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Title: AP World History Review


1
AP World History Review
  • 1450-1750

2
  • During the post-classical period, societies in
    the Americas
  • A) remained entirely separate from those of the
    Old World.
  • B) experienced the initial contacts that led
    eventually to European invasion of the New World.
  • C) failed to develop imperial forms of
    governmenta failure that mirrored European
    society.
  • D) were united under a single government.
  • E) abandoned Central America and migrated north.

3
And the answer is
  • A) remained entirely separate from those of the
    Old World.

4
  • Which of the following was NOT a characteristic
    of American civilizations during the post-classic
    period?
  • A) large cities based on elaborate political and
    economic organization
  • B) elaborate cultural systems
  • C) monotheism
  • D) highly developed agriculture
  • E) diverse civilizations

5
And the answer is
  • C) monotheism

6
  • The northern nomadic peoples who entered central
    Mexico following the decline of Teotihuacán were
    the
  • A) Aztecs.
  • B) Incas.
  • C) Olmecs.
  • D) Toltecs.
  • E) Maya.

7
And the answer is
  • D) Toltecs

8
  • The Toltec capital was established at
  • A) Teotihuacán.
  • B) Tula.
  • C) Tenochtitlán.
  • D) Twantinsuyu.
  • E) Tlotelolco.

9
And the answer is
  • B) Tula.

10
  • What was the relationship between the Toltecs and
    their predecessors in central Mexico?
  • A) The former residents of central Mexico were
    wiped out during the Toltec invasions.
  • B) The entry of the Toltecs into central Mexico
    marks an abrupt break in the cultural development
    of the region.
  • C) The Toltecs adopted the animistic religion of
    their predecessors, but failed to develop cities
    or ceremonial centers.
  • D) The Toltecs adopted many cultural features
    from their predecessors to which they added a
    strongly military ethic and human sacrifice.
  • E) The Toltec rejected all vestiges of previous
    societies.

11
And the answer is
  • D) The Toltecs adopted many cultural features
    from their predecessors to which they added a
    strongly military ethic and human sacrifice.

12
  • How did the Aztecs view the cultural achievements
    of the Toltecs?
  • A) as barbarians who lacked culture
  • B) as slaves, fit only for conquest
  • C) as the givers of their cultural heritage
  • D) as heretics, who practiced a forbidden
    religion
  • E) the Toltec culture was unknown to the Aztecs

13
And the answer is
  • C) as the givers of their cultural heritage

14
  • The Toltec empire lasted until about what date?
  • A) 1000
  • B) 1150
  • C) 1236
  • D) 1434
  • E) 1521

15
And the answer is
  • B) 1150

16
  • After the sack of Tula, the center of population
    and political power in Mexico shifted to
  • A) Yucatan.
  • B) the valley of Mexico and the shores of a chain
    of lakes in that basin.
  • C) Teotihuacán.
  • D) Chimor.
  • E) the southern Pacific coast.

17
And the answer is
  • B) the valley of Mexico and the shores of a chain
    of lakes in that basin.

18
  • The people who succeeded the Toltecs as the
    rulers of central Mexico were the
  • A) Olmecs.
  • B) Maya.
  • C) Incas.
  • D) Aztecs.
  • E) Quechua.

19
And the answer is
  • D) Aztecs.

20
  • Around what year did the Aztecs migrate to the
    central valley of Mexico?
  • A) 1000
  • B) 1150
  • C) 1325
  • D) 1434
  • E) 932

21
And the answer is
  • C) 1325

22
  • In the period shortly after the arrival of the
    Aztecs in the valley of Mexico, what was the
    nature of the political organization of the
    region?
  • A) imperial
  • B) regional kingdoms
  • C) city-states
  • D) hunting and gathering groups
  • E) a large confederation

23
And the answer is
  • C) city-states

24
  • Which of the following was NOT one of the cities
    challenging for dominance at the time of the
    Aztec arrival in the valley of Mexico?
  • A) Teotihuacán
  • B) Azcapotzalco
  • C) Culhuacan
  • D) Texcoco
  • E) Tlacopan

25
And the answer is
  • A) Teotihuacán

26
  • What city did the Aztecs establish ca. 1325 on a
    marshy island in Lake Texcoco?
  • A) Teotihuacán
  • B) Culhuacan
  • C) Texcoco
  • D) Tenochtitlán
  • E) Chinampa

27
And the answer is
  • D) Tenochtitlán

28
  • In what year did Tenochtitlán emerge as the
    dominant force in the central plateau that it
    controlled along with Texcoco and Tlacopan?
  • A) 1100
  • B) 1234
  • C) 1325
  • D) 1434
  • E) 1400

29
And the answer is
  • D) 1434

30
  • Which of the following did NOT occur as a result
    of the Aztec rise to power?
  • A) the increasing dominance of the nobility
  • B) the emergence of a ruler with supreme powers
  • C) the abandonment of human sacrifice
  • D) the subsequent expansion of power and the
    boundaries of Aztec control
  • E) a highly urbanized society

31
And the answer is
  • C) the abandonment of human sacrifice

32
  • What was the impact of expansion and conquest on
    the Aztec social system?
  • A) From a loose association of clans, Aztec
    society became a stratified society.
  • B) Conquest opened up Aztec society to incursions
    by the indigenous peoples who began to form a
    trained bureaucracy.
  • C) Aztec society was transformed in the sense
    that the Mexica adopted the social patterns of
    the Maya.
  • D) Despite the stress of warfare and invasion,
    the Aztec society remained remarkably unchanged
    by the process.
  • E) Aztec social institutions became more
    inclusive.

33
And the answer is
  • A) From a loose association of clans, Aztec
    society became a stratified society.

34
  • The Aztec prime minister responsible for the
    expansion of human sacrifice and the rewriting of
    previous histories was
  • A) Ahuitzotl.
  • B) Moctezuma II.
  • C) Dacaelel.
  • D) Quetzalcoatl.
  • E) Xipe Totec.

35
And the answer is
  • C) Dacaelel

36
  • Which of the following statements concerning
    Aztec religion is most accurate?
  • A) Shortly after establishing their empire, the
    Aztecs abandoned all gods other than their
    patron, Huitzilopochtli.
  • B) Aztec deities were normally associated only
    with male forms.
  • C) Aztec deities were numerous and had different
    forms or manifestations somewhat like the avatars
    of the Hindu deities.
  • D) There was little or no animism in the
    religious world of the Aztecs.
  • E) Tonatiuh and Tezcatlipoca became the paramount
    gods.

