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Enlightenment and the American Revolution

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Title: Enlightenment and the American Revolution Author: Beth Bradley Last modified by: HSROOM Created Date: 10/3/2004 10:43:40 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Enlightenment and the American Revolution


1
Enlightenment and the American Revolution
  • World History

2
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
  • How does the Scientific Revolution challenge the
    THEOCRACIES and ABSOLUTE MONARCHIES of the 1700s?

3
Philosophes Apply the Scientific Revolution to
Society to solve problems 1700-1800s
The enlightenment
The enlightenment
4
Philosophes Apply the Scientific Revolution in
1700-1800s
Time of illumination
Time of illumination
5
Denis Diderot
6
Essential Question
  • Why would an Encyclopedia be revolutionary during
    the Enlightenment?

7
Philosophe, Thomas Hobbes
8
Philosophe, john locke
9
Philosophe, john locke
  • Rulers are NOT absolute in power and must remain
    bound to laws of reason and nature
  • Should protect peoples natural rights
  • Humans have free will
  • Idea of divine right and kings is NONSENSE!!!
  • Citizens have the right to overthrow the ruler if
    the ruler does not represent the people
  • Sovereignty
  • Ideas of modern democracy

10
Philosophe, Baron de Montesquieu
Montesquieu
Baron
de
Its NATURAL for rulers with ABSOLUTE POWER to
use power in corrupt manner therefore we must
11
Philosophe, Baron de Montesquieu
  • spread power evenly over three branches of
    government ensures freedom, liberty, no
    corruption
  • SEPARATION OF POWERS (Checks Balances)
  • Legislative Made laws (Congress)
  • Executive Administered laws (Pres.)
  • Judicial Interpreted and applied laws (Supreme
    Federal Courts.)

12
Philosophe, jean jacques rousseau believed that
people are
13
Philosophe, jean jacques rousseau
  • He believed the best government used POPULAR
    SOVEREIGNTY or a vote by all of the people
  • General Will OR Common Good
  • A Social Contract is necessary.
  • MAJORITY RULES

DEMOCRACY
14
Philosophe, Voltaire
  • Used public opinion to fight injustice
  • I do not agree with a word
  • you say, but I will fight to the
  • death for your right to say it.
  • Believed the perfect government needed freedom of
    speech and of religion.

15
Assignment applying Enlightenment Thinkers
  • Create an Encyclopedia Cover, authored by Diderot
    using each last name as a piece of word art to
    symbolize each philosophes belief of human
    nature government
  • Voltaire
  • Hobbes
  • Locke
  • Montesquieu
  • Rousseau
  • Or Write a Poem titled Ode to Reason
    reflecting the human nature government
    expressions of
  • Diderot
  • Voltaire
  • Hobbes
  • Locke
  • Montisquieu
  • Rousseau

16
Enlightenment Ideas Spread 1775-1783
  • The right to unalienable rights and the right to
    representation

17
Enlightenment Ideas Spread 1775-1783 Background
  • Background
  • Opportunity in coloniescheap, land, social
    advancements, new identity
  • British needed to pay for the French and Indian
    War (Britain v. France over power in North
    America and Caribbean) taxed colonies

18
Causes of the American Revolution
  • Great upheavals in history occur when
    circumstances are ripe.

19
Causes of the American Revolution
  • Great upheavals in history occur when
    circumstances are ripe.

20
Assignment Causes of the American Revolution
  • Mission
  • Analyze the political cartoon Causes of the
    American Revolution
  • Identify the symbols that outline the causes of
    the war
  • Use your textbook (pages 182-184) to create a
    detailed timeline explaining the causes of the
    American Revolution
  • Major Topics
  • French and Indian War
  • 1754-1763
  • Trade Laws 1764
  • Stamp Act 1765
  • Townshend Act 1767
  • Boston Massacre 1770
  • Boston Tea Party 1773
  • Intolerable Act 1774

21
Causes of the American Revolution
  1. French and Indian War
  2. Taxes on Colonies
  3. Stamp Act 1767 Stamps on newspapers, public
    documents, legal papers (help pay war debt)
  4. Townsend Act 1767 Tax on glass, paints, tea
  5. Boston Massacre 1770 Merchants in Boston called
    for a boycott of British goodsBritish sent
    troops to keep ordershots fired, kill 5
    peoplerepealed most taxes except that on TEA

22
Causes of the American Revolution
23
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24
Causes of the American Revolution
  • 3. Colonists React to British
  • Public Assembly led to Boston Massacre
  • Civil Disobedience Sons of Liberty (Samuel
    Adams Paul Revere) protest by dumping tea into
    harborBoston Tea Party 1773
  • Representation 1st Continental Congress 1774
    (Philadelphia), list of grievances
  • NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENATION

25
Causes of the American Revolution
  • 4. British Counters Opposition
  • Intolerable Acts -limited rights of colonists
    even more after Boston Tea Party (Boston port
    closed, British troops cant be punished, British
    Governor in charge, no rights!)
  • Lexington and Concord 1775British troops leave
    Boston in search for hidden weapons, meet
    militiamen in Lexington and Concord
  • 5. Declaration of Independence
  • 2nd Continental Congress 1776 July 4, 1776
  • Thomas Jefferson wrote using Locke and Rousseau
    and English Bill of Rights

26
Causes of the American Revolution Review
  • French Indian War Britain Needs ? Blame
    Colonies for Cost SO.
  • TAX THE COLONIES
  • ?
  • Stamp Act Townsend Act
  • ?
  • Boston Massacre
  • ?
  • Boston Tea Party
  • ?
  • Intolerable Act
  • ?
  • REVOLT (build up weapons ? Britain send more
    troops)
  • Great upheavals in history occur when
    circumstances are ripe.
  • Lexington and Concord 1775 Shots Heard Around
    the World

27
Critical Thinking
  • Why were the first shots of the American
    revolution considered the Shots heard around the
    world?
  • Write a critical response using your current
    knowledge.
  • THINK!!!!

28
Declaring Independence
  • THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
  • 2nd Continental Congress 1776 July 4, 1776
  • Thomas Jefferson wrote using Enlightenment
    thought
  • Its a brave new world in America!
  • Out with monarchy and in with democracy!
  • Rights of individuals!
  • Government must answer to the people!

29
Declaration of Independence
  • Drafted by Thomas Jefferson
  • People had the right to alter or abolish unjust
    governments.
  • Popular sovereignty
  • All government power comes from the people
  • King had trampled the peoples natural rights.
  • Colonists now had the right to rebel

30
Application Activity
  • As we have alluded to the Enlightenment ideas of
    democracy impacted the American revolution and
    the founding of our nation. It is now your job to
    make the proper connections.
  • Work with a partner near you.
  • Read the excerpts from the Declaration of
    Independence
  • Highlight, Define, Visualize, Clarify, Predict
  • Write the ideas in everyday words ? make it
    simple to understand
  • Match the proper Enlightenment philosophe(s) with
    the idea(s) expressed in the excerpt

31
Articles of Confederation 1781
  • Created National Government with little power
    because they didnt want to create a mini-me
    Britain
  • Could not tax
  • Could not navigate with foreign nations
  • It failedSO
  • United States Constitution 1789

32
The Constitution page 186-187
  • Used ideas of Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau and
    Voltaire
  • Created a Representative Democracy (REPUBLIC)
  • Government in which power is divided between the
    national (or federal government) and the states
  • Separation of powers (3 branches)
  • Citizens VOTE
  • Bill of Rights added later Amendments 1-10
  • Federalist Papers Writing campaign to convince
    American citizens to ratify the new Constitution
  • First President George Washington.
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