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UNIT 5 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON (1789-1815) CHAPTER 23

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Title: UNIT 5 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON (1789-1815) CHAPTER 23


1
UNIT 5 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON
(1789-1815) CHAPTER 23
2
PART 1 REGENTS NOTES
3
CAUSES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • Under the Old Regime in France, the burden of
    taxation fell mostly on the commoners making it
    highly unequal
  • Before the Revolution, the people of France were
    divided into Three Estates based on social class
  • Many people felt the monarchy and government were
    denying basic human rights and failed to meet the
    needs of the people
  • The French Revolution challenged the power of the
    monarch
  • The bourgeoisie (educated middle class) resented
    their lack of political power under the Old
    Regime hey made up a large part of the Third
    Estate

4
OLD REGIME
5
EFFECTS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • It was a turning point in global history because
    it inspired other nations to seek democracy and
    independence
  • Power shifted to the bourgeoisie, so the middle
    class gained influence
  • After Napoleons downfall in 1815, nationalistic
    feelings were stimulated in Europe and Latin
    America
  • The Revolution allowed radical political groups
    like the Jacobins to come to power

6
REIGN OF TERROR
  • French dictator Robespierre took power after
    Louis XVI was abdicated (taken out of power)
  • He ushered in the Reign of Terror
  • Anyone perceived to be an enemy would be executed
    by the guillotine
  • He executed members of every class in France

7
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
  • One major effect of his rule was that he restored
    political stability
  • The French people supported him because they
    hoped he would provide stability for the nation
  • He failed to expand his empire into Russia
    because of the countrys size and climate (cold,
    harsh weather)

8
CONGRESS OF VIENNA
  • In 1815, this organization of European nations
    wanted to restore old monarchies and regimes to
    power
  • The Congress established a balance of power in
    Europe after the defeat of Napoleon

9
PART 2 CHAPTER 23 NOTES
10
THE OLD ORDER
  • Old Regimesocial and political system in France
    during the 1770s
  • Estatesthree social classes of Frances Old
    Regime
  • First Estate - Catholic clergyown 10 percent
    land, pay few taxes
  • Second Estate - rich nobles2 percent population,
    own 20 percent land
  • The Third Estate - 97 percent of people are
    peasants, urban workers, middle class, have few
    privileges, pay almost all of the taxes, want
    change

11
FRENCH NUNS (CATHOLIC CHURCH)
12
FRENCH PEASANTS
13
THE FORCES OF CHANGE
  • Bourgeoisie middle class group who embraced
    Enlightenment idea
  • High taxes and rising costs damage economy by
    1780s
  • King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette
    known for extravagance Louis doubles nations
    debt
  • He calls Estates-General on May 5, 1789 - meeting
    of representatives from all three estates to
    approve a new tax he wanted to impose on the
    Second Estate
  • First time Estates-General met in 175 years

14
ESTATES-GENERAL
15
BOURGEOISIE (MIDDLE CLASS)
16
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  • June 17, 1789
  • Delegates, who represented the Third Estate,
    proclaimed the end of absolute monarchy and the
    beginning of a representative government
  • Tennis Court Oathdelegates decide to write new
    constitution for France

17
BASTILLE DAY
  • July 14, 1789
  • Rumors spread in Paris that Louis was going to
    use military force to suppress the National
    Assembly
  • Mob attacks and seizes the Bastille (French
    prison) they killed guards in an effort to steal
    gunpowder to defend Paris
  • Event known as Storming the Bastille
  • Symbolic act of the revolution national holiday

18
STORMING THE BASTILLE
19
GREAT FEAR
  • Rumors and panic spread throughout France
  • Attacks by peasants taking place across France
  • Peasants destroy legal papers binding them to
    feudal system
  • In October 1789, Parisian women revolt over
    rising price of bread
  • They demand action, forcing Louis to return from
    Versailles to Paris

20
DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN
  • National Assembly adopts Declaration of the
    Rights of Man and of the Citizen
  • Revolutionary leaders use the slogan, Liberty,
    Equality, Fraternity
  • The document stated that men are born and remain
    free and equal in rights
  • Document guaranteed freedom of speech and
    religion

21
DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN
22
CHANGES IN THE CHURCH
  • National Assembly seizes church lands and turns
    clergy into public officials
  • This caused the new government to lose the
    support of peasants

23
NEW GOVERNMENT
  • In September 1791, Assembly finishes new
    constitution
  • Legislative Assemblynew body created to pass
    laws
  • Major problems, including debt, food shortages
    remain
  • Assembly split into Radicals, Moderates,
    Conservatives

24
JACOBINS
  • Jacobins - radical political organization behind
    1792 governmental changes
  • Louis XVI is found guilty of treason and beheaded
  • Guillotinemachine designed during the Revolution
    to behead people

25
LOUIS XVI IS EXECUTED
26
ROBESPIERRE
  • Maximilien RobespierreJacobin leader rules
    France for a year in 1793
  • Becomes leader of the Committee for Public Safety
    and a dictator
  • The Committee for Public Safety imposed his
    Reign of Terror