37
And the answer is
  • C) Aztec deities were numerous and had different
    forms or manifestations somewhat like the avatars
    of the Hindu deities.

38
  • Which of the following was NOT one of the major
    themes or cults of Aztec religion?
  • A) gods of fertility
  • B) creator deities
  • C) gods of warfare and sacrifice
  • D) deities devoted to contemplation and salvation
  • E) the agricultural cycle

39
And the answer is
  • D) deities devoted to contemplation and salvation

40
  • The central figure of the cult of human sacrifice
    and the most sacred deity of the Aztecs was
  • A) Quetzalcoatl.
  • B) Tlaloc.
  • C) Tonatiuh.
  • D) Huitzilopochtli
  • E) Chaco

41
And the answer is
  • D) Huitzilopochtli

42
  • What was the Aztec view of history?
  • A) They believed in a linear view of history
    dedicated to the premise of Aztec superiority for
    eternity.
  • B) Like other Mesoamerican peoples, the Aztecs
    believed in a cyclical pattern of repetitive
    destructions of the world.
  • C) Unlike other Mesoamerican peoples, the Aztecs
    rejected the cyclical view of history for a more
    modern historical view based on the history of
    their empire.
  • D) Because they lacked a calendar system, the
    Aztecs had no formal historical viewpoint.
  • E) They believed in a linear history ending with
    their total destruction.

43
And the answer is
  • B) Like other Mesoamerican peoples, the Aztecs
    believed in a cyclical pattern of repetitive
    destructions of the world.

44
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán is NOT accurate?
  • A) It was built on an island in the middle of a
    lake.
  • B) By 1519 it probably had a population of about
    150,000.
  • C) Despite the existence of thousands of houses
    and other varieties of domestic architecture,
    unlike other Mesoamerican cities it lacked a
    temple complex.
  • D) The city was divided into more than 60 wards
    controlled by kinship groups.
  • E) It was larger than Paris or Seville.

45
And the answer is
  • C) Despite the existence of thousands of houses
    and other varieties of domestic architecture,
    unlike other Mesoamerican cities it lacked a
    temple complex.

46
  • The Aztec innovation in intensive agriculture in
    the aquatic environments of the lakes of central
    Mexico was the development of
  • A) chinampas.
  • B) pipiltin.
  • C) quipus.
  • D) calpulli.
  • E) Pochteca.

47
And the answer is
  • A) chinampas.

48
  • What was the nature of the Aztec economy?
  • A) The Aztecs failed to develop a merchant class,
    so all distribution of goods was carried out by
    the state.
  • B) The Aztecs developed a free market economy in
    which all trade was in the hands of specialized
    merchants.
  • C) The Aztec state redistributed many goods
    received as tribute, but there was a specialized
    merchant class that also handled long-distance
    trade in rare commodities.
  • D) There was little trade within Aztec society,
    as almost all communities were self-sufficient.
  • E) The Aztec traded the entire length of the
    inhabited Pacific coast.

49
And the answer is
  • C) The Aztec state redistributed many goods
    received as tribute, but there was a specialized
    merchant class that also handled long-distance
    trade in rare commodities.

50
  • One of the most permanent features of Aztec
    society was its organization into clans or
  • A) chinampas.
  • B) pipiltin.
  • C) quipus.
  • D) calpulli.
  • E) pok-ta-pok.

51
And the answer is
  • D) calpulli.

52
  • ) Which of the following was NOT a function of
    the Aztec kinship groups?
  • A) assignment of people to cult groups
  • B) distributing land to household heads
  • C) organizing labor units for state service
  • D) organizing military units for warfare
  • E) maintaining temples and schools

53
And the answer is
  • A) assignment of people to cult groups

54
  • Closely identified with the cult of sacrifice and
    the military, the Aztec social hierarchy
    developed a nobility referred to as the
  • A) chinampas.
  • B) pipiltin.
  • C) quipus.
  • D) calpulli.
  • E) pochteca.

55
And the answer is
  • B) pipiltin

56
  • Which of the following is NOT true of the Aztec
    view of marriage and the family?
  • A) virginity at marriage was highly regarded for
    young women
  • B) polygamy was common throughout society
  • C) marriages were often arranged between lineages
  • D) young girls were often trained by the older
    women of the calpulli
  • E) mayeques rarely married into noble families

57
And the answer is
  • B) polygamy was common throughout society

58
  • While the position of Aztec women in many ways
    paralleled that of women in other civilizations
    at a similar stage of development, what was the
    significant difference between the life of women
    in Mesoamerica and in the Mediterranean world?
  • A) Women in Mesoamerica participated fully in the
    military.
  • B) There was no polygamy practiced in
    Mesoamerica.
  • C) Aztec women were unable to inherit or to pass
    property on to heirs.
  • D) The limited technology of Mesoamerica confined
    women to many more hours grinding grain for food.
  • E) Peasant women were more highly educated in
    Mesoamerica.

59
And the answer is
  • D) The limited technology of Mesoamerica confined
    women to many more hours grinding grain for food.

60
  • What was the nature of the Aztec administration
    of subject territories?
  • A) The Aztecs placed members of the Aztec
    nobility as rulers over subject peoples.
  • B) All territories conquered by the Aztecs became
    part of a singular administration run by a
    trained bureaucracy located in Tenochtitlánmuch
    like the Byzantine Empire.
  • C) Conquered territories were often left
    relatively unchanged under their old rulers as
    long as they recognized Aztec supremacy and paid
    tribute.
  • D) The Aztecs established a military
    administration with subject territories
    controlled by regional generals.
  • E) Aztecs rarely collected tribute from subject
    territories.

61
And the answer is
  • C) Conquered territories were often left
    relatively unchanged under their old rulers as
    long as they recognized Aztec supremacy and paid
    tribute.

62
  • The image of the Inca empire as a carefully
    organized system in which every community
  • collectively contributed to the whole and the
    state regulated the distribution of resources on
    the basis of need is referred to as
  • A) Inca despotism.
  • B) Indian utilitarianism.
  • C) Inca socialism.
  • D) utopian positivism.
  • E) Mesoamerican capitalism.

