 1947 Formation of Israel
  • 1953 Communist takeover in N. Korea
  • 1960s communist takeover in N. Vietnam
  • Threat of atomic bombs leads to Cold War with
    Russia mutually assured destruction.
  • 1989 Berlin Wall is torn down, Russian
    communism falls.

30
1975-present
  • Turmoil in Middle East (European Imperialism)
  • 1970s - Islamic revolutions in Iran and
    Afghanistan
  • 1990 Persian Gulf War
  • Global Economy big difference between
    industrialized countries and third world
    nations
  • Rise in Terrorism, Sept. 11, 2001, subsequent
    wars (unrest due to actual or perceived Western
    manipulation in the Middle East).

31
Impact of Major Disease
  • 430s B.C.E. Plague hits Greece during Pericles
    Golden Age
  • 540s C.E. Justinians Plague during Byzantine
    Empire
  • 1340s C. E. Black Death 1in 3 dead from China
    across Europe
  • 1500s 1700s Small Pox and other European
    diseases kill Latin American Natives first, then
    North American as colonies spread.
  • 1918 Spanish Influenza 50100 million people
    worldwide were killed
  • 1930s on Vaccines and Antibiotics change affects
    of disease.
  • 1980s present AIDS pandemic, esp. Sub-Saharan
    Africa.

32
Global Society
  • Before 1450 C.E. only real Global Society was
    the Indian Ocean Trading World
  • After 1450 C.E. beginnings with mercantilism and
    the Columbian Exchange, but emphasis is too for
    the mother country
  • 1900s- shift during the century from mother
    country
  • 1898 U.S. moves from isolationist to
    imperialist with Spanish-American war, but not
    world player until WWII. Now part of massive
    global economy.
  • By end of 1900s few products made start to finish
    in one location, or even one country.
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