27
REIGN OF TERROR
  • Robespierres rule, which includes killing many
    opponents
  • Thousands die during the Terror, including former
    allies and Marie Antoinette
  • 85 percent of those who die during the Terror are
    middle or lower class but no one was safe from
    the guillotine
  • In July 1794, Robespierre arrested, executed by
    his fellow revolutionaries
  • Two-house legislature and five-man Directory
    restore order and lead the new government

28
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
  • He was a military genius who seizes power in
    France and made himself emperor
  • In 1795, Napoleon defeats royalist rebels
    attacking National Convention and was declared a
    military hero
  • Napoleon wins stunning victories in Italy,
    gaining popularity
  • In November 1799, he carries out a coup détat
    (seizure of power) and overthrows the Directory

29
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
30
NAPOLEON RULES FRANCE
  • In 1800, a new constitution is approved through a
    plebiscite (vote of the people)
  • To fix economy, he sets up national banking
    system, efficient tax collection, and a fairer
    tax code
  • Establishes government-run public schools to
    train officials
  • Signs concordatagreementwith pope restoring
    Catholicism in France
  • Creates Napoleonic Codeuniform system of laws
  • Napoleon did not expand freedom of speech for the
    French
  • In December 1804, Napoleon crowns himself emperor
    of France

31
NAPOLEONIC CODE
32
NAPOLEON CREATES AN EMPIRE
  • Sells the Louisiana Territory to United States
    for 15 million in 1803 to raise money, cut his
    losses in America, and to increase Americas
    power as a British rival
  • Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden join forces
    against Napoleon
  • Napoleon conquers a large portion of Europe by
    crushing enemy forces in several brilliant
    battles
  • Napoleon forces Austria, Russia, Sweden to sign
    peace treaties

33
NAPOLEONS EMPIRE (1810)
34
NAPOLEONS EMPIRE (1812)
35
THE BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR
  • In 1805, British win Battle of Trafalgar which
    ensures British naval superiority
  • Using a brilliant and bold maneuver, British
    Admiral Horatio Nelson split up the French fleet
    into smaller groups and then attacked them
  • This defeat forces Napoleon to give up his plan
    to invade Britain

36
NAPOLEON RIDES INTO BATTLE
37
THE CONTINENTAL SYSTEM
  • Napoleon strikes Britain through blockade (forced
    closing of ports)
  • Continental System - economic plan to strengthen
    Europe, weaken Britain
  • Smugglers and uncooperative allies make Frances
    blockade fail
  • Britain responds with blockade of its own, led by
    its stronger navy

38
THE PENINSULAR WAR
  • In 1808, Napoleon sends troops across Spain to
    attack Portugal in an effort to enforce his
    Continental System
  • Napoleon makes his brother king of Spain, making
    things worse
  • Spanish fight as guerrillas (small groups that
    attacked and then fled into hiding)
  • British aid Spanish guerrillas
  • Napoleon loses 300,000 soldiers during this war
  • Nationalist rebels fight the French in other
    conquered territories

39
THE PENINSULAR WAR
40
THE INVASION OF RUSSIA
  • Relations with Russia break down so Napoleon
    decides to invade
  • In June 1812, Napoleons Grand Army marches into
    Russia with 420,000 men
  • Czar Alexander I used a scorched-earth policy
    (destroying crops and livestock) so French would
    starve
  • Russians retreat from Moscow after being defeated
    at Battle of Borodino
  • Napoleons forces move on to Moscow Alexander
    burned the city rather than surrender it to the
    French
  • Napoleon eventually retreated after losing
    thousands of soldiers to Russian raiders,
    starvation, and cold weather

41
NAPOLEON RETREATS FROM MOSCOW, RUSSIA
42
CZAR ALEXANDER I
43
NAPOLEONS DOWNFALL
  • Britain, Prussia, Sweden, Russia, Austria join
    forces against Napoleon
  • Napoleon raises another army, but meets quick
    defeat by allied powers
  • April 1814 - Napoleon finally surrenders and is
    exiled to island of Elba

44
THE HUNDRED DAYS
  • Louis XVIII, new king, is soon overthrown and
    Napoleon returns from exile
  • Battle of Waterloo - British and Prussian forces
    led by the Duke of Wellington defeat Napoleons
    army in June 1815
  • This defeat ends the Hundred Days which was
    Napoleons last attempt at power
  • British send Napoleon to the island of St. Helena
    where he eventually died in 1821
  • Freed European countries began to establish a new
    order

45
BATTLE OF WATERLOO
46
BATTLE OF WATERLOO
47
DUKE OF WELLINGTON
48
NAPOLEON IS EXILED
49
CONGRESS OF VIENNA
  • Series of meetings that reshape Europe during the
    winter of 1814-1815
  • Klemens von Metternich - foreign minister of
    Austria who was an influential leader at Congress
  • He wanted to restore a balance of power so that
    no one country would be a threat to others
  • Main goal establish security and stability for
    the nations of Europe
  • Important effect nationalistic feelings grew in
    countries that were placed under foreign rule
    (ex Latin American countries)

50
CONGRESS OF VIENNA
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