63
And the answer is
  • C) Inca socialism.

64
  • Which of the following views of the Aztec
    practice of human sacrifice can be associated
    with Marvin Harriss interpretation of the
    cannibal kingdom?
  • A) The incidence of human sacrifice was grossly
    exaggerated by the Spanish for political
    purposes.
  • B) It was an essentially religious act central to
    their belief that humans must sacrifice that
    which was most precious to them in order to
    receive the sun, rain, and other blessings.
  • C) It was the intentional manipulation of a
    traditional practice to terrorize their neighbors
    and to keep the lower classes subordinate.
  • D) It was a response to the lack of available
    protein in the form of large mammals.
  • E) It was immoral and unnecessary.

65
And the answer is
  • D) It was a response to the lack of available
    protein in the form of large mammals.

66
  • What was the primary difference in the political
    situation between the Mesoamerican and Andean
    zones following the breakup of the classical
    states?
  • A) In Mesoamerica there was no real political
    decline as new peoples simply took over the
    institutions of their predecessors.
  • B) In the Andean zones a number of relatively
    large states continued to be important, rather
    than the breakdown of power that was typical of
    Mesoamerica.
  • C) The Andean political experience lacked the
    militaristic overtones that accompanied the
    breakdown of power in Mesoamerica.
  • D) The transition of power that took place in the
    Andean zone was accomplished by invasion from
    outside the region.
  • E) The Andean region was more compact and
    therefore quickly reunited.

67
And the answer is
  • B) In the Andean zones a number of relatively
    large states continued to be important, rather
    than the breakdown of power that was typical of
    Mesoamerica.

68
  • The most powerful of the Andean states between
    900 and 1465 following the decline of Tihuanaco
    and Huari was
  • A) Chimor.
  • B) Titicaca.
  • C) Topac Yupanqui.
  • D) Chichen Itza.
  • E) Chavin.

69
And the answer is
  • A) Chimor.

70
  • The capital of the Inca empire was
  • A) Cuzco.
  • B) Chan Chan.
  • C) Tihuanaco.
  • D) Chichen Itza.
  • E) Cajamarca.

71
And the answer is
  • A) Cuzco.

72
  • The Inca ruler associated with the first creation
    of the Inca empire in 1438 was
  • A) Topac Yupanqui.
  • B) Ahuitzotl.
  • C) Pachacuti.
  • D) Moctezuma II.
  • E) Viracocha.

73
And the answer is
  • C) Pachacuti.

74
  • What do the authors suggest was the principal
    reason for Inca conquest and expansion?
  • A) their need for human sacrificial victims
  • B) the practice of split inheritance
  • C) the absence of irrigation systems within the
    Inca empire
  • D) the existence of long-distance trade merchants
    within the imperial administration
  • E) the cult of the sun

75
And the answer is
  • B) the practice of split inheritance

76
  • What was the Inca practice of split inheritance?
  • A) On the death of the previous ruler, the throne
    passed to two descendants from the rulers
    family.
  • B) On the death of the previous ruler, the
    familys wealth was equally divided between all
    male heirs.
  • C) On the death of the previous ruler, the
    inheritance passed through the family of the
    senior wife to her oldest brother.
  • D) All political power and titles went to the
    rulers successor, but his wealth was kept in the
    hands of the male descendants to support the cult
    of the dead Incas mummy.
  • E) All power and wealth was inherited by the
    eldest son.

77
And the answer is
  • D) All political power and titles went to the
    rulers successor, but his wealth was kept in the
    hands of the male descendants to support the cult
    of the dead Incas mummy.

78
  • ) The religious practice most closely associated
    with the state and the person of the Inca in
    Andean civilization was the cult of
  • A) human sacrifice.
  • B) the rain god.
  • C) the sun.
  • D) Quetzalcoatl.
  • E) Twantinsuyu.

79
And the answer is
  • C) the sun.

80
  • Which of the following was utilized in the Inca
    empire, but NOT by the Aztecs?
  • A) a semi-divine emperor
  • B) extensive use of colonization
  • C) use of local rulers in exchange for
    recognition of sovereignty
  • D) identification of the nobility with the
    administrative and military functions of the
    state
  • E) elaborate road systems

81
And the answer is
  • B) extensive use of colonization

82
  • Which of the following existed in the Aztec
    empire, but NOT in the Inca empire?
  • A) a tribute system
  • B) redistribution of tribute by the state
  • C) extraction of labor for use on temple projects
  • D) an extensive merchant class
  • E) recognition of local groups and leaders.

83
And the answer is
  • D) an extensive merchant class

84
  • What was the Andean principle of inheritance?
  • A) matrilineal, inheritance passing in the female
    line
  • B) patrilineal, inheritance passing in the male
    line
  • C) parallel descent, or inheritance passing in
    both the male and female lines
  • D) everything passing to the monarch
  • E) extended family split inheritances evenly

85
And the answer is
  • C) parallel descent, or inheritance passing in
    both the male and female lines

86
  • Tambos were
  • A) labor turns exacted by the Inca authorities.
  • B) knotted strings used for record keeping.
  • C) local rulers.
  • D) way stations along roads in the Inca empire.
  • E) mountain passes.

87
And the answer is
  • D) way stations along roads in the Inca empire.

88
  • The Inca nobility were
  • A) drawn from 10 royal ayllus and the city of
    Cuzco.
  • B) drawn from the noble ayllus of the conquered
    population.
  • C) not distinguished from the commoners by
    appearance or dress.
  • D) often commoners who distinguished themselves
    in battle.
  • E) equal in status to the yanas.

