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Chapter 14: A New Spirit of Change Section 1: The Hopes of Immigrants Section 3: Reforming American Society

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Title: Chapter 14: A New Spirit of Change Section 1: The Hopes of Immigrants Section 3: Reforming American Society Author: CUSD220 Last modified by – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 14: A New Spirit of Change Section 1: The Hopes of Immigrants Section 3: Reforming American Society


1
Chapter 14 A New Spirit of ChangeSection 1
The Hopes of Immigrants Section 3 Reforming
American Society
F
2
Around the 1850s a lot of immigrants began
coming to America
  • An immigrant is someone who comes into a
    country.
  • An emigrant (7) is someone who leaves a country.

F
3
Coming to America was much different 150 years
ago.
  • At that time, about 2/3 of all immigrants came
    from Europe.
  • They probably came over on a ship with the
    cheapest passage possible.
  • Conditions were filthy and people were often sick
    on the way over here.
  • When they got here, many did the Ellis Island
    thing

F
4
There are push-pull factors for moving (8-16)
  • Europe had started to become too crowded.
  • Many European farmers were forced off their
    lands. They needed a new place to live and
    America had places they might be able to continue
    to farm.
  • Some countries had crop failures and famines
    people came here rather than starve (The Irish
    Potato Famine).
  • The Industrial Revolution meant people had to
    look for jobs in factories and there were more
    of those jobs in the U.S.
  • Many people left Europe for religious and even
    political reasons.
  • Freedom people in the United States could be /
    do anything they wanted.
  • There were better economic opportunities in the
    United States.
  • There were millions of acres of open and
    unclaimed land just waiting for the opportunity
    to be settled.

F
5
One of the large immigrant groupsThe
Scandinavians
  • They liked that America had a lot of land.
  • They moved to places here that were very much
    like their homeland farming areas with lakes,
    forests, and colder weather (Minnesota and
    Wisconsin)

F
6
Another 1800s immigrant group The Germans
  • Liked Wisconsin they could farm and grow oats
    and grains (beer?) (and for a while the Catholic
    Bishop in Milwaukee was a German).
  • Many also settled in Texas.
  • Many also became bakers, butchers, carpenters,
    printers, shoemakers, and tailors.

F
7
The largest 1800s immigrant group The Irish
  • Most were Catholic.
  • At that time Britain ruled Ireland and gave the
    Irish no rights they couldnt vote, own land,
    or go to school, so some came to get away from
    that.
  • But in 1845 a disease attacked the Irish potato
    crop and destroyed much of the Irish food supply.
    Over 1 million Irish starved to death and almost
    2 million more left and came to America.

F
8
The Irish
  • In America they stayed in the cities they sailed
    to they had no money to move anywhere else.
  • By 1850 they were ¼ of the populations of Boston,
    New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.
  • They were mostly uneducated with few skills and
    little training.
  • They had to take the worst jobs.
  • Irish immigrants often were not wanted in
    America. Ads for employment often were followed
    by "NO IRISH NEED APPLY."
  • Immigration laws

F
9
With all these immigrants cities became VERY
crowded especially east coast cities.
  • Many cities doubled in size every 5-10 years.
  • There often wasnt enough housing and many
    immigrants would have to share the same
    apartments because of money too).
  • It was also a time without modern plumbing,
    sewer, and water systems, garbage pickup, police
    and fire departments, and had overall poor
    general sanitation

F
10
NYC - 1849
F
11
Wall Street - 1850
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12
NYC 1850 Tenement
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13
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14
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15
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16
There have always been people who are prejudiced
(22/27)
  • A negative opinion that is not based on facts.
  • Some people felt these immigrants would never
    learn American ways.
  • Some felt they might take over.
  • Some felt all the Catholics might somehow
    overthrow our countrys ideals of democracy.

F
17
These people who felt they needed to eliminate
foreigners were called nativists
  • People who believed they were way better than
    immigrants

F
18
Of course, the only group that is really native
to America
F
19
In the early 1800s Americans began to believe
they could try and make their lives better
  • There were several different ways they thought
  • people could improve their lives.

F
20
Temperance (38/42) Societies(not drinking
alcohol)
  • People drank a lot of alcohol in the early
    1800s.
  • Some workers (men) spent too much money on
    getting drunk and their wives got upset.
  • Many women joined the temperance movement.
  • They were also supported by business owners who
    wanted their workers at work (not hung over and
    not drunk).

F
21
  • Organized group that protects and watches out for
    workers
  • Workers Rights
  • Labor unions (44/47) began to form and they
    demanded better working conditions.
  • Theyd even go on strike if they needed to for
    shorter working hours, higher wages, and better
    working conditions.
  • In 1840, President Van Buren even passed a law
    government employees were limited to 10 hour
    working days.

F
22
Improving Education
  • Better schools started in the 1830s.
  • Blame Horace Mann (48) the first person put in
    charge of schools.
  • Boston 1821 1st public high school.
  • Churches and private groups began to open up a
    lot of private colleges.

F
23
But
  • Women usually couldnt go to college.
  • Elizabeth Blackwell (52) 1st woman with a
    medical degree 1849.
  • African-Americans
  • In the south illegal to teach slaves after the
    Nat Turner rebellion.
  • In the north they usually were not allowed.
  • Later on after the civil War (1865) more
    Black colleges / universities opened in the South

F
24
Caring for the needy
  • Dorothea Dix (54) did a lot to help both women
    and women/people in jail.
  • In those days the mentally ill were put in jail
    and all the jails were horrible.
  • Theyd put criminals, mentally ill, and even
    children all in the same cells.
  • They also started looking at the possibility of
    rehabilitating prisoners.
  • Another was helping the blind and/or deaf like
    Thomas Gallaudet (56) whos school is still the
    best school in the country for the deaf

F
25
Newspapers were really starting to grow and
then everyone could know what was going on and be
better informed.
  • Papers only cost a penny and people could hear
    all the up to date news.
  • More magazines started to be published even
    special interest magazines (Ladies Magazine /
    Godeys Ladys Book)

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