89
And the answer is
  • A) drawn from 10 royal ayllus and the city of
    Cuzco.

90
  • Which of the following represents a cultural
    difference between the Incas and Aztecs?
  • A) monumental architecture
  • B) no practical use of the wheel
  • C) lack of a writing system
  • D) beautiful pottery and cloth
  • E) relative isolation

91
And the answer is
  • C) lack of a writing system

92
  • In terms of the integration of a centralized
    empire, how did the Incas and Aztecs compare?
  • A) The Aztecs and Incas both made little attempt
    to integrate conquered territories and permitted
    self-rule in return for loyalty and tribute.
  • B) The Aztecs were more advanced than the Incas
    in consolidating their government into an
    integrated unit.
  • C) The Incas attempted to create an over-arching
    political state and made conscious attempts to
    integrate their empire as a unit, while the
    Aztecs did less in this regard.
  • D) Both the Incas and the Aztecs created fully
    integrated empires complete with central
    bureaucracies and military administrative units
    that controlled all conquered regions.
  • E) To create the empire both allowed little
    variation from region to region

93
And the answer is
  • C) The Incas attempted to create an over-arching
    political state and made conscious attempts to
    integrate their empire as a unit, while the
    Aztecs did less in this regard.

94
  • Which of the following represents a significant
    difference between the Andean and Mesoamerican
    civilizations?
  • A) climate and geography
  • B) kin-based social groups
  • C) sedentary agricultural systems
  • D) the existence of a nobility
  • E) tribute systems

95
And the answer is
  • A) climate and geography

96
  • ) Which of the following statements about the
    population of the Americas is most true?
  • A) The population of the Americas is easy to
    calculate.
  • B) North America was more densely populated than
    Mesoamerica or the Andes.
  • C) The population of the Americas was nearly the
    same as that of contemporary Europe (not
    including Russia).
  • D) The early twentieth-century estimate of 8.4
    million still seems the most accurate.
  • E) most estimates are approximately the same

97
And the answer is
  • C) The population of the Americas was nearly the
    same as that of contemporary Europe (not
    including Russia).

98
  • By 1800, agriculture was
  • A) largely diffused throughout the Americas,
    although not always in sedentary agricultural
    communities.
  • B) virtually unknown outside of the Andean and
    Mesoamerican civilization zones.
  • C) practiced in sedentary communities throughout
    the Americas.
  • D) practiced in sedentary communities and by
    nomadic pastoralists throughout the Americas.
  • E) practiced sparingly outside Mesoamerica.

99
And the answer is
  • A) largely diffused throughout the Americas,
    although not always in sedentary agricultural
    communities.

100
  • Which of the following does NOT represent a
    characteristic of most Indian societies other
    than the Andean and Mesoamerican civilizations?
  • A) strongly kin-based societies
  • B) wealth as the basis of social ranking
  • C) communal action and ownership of resources
  • D) important social and political roles for women
  • E) highly urbanized populations

101
And the answer is
  • B) wealth as the basis of social ranking

102
  • The period of political disorder and chaotic
    warfare that followed the Qin-Han era is referred
    to as the
  • A) Warring States era.
  • B) Era of Division.
  • C) Jurchen invasion era.
  • D) Mongol Conquest.
  • E) Time of Troubles

103
And the answer is
  • B) Era of Division.

104
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    situation at the end of the Qin-Han period is
    most accurate?
  • A) Aristocratic families rapidly lost ground to
    the growing influence of the scholar-gentry.
  • B) Non-Chinese nomads ruled much of China and a
    foreign religion, Buddhism, eclipsed Confucian
    teachings.
  • C) The central authority of the imperial
    government was rapidly reestablished under the
    Chou dynasty.
  • D) Despite the disappearance of imperial unity,
    the centralized bureaucracy continued to function
    as before in the capital of Beijing.
  • E) Patterns of life established during the
    Qin-Han era faded rapidly.

105
And the answer is
  • B) Non-Chinese nomads ruled much of China and a
    foreign religion, Buddhism, eclipsed Confucian
    teachings.

106
  • The dynasty that ended the period of political
    chaos after the fall of the Qin-Han was the
  • A) Tang.
  • B) Chou.
  • C) Song.
  • D) Sui.
  • E) Qing.

107
And the answer is
  • D) Sui.

108
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    period after the fall of the Han is NOT true?
  • A) Despite the political chaos, the Great Wall
    continued to serve as a barrier to the
    penetration of nomadic peoples.
  • B) Trade and city life declined as the central
    government dissipated.
  • C) With mainly Buddhist exceptions, thought
    degenerated into the quest for magical cures.
  • D) Nomadic peoples raided and conquered across
    the north China plain.
  • E) Chinese technology stagnated during this time.

109
And the answer is
  • A) Despite the political chaos, the Great Wall
    continued to serve as a barrier to the
    penetration of nomadic peoples.

110
  • What made possible the rapid revival of empire
    under the Tang?
  • A) the abandonment of Confucianism in favor of
    the more widely practiced Buddhism
  • B) the brevity of the period of political
    dislocation
  • C) the willingness of the Tang to abandon
    traditional approaches to government
  • D) the preservation in the many kingdoms of the
    Confucian traditions that had been central to
    Chinese civilization
  • E) massive grain imports

111
And the answer is
  • D) the preservation in the many kingdoms of the
    Confucian traditions that had been central to
    Chinese civilization

112
  • The man responsible for the creation of the Sui
    dynasty was
  • A) Xuanzong.
  • B) Yang Guifei.
  • C) Wendi.
  • D) Li Yuan.
  • E) Li Bo.

113
And the answer is
  • C) Wendi.

114
  • What made the reunification of China under the
    first Sui emperor possible?
  • A) the support of the nomadic warrior elite
  • B) the support of the ethnic Chinese aristocracy
  • C) the support of the Buddhist monasteries
  • D) the support of the Confucian scholar-gentry
  • E) the threat of barbarian invasion

115
And the answer is
  • A) the support of the nomadic warrior elite

116
  • What was the primary reform enacted during the
    reign of the first Sui emperor?
  • A) the reconstruction of the Confucian
    scholar-gentry
  • B) persecution of the Buddhists
  • C) the creation of granaries to relieve the
    threat of famine
  • D) the construction of the Grand Canal
  • E) the destruction of the Great Wall

117
And the answer is
  • C) the creation of granaries to relieve the
    threat of famine

118
  • Unlike his father, the second Sui emperor
    favored
  • A) the Confucian scholar-gentry.
  • B) the great Chinese aristocratic families.
  • C) the Buddhists.
  • D) nomadic elements in northern China.
  • E) the Chinese peasants.

119
And the answer is
  • A) the Confucian scholar-gentry.

120
  • What led to the downfall of the Sui dynasty?
  • A) nomadic invasions
  • B) excessive expenses associated with grandiose
    building projects and military campaigns
  • C) widespread Buddhist rebellion
  • D) the dissatisfaction of the Confucian
    scholar-gentry
  • E) a deranged emperor

121
And the answer is
  • B) excessive expenses associated with grandiose
    building projects and military campaigns

122
  • Who was the founder of the Tang dynasty?
  • A) Yangdi
  • B) Li Bo
  • C) Li Yuan
  • D) Zhao Kuangyin
  • E) Niu Su
  • Answer C

123
And the answer is
  • C) Li Yuan

124
  • ) Which of the following statements concerning
    the extent of the Tang empire is most accurate?
  • A) The Tang extended the empire in all directions
    except westward, where the Turks remained
    entirely independent of the Chinese emperor.
  • B) The Tang empire was unable to recover the
    territorial extent of the Han, but did recover
    northern areas from the nomads.
  • C) The Tang empire incorporated India and
    southeast Asia as well as the areas north of the
    Yellow River plain.
  • D) The Tang built an empire that was far larger
    than that of the early Han, an empire whose
    boundaries in many directions extended beyond the
    borders of modern China.
  • E) The Tang empire stopped expanding and was
    divided into three parts.

125
And the answer is
  • D) The Tang built an empire that was far larger
    than that of the early Han, an empire whose
    boundaries in many directions extended beyond the
    borders of modern China.

126
  • What was the attitude of the Tang emperors toward
    the Confucian scholar-gentry?
  • A) The Tang continued to support and patronize
    the growth of Buddhism in China at the expense of
    the Confucian scholar-gentry.
  • B) The Tang supported the resuscitation of the
    Confucian scholar-gentry, often at the expense of
    the aristocracy.
  • C) The Tang feared the development of the
    scholar-gentry and continued to support the
    nomadic aristocracy of China.
  • D) Confucianism continued to wane during the Tang
    dynasty and was only resuscitated under the Song.
  • E) The scholar-gentry declined while the middle
    class rose.

127
And the answer is
  • B) The Tang supported the resuscitation of the
    Confucian scholar-gentry, often at the expense of
    the aristocracy.

128
  • What ministry of the central imperial government
    was responsible for the administration of the
    examination system?
  • A) Rites
  • B) Public Works
  • C) Justice
  • D) War
  • E) Education

129
And the answer is
  • A) Rites

130
  • The title of jinshi was reserved for those who
  • A) were members of the
  • B) served in the Chinese military.
  • C) were members of the imperial family.
  • D) passed the most difficult exams on all of
    Chinese literature.
  • E) traced their ancestry back to the Han.

131
And the answer is
  • D) passed the most difficult exams on all of
    Chinese literature.

132
  • Which of the following statements concerning
    entry into the Chinese bureaucracy is most
    accurate?
  • A) Although a higher percentage of candidates
    received office through the examination system
    than during the Han dynasty, birth continued to
    be important in securing high office.
  • B) Under the Tang family connections ceased to be
    of significance, as all candidates received
    office based on their score in the examination
    system.
  • C) Although the examination system continued to
    be monitored, almost all official received
    positions as a result of family connections.
  • D) The examination system was eliminated during
    the Tang dynasty, and only members of the
    imperial family served in the bureaucracy.
  • E) Only candidates in law were judged solely on
    their exam scores.

133
And the answer is
  • A) Although a higher percentage of candidates
    received office through the examination system
    than during the Han dynasty, birth continued to
    be important in securing high office.

134
  • Members of the elite class of China were more
    attracted to what variant of Buddhism?
  • A) Legalist
  • B) Pure Land
  • C) Chan
  • D) Daoist
  • E) Xuanzong
  • Answer C

135
And the answer is
  • C) Chan

136
  • Which of the following descriptions of Pure Land
    Buddhism is NOT accurate?
  • A) It was a strain of Mahayana Buddhism.
  • B) It stressed meditation and the appreciation of
    natural and artistic beauty.
  • C) It appealed to members of the mass of Chinese
    commoners.
  • D) It was a salvationist variant of Buddhism.
  • E) It offered a refuge from war and turmoil.

137
And the answer is
  • B) It stressed meditation and the appreciation of
    natural and artistic beauty.

138
  • What Tang ruler actually attempted to have
    Buddhism recognized as a state religion?
  • A) Yangdi
  • B) Wendi
  • C) Gaozu
  • D) Empress Wu
  • E) Empress Wei

139
And the answer is
  • D) Empress Wu

140
  • What proved to be the most damaging attack on
    Buddhisms popularity with the people during the
    early Tang dynasty?
  • A) the Buddhists insistence on rebellion against
    the emperor
  • B) the Confucians successful campaign to
    convince the emperor that the Buddhist monastic
    establishment represented an economic threat
  • C) the aristocracys concern that the growing
    Buddhist monastic establishment was monopolizing
    land that otherwise would belong to them
  • D) the entry of nomadic invaders who were Islamic
    during the ninth century
  • E) the challenge from Daoism

141
And the answer is
  • B) the Confucians successful campaign to
    convince the emperor that the Buddhist monastic
    establishment represented an economic threat

142
  • In what decade did open persecution of Buddhism
    within the Chinese empire begin?
  • A) 720s
  • B) 790s
  • C) 840s
  • D) 910s
  • E) 850s

143
And the answer is
  • C) 840s

144
  • What was the result of the imperial attempt to
    suppress Buddhism within the Chinese empire?
  • A) Despite official attempts to suppress
    Buddhism, monastic orders continued to exert
    political influence and control landed wealth as
    they did in the first decades of Tang rule.
  • B) Buddhism survived the brief imperial
    persecution and was restored as the primary
    religion of the state during the Song dynasty.
  • C) Buddhism survived the repression, but in a
    reduced state without the political influence of
    the early Tang years.
  • D) Buddhism was eradicated in China by the end of
    the Tang era and replaced by the traditional
    Daoist and Confucian beliefs.
  • E) Buddhism became a sect of minor importance

145
And the answer is
  • C) Buddhism survived the repression, but in a
    reduced state without the political influence of
    the early Tang years.

146
  • What was the impact on Confucianism of the Tang
    repression of the Buddhists?
  • A) Confucianism emerged as the central ideology
    of Chinese civilization until the twentieth
    century.
  • B) Confucianism emerged in a strengthened
    condition, but still remained behind Buddhism in
    the sense of providing a basis for the
    intellectual rationale of Chinese civilization.
  • C) Because Confucian scholar-gentry were
    associated with the persecution, Confucianism
    failed to generate much popular support outside
    the imperial government.
  • D) Confucianism, like Buddhism, declined in
    popularity, and its place was taken by Daoism.
  • E) Confucianism was blended with Buddhism to form
    a new philosophy.

147
And the answer is
  • A) Confucianism emerged as the central ideology
    of Chinese civilization until the twentieth
    century.

148
  • Which of the following was NOT a woman who gained
    influence and power during the later years of the
    Tang dynasty?
  • A) Wu
  • B) Wei
  • C) Yang Guifei
  • D) Xuanzong
  • E) Gaozu

149
And the answer is
  • D) Xuanzong

150
  • Which of the following was NOT a problem during
    the last years of the Tang dynasty?
  • A) the revolt of An Lushan
  • B) the entry of nomads into large areas of the
    northern China plain
  • C) the Huang-chao rebellion
  • D) a Buddhist rebellion in southern China
  • E) independent rulers collected their own taxes

151
And the answer is
  • D) a Buddhist rebellion in southern China

152
  • Who was the founder of the Song dynasty?
  • A) Zhao Kuangyin
  • B) Xuanzong
  • C) Li Bo, Duke of Song
  • D) Xi-Xia
  • E) Taizu

153
And the answer is
  • A) Zhao Kuangyin

154
  • The first Song emperor restored the unity of
    China EXCEPT for what northern dynasty?
  • A) Jurchen
  • B) Silla
  • C) Liao
  • D) Hangzhou
  • E) Jin

155
And the answer is
  • C) Liao

156
  • How did the Song empire compare to the Tang?
  • A) The Song empire was greater in territorial
    extent than the Tang empire.
  • B) The Song empire and the Tang empire were
    virtually identical in territorial extent.
  • C) The Song empire was smaller in territorial
    extent than the Tang empire.
  • D) Although approximately the same size, the Song
    empire extended farther north than the Tang.
  • E) The Song was larger than the Tang and Han.

157
And the answer is
  • C) The Song empire was smaller in territorial
    extent than the Tang empire.

158
  • What accounts for the relative weakness of the
    Song empire?
  • A) It never succeeded in achieving the degree of
    centralization that had typified the Tang
    empire.
  • B) The scholar-gentry quickly lost influence
    under the Song, and the bureaucracy ceased to
    function effectively.
  • C) Lack of agricultural productivity produced a
    general failure of the Chinese economy during the
    Song dynasty.
  • D) The military was subordinated to the civilian
    administrators of the scholar-gentry, leaving the
    dynasty vulnerable to nomadic dynasties on the
    frontier.
  • E) The military was weakened by the struggle with
    the Buddhists.

159
And the answer is
  • D) The military was subordinated to the civilian
    administrators of the scholar-gentry, leaving the
    dynasty vulnerable to nomadic dynasties on the
    frontier.

160
  • Which of the following statements most accurately
    describes the position of the scholar gentry
    under the Song dynasty?
  • A) The Confucian scholar-gentry continued to
    exist, but the examination system weakened
    noticeably causing the imperial bureaucracy to
    depend more and more on the aristocracy.
  • B) The ascendancy of the scholar-gentry over its
    aristocratic and Buddhist rivals was fully
    secured in the Song era.
  • C) The Song emperors came to rely increasingly on
    the military as defense of the borders placed
    less emphasis on the role of intellectual
    ideology and more on warfare.
  • D) The Song continued to rely on the Confucian
    scholar-gentry, but more rigorous examination
    systems resulted in fewer men entering the civil
    service as a result of education.
  • E) The scholar-gentry attempted to revive
    warlordism.

161
And the answer is
  • B) The ascendancy of the scholar-gentry over its
    aristocratic and Buddhist rivals was fully
    secured in the Song era.

162
  • Who was the most prominent of the Neo-Confucians
    during the Song era?
  • A) Li Bo
  • B) Yang Guifei
  • C) Hangzhou
  • D) Zhu Xi
  • E) Zhao

163
And the answer is
  • D) Zhu Xi

164
  • Which of the following was NOT an eventual impact
    of the development of Neo-Confucian schools of
    thought?
  • A) hostility to foreign philosophical systems
    like Buddhism
  • B) the stifling of innovation and critical
    thinking in favor of traditionalism
  • C) destruction of the mandarins
  • D) reinforcement of class, age, and gender
    distinctions
  • E) historical experiences held to be the most
    practical guide to life

165
And the answer is
  • C) destruction of the mandarins

166
  • Wang Anshi, a prime minister in the 1070s and
    1080s attempted to reform Song government on the
    basis of what Confucian school of thought?
  • A) Daoism
  • B) Shiism
  • C) Constructionism
  • D) Legalism
  • E) Zhao

167
And the answer is
  • D) Legalism

168
  • Which of the following was NOT one of the reforms
    introduced by Wang Anshin in the face of
    conservative opposition?
  • A) the introduction of government-assisted
    irrigation projects to encourage agricultural
    expansion
  • B) taxation of the landlord and scholarly classes
  • C) the establishment of well-trained mercenary
    forces
  • D) the end of tribute payments to nomadic
    dynasties on the northern border
  • E) reorganization of university education.

169
And the answer is
  • D) the end of tribute payments to nomadic
    dynasties on the northern border

170
  • What caused the flight of the Song dynasty from
    their capital in northern China?
  • A) the invasions of the Jurchens who had formed
    the Qin kingdom
  • B) the Huang-chao rebellion
  • C) a rebellion led by a nomadic general, An
    Lushan
  • D) extensive flooding in the Yellow River basin
  • E) attempted takeover by the Khitans
  • Answer A

171
And the answer is
  • A) the invasions of the Jurchens who had formed
    the Qin kingdom

172
  • Why was the construction of the Grand Canal
    necessary?
  • A) Major river systems in China ran from north to
    south, and the canal was necessary to connect the
    coastal regions with the western frontier.
  • B) Chinese population was increasingly
    concentrated along the northern plains along the
    Yangze River.
  • C) The Yangze River valley was becoming the major
    food-producing region of China by the late Tang
    era.
  • D) The canal connected the Tang capitals of
    southern ChinaChangan and Loyang with the newly
    acquired regions in the north.
  • E) Peasants moving from the countryside to the
    urban areas.

173
And the answer is
  • C) The Yangze River valley was becoming the major
    food-producing region of China by the late Tang
    era.

174
  • Which of the following was NOT an economic
    development during the period of commercial
    expansion during the Tang and Song dynasties?
  • A) trade increasingly carried by Chinese ships
    and sailors
  • B) enlarged market quarters found in all cities
    and major towns
  • C) growing sophistication in commercial
    organization and forms of credit
  • D) military domination of the seas
  • E) a series of technological breakthroughs

175
And the answer is
  • D) military domination of the seas

176
  • Which of the following statements concerning
    urbanization in China during the Tang-Song era is
    most accurate?
  • A) Chinese urbanization was pronounced in
    northern China, but lagged in southern China.
  • B) The imperial capitals were enormous, but there
    were few other Chinese cities of size.
  • C) The degree of urbanization reached during the
    Han dynasty was never achieved during the
    Tang-Song era, although some recovery of cities
    accompanied the commercial revival.
  • D) Chinese urbanization mushroomed during the
    Tang-Song era with a higher proportion of the
    population living in cities than that found in
    any other contemporary civilization.
  • E) Cities were depopulated as people moved back
    into the countryside.

177
And the answer is
  • D) Chinese urbanization mushroomed during the
    Tang-Song era with a higher proportion of the
    population living in cities than that found in
    any other contemporary civilization

178
  • What was the capital of the southern Song
    dynasty?
  • A) Hangzhou
  • B) Changan
  • C) Loyan
  • D) Beijing
  • E) Huining

179
And the answer is
  • A) Hangzhou

180
  • Which of the following was NOT a result of the
    agricultural policies of the Sui and Tang
    emperors?
  • A) numbers of free peasantry increased
  • B) the scholar-gentry were removed as landlords
  • C) fortunes of the old aristocratic families
    declined
  • D) lands were distributed more equitably to the
    free peasant households of the empire
  • E) the gentry side of the scholar-gentry came to
    dominate the bureaucracy

181
And the answer is
  • B) the scholar-gentry were removed as landlords

182
  • Which of the following statements about Chinese
    landscape painting is most accurate?
  • A) Landscape painting was virtually unknown until
    after the Mongol invasions.
  • B) As in the West, landscape painting was the
    special skill of the military elite.
  • C) Members of the ruling political elite in China
    produced many of the paintings in the Song era.
  • D) Song subsidies to foreign painters resulted in
    the production of magnificent landscapes.
  • E) Paintings never conveyed moral messages or
    used symbolism.

183
And the answer is
  • C) Members of the ruling political elite in China
    produced many of the paintings in the Song era.

184
  • In what way did footbinding serve to diminish the
    independence of Chinese women by the end of the
    Song era?
  • A) Because footbinding could only be afforded by
    the elite, poorer women were assigned to a lower
    social status.
  • B) Footbinding sufficiently crippled women to
    effectively confine their mobility to their
    household.
  • C) As footbinding was required in order to
    practice certain professions, Chinese women found
    that occupational alternatives were diminished.
  • D) Footbinding, although considered socially
    attractive, was condemned by Neo-Confucians who
    used the practice as a means of relegating
    Chinese women to subordinate roles.
  • E) Upper-class women considered it high status
    and hoarded money to pay for it.

185
And the answer is
  • B) Footbinding sufficiently crippled women to
    effectively confine their mobility to their
    household.

186
  • Which of the following was NOT a technological
    innovation of the Tang-Song era?
  • A) gunpowder
  • B) abacus
  • C) paper
  • D) complex bridges
  • E) coal used for fuel
  • Answer C

187
And the answer is
  • C) paper

188
  • Which of the following intellectual schools was
    responsible for the production of most
  • literary and artistic works during the Tang-Song
    era?
  • A) Confucian
  • B) Daoist
  • C) Pure Land Buddhist
  • D) Chan Buddhist
  • E) Legalist

189
And the answer is
  • A) Confucian

190
  • What group was responsible for the fall of the
    southern Song dynasty in 1279?
  • A) Jurchens
  • B) Tanguts
  • C) Liao
  • D) Mongols
  • E) Xi-Xia

191
And the answer is
  • D) Mongols

192
  • What was the primary difference between marriages
    of the upper and lower classes in Tang-Song
    China?
  • A) In the upper classes, males frequently married
    females of a younger generation.
  • B) Among members of the lower classes marriages
    tended to be consummated at an earlier age than
    among members of the elite.
  • C) Members of the elite often married before the
    age of puberty.
  • D) Households of the .lower classes tended not to
    be patriarchal.
  • E) Upper class men rarely married footbound
    women.

193
And the answer is
  • B) Among members of the lower classes marriages
    tended to be consummated at an earlier age than
    among members of the elite.

194
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    status of women in the Tang-Song era is most
    accurate?
  • A) Tang-Song law recognized no womens rights.
  • B) The condition of women in general improved
    during the Tang-Song era.
  • C) The assertion of male dominance within the
    family and beyond was especially pronounced in
    the thinking of the Neo-Confucian philosophers.
  • D) The spread of Buddhism provided women with
    greater opportunities and career alternatives
    within the monastic movement.
  • E) Women had more rights than ever before.

195
And the answer is
  • C) The assertion of male dominance within the
    family and beyond was especially pronounced in
    the thinking of the Neo-Confucian philosophers.

196
  • What artisan was responsible for the development
    of movable type?
  • A) Li Bo
  • B) Bi Sheng
  • C) Gaozu
  • D) Zhu Xi
  • E) An Lushan
  • Answer B

197
And the answer is
  • B) Bi Sheng

198
  • The outstanding poet of the Tang era was
  • A) Li Bo.
  • B) Bi Sheng.
  • C) Gaozu.
  • D) Zhu Xi.
  • E) Zhao Kuangyin

199
And the answer is
  • A) Li Bo

200
  • During the Song dynasty the interest of Confucian
    intellectuals in nature was most apparent in
    their production of
  • A) riddles.
  • B) devotional objects.
  • C) religious homilies.
  • D) landscape paintings.
  • E) sculptures of ideal athletic figures.

201
And the answer is
  • D) landscape paintings.

202
  • What regions of Asia were most drawn to Chinese
    cultural and political models?
  • A) the agrarian societies on the east and south
  • B) the nomadic societies on the north
  • C) Indianized peoples of Southeast Asia
  • D) the island societies of the Pacific rim
  • E) western Islamic provinces

203
And the answer is
  • A) the agrarian societies on the east and south

204
  • Which of the following was NOT one of the Asian
    satellites of Chinese civilization?
  • A) Korea
  • B) Vietnam
  • C) Thailand
  • D) Japan
  • E) Slia

205
And the answer is
  • C) Thailand

206
  • When did Japan begin to borrow heavily from
    Chinese culture?
  • A) third century B.C.E.
  • B) first century B.C.E.
  • C) second and third centuries C.E.
  • D) fifth and sixth centuries C.E.
  • E) sixth and seventh centuries C.E.

207
And the answer is
  • D) fifth and sixth centuries C.E.

208
  • What is the name of the nature spirits of Japan?
  • A) hapu
  • B) kami
  • C) hara-kiri
  • D) genji
  • E) Heian

209
And the answer is
  • B) kami

210
  • What religion played a key role in the
    transmission of Chinese civilization to Japan?
  • A) Buddhism
  • B) Daoism
  • C) Islam
  • D) Christianity
  • E) Hinduism

211
And the answer is
  • A) Buddhism

212
  • In which of the following periods was Chinese
    cultural influence NOT significant?
  • A) Taika
  • B) Nara
  • C) Heian
  • D) Tokugawa
  • E) Warlord

213
And the answer is
  • D) Tokugawa

214
  • What were the reforms enacted in 646 that
    intended to thoroughly incorporate Chinese
    culture and political structure into Japanese
    society?
  • A) Onin
  • B) Gempei
  • C) Taika
  • D) Yoritomo
  • E) Heian

215
And the answer is
  • C) Taika

216
  • What was the central purpose of the reforms of
    646 in Japan?
  • A) to remake the Japanese monarch into an
    absolutist Chinese-style emperor
  • B) to destroy the Confucian scholar-gentry in
    favor of a military aristocracy
  • C) to increase the power of the Buddhist monastic
    structure
  • D) the destruction of the traditional
    peasant-conscript army
  • E) to decentralize the imperial government

217
And the answer is
  • A) to remake the Japanese monarch into an
    absolutist Chinese-style emperor

218
  • What group so threatened the security of the
    Japanese imperial court in the eighth century
    that the imperial family moved to Heian?
  • A) the aristocracy
  • B) Buddhist monks
  • C) the peasantry
  • D) nomadic invaders from Manchuria
  • E) the scholar-gentry

219
And the answer is
  • B) Buddhist monks

220
  • What was the immediate impact of the imperial
    move to Heian?
  • A) Buddhism ceased to playa major role in
    Japanese society.
  • B) The scholar-gentry was able to assert itself
    through the states acceptance of a formal
    examination system modeled on the Chinese
    bureaucracy.
  • C) The aristocracy was restored to counterbalance
    the power of the Buddhist monasteries and took
    over most of the positions in the central
    government.
  • D) Shintoism was formally suppressed following
    the marriage of the Empress Koken to a former
    monk.
  • E) the aristocrats gave up positions in the
    central government.

221
And the answer is
  • C) The aristocracy was restored to counterbalance
    the power of the Buddhist monasteries and took
    over most of the positions in the central
    government.

222
  • What was the military organization of the Heian
    government in Japan?
  • A) The emperor formalized the creation of a
    peasant-conscript army on the model of the
    Chinese.
  • B) The emperor accepted the introduction of
    Chinese troops as the basis for the Japanese
    army.
  • C) Formal military organization was abandoned
    because of the security the emperor perceived
    following the defeat of a Chinese navy.
  • D) Local members of the aristocracy were ordered
    to organize militia forces that eventually played
    a critical role eroding the control of the
    imperial government.
  • E) Buddhist monasteries depended on the Bushi for
    protection.

223
And the answer is
  • D) Local members of the aristocracy were ordered
    to organize militia forces that eventually played
    a critical role eroding the control of the
    imperial government

224
  • Life in the imperial court at Heian was described
    in what Japanese novel?
  • A) Ashikage Analects
  • B) Tale of Genji
  • C) Mirror of Lady Murasaki
  • D) Romance of the Rose
  • E) Essential of Salvation

225
And the answer is
  • B) Tale of Genji

226
  • What appears to have been the primary concerns at
    the imperial Japanese court at Heian?
  • A) military exercise
  • B) science and technology
  • C) social conventions and original verse
  • D) commerce
  • E) interpreting laws

227
And the answer is
  • C) social conventions and original verse

228
  • By the middle of the ninth century, what
    aristocratic family exerted exceptional influence
    over imperial affairs at the Japanese court at
    Heian?
  • A) Minamoto
  • B) Fujiwara
  • C) Taira
  • D) Yoritomo
  • E) Genshin

229
And the answer is
  • B) Fujiwara

230
  • Warrior leaders in the tenth century in Japan who
    controlled provincial areas and ruled from small
    fortresses in the countryside were called
  • A) bushi.
  • B) samurai.
  • C) kata.
  • D) seppuku.
  • E) Gimpei.

231
And the answer is
  • A) bushi.

232
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    rise of a provincial military elite during the
    tenth century in Japan is NOT correct?
  • A) Provincial elite families often arose from
    local landowners, estate managers, or local state
    officials.
  • B) The provincial elite came to control land and
    labor locally and to deny these resources to the
    imperial court.
  • C) The rise of the provincial elite corresponded
    to the recovery of the imperial government and
    its overthrow of the aristocracy of the court.
  • D) Within their little kingdoms, warrior leaders
    administered law, supervised public works
    projects, and collected revenue.
  • E) Peasant dependants supplied the elites with
    food and other necessities.

233
And the answer is
  • C) The rise of the provincial elite corresponded
    to the recovery of the imperial government and
    its overthrow of the aristocracy of the court.

234
  • Mounted troops owing loyalty to the military
    elite were called
  • A) bushi.
  • B) samurai.
  • C) kata.
  • D) Yoritomo.
  • E) Bakufu.

235
An
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