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Politics in The Gilded Age

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Politics in The Gilded Age 1869-1889 By: Anthony Abreu and Emily December The Bloody Shirt Elects Grant A. People believed good general would become a good ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Politics in The Gilded Age


1
Politics in The Gilded Age
  • 1869-1889
  • By Anthony Abreu and Emily December

2
The Bloody Shirt Elects Grant
  • A. People believed good general would become a
    good president.
  • 1. Ulysses S. Grant was the most popular hero to
    emerge from the Civil War
  • A. Greenhorn? almost no political experience
  • 2. Republicans nominated Grant for presidency in
    1868
  • A. Republicans supported Grant by waving the
    bloody shirt" (reviving memories of the Civil
    War).
  • 3. Grant won the 1868 Election
  • A. received 214 electoral votes and 3,013,421
    in popular votes.

3
The Era of Good Stealings
  • A. A great deal sticks to the wrong fingers
  • 1. Corruption in politics and economics
  • B. Honest politicians, when bought, would stay
    bought
  • C. Financial World had a millionaire duo in
    Jubilee Jim Fisk and Jay Gould
  • 1. Devised a plan to corner the gold
    market in 1869
  • D. Failed because it depended on the Federal
    Treasury, refraining from selling gold but
    instead they released it
  • E. Tweed Ring in New York City
  • 1.Burly Boss Tweed used bribery, graft,
    and fraud elections to cheat NYC out of 200
    Million

4
The Era of Good Stealings (cont)
  • A Carnival of Corruption
  • I. Credit Mobilier Scandal
  • 1. Railroad construction company which was
    formed by members of Union Pacific Railway
  • 2. Hired themselves to build a railroad line
    paying 50,000 a mile when it only actually cost
    30,000. They paid dividends of up to 348!
  • 3. Feared congress would take action against
    them so they distributed shares to congressmen
  • II. The Whiskey Ring of 1875
  • 1. Robbed treasury of millions of dollars in
    excise tax revenue
  • 2. Grant did nothing because one of the culprits
    was his own private secretary.
  • 3. Secretary of War Belknap-1876
  • a. Made 24,000 by selling supplies or junk
    to Indians
  • b. resigned so he wouldnt be convicted by
    congress

5
The Liberal Republican Revolt of 1872
  • A. Liberal Republican Party
  • 1. Disgusted with corruption of Grant
    administration
  • 2. Party formed by reform-minded citizens
  • 3. Turn the Rascals Out
  • a. purification of Washington Admin.
  • b. end to military reconstruction

6
Depression and Demands for Inflation
  • A. Depression of 1873
  • 1. Large businesses failed to gain profits
    therefore loans werent paid
  • a. credit system plummeted
  • 2. Boom times became gloom times
  • a. more than 15,000 businesses were bankrupt
  • 3. Cheap-Money supporters
  • a. wanted greenbacks to be issued again
  • i. Dollar of our Daddies
  • 4. Hard-Money supporters
  • a. gold and silver coins
  • b. resumption act 1875 ? withdrew greenbacks,
    redemption of paper money in gold
  • c. Grant refused to coin silver dollars
  • 5.Bland-Allison Act 1878- instructed the
    treasury to buy and coin between 2 Million and
    4 million worth of silver each month

7
Pallid Politics in Gilded Age
  • A. Gilded Age
  • 1. Name given to post Civil War era by Mark
    Twain due to Corruption
  • 2. Political Seesaw? slight nudge could tip
    advantage in favor of opposing party
  • B. Democrats and Republicans
  • 1. Had similar opinions on issues of tariff,
    currency, and civil service reforms
  • a. competitive with each other
  • 2. Ethnic and Cultural Differences in Members of
    both parties
  • a. Republicans? Puritanism
  • b. Democrats? Lutherans, Roman Catholics
  • 3. Supporters for both parties
  • a. Republicans? strong votes in North and West
    and from the Grand Army of the Republic formed by
    Union veterans)
  • b. Democrats - strong support in the south

8
The Hayes-Tilden Standoff,1876
  • A. Grant was not allowed to seek a third term in
    presidency even though he wanted to...
  • 1.House voted 233 to 18 in not allowing grant
    to run again.
  • B. Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) and Samuel J.
    Tilden (Democrat) ran for presidency.
  • 1. The election was very close.
  • a. Tilden received 184 electoral votes but
    needed 185 to win.
  • 2. Votes in several states were unsure of and
    disputed (South Carolina, Florida, Louisiana and
    Oregon)
  • 3. These states returned one Democrat and one
    Republican.

9
The Compromise of 1877 and the End of
Reconstruction
  • A. Electoral Count Act 1877
  • 1. Established an electoral commission
    consisting of 15 men which were selected from the
    Senate, the House and the Supreme Court to count
    the disputed votes
  • 2. The Senate and the House met in February
    1887 to settle the dispute
  • I. Hayes would take office if he
  • 1. withdrew federal troops from Louisiana and
    South Carolina
  • 2. Provided support for a bill which would
    subside the Texas and Pacific Railroads
    construction of a southern transcontinental line
  • 3. The Compromise bought Peace at a price
  • II. Republican Party abandoned commitment to
    black equality
  • 1. Civil Rights Act of 1875 was last supportive
    act but was toothless and wasnt enforced?
    whites once again discriminated blacks
  • 2. Plessy v. Ferguson(1896)
  • a." separated but equal facilities were
    constitutional

10
Cold-Water Integrity on the Potomac
  • A. Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes
  • 1. People criticized his election
  • a. referred to Hayes as Rutherfraud, His
    Fradulency
  • 2. Congress passed a bill later known as the
    Chinese Exclusion Act to restricted Chinese
    immigration
  • A. act wasnt passed until Hayes left the
    presidency because he vetoed this act
  • 1. He vetoed it to maintain an existing
    treaty with China
  • 3. Did not accomplish anything significant or
    beneficial for the Nation

11
The Garfield Interlude
  • A. James A. Garfield
  • 1. Republican that was elected president in the
    1881 election
  • 2. Appointed James G. Blaine as Secretary of
    State who passed Anti-Stalwart acts
  • 3. Presidential term was short as he was shot
    and died several weeks after on Sep.19,1881
  • a. shot by a mentally deranged office seeker
    Charles J. Guiteau

12
Chester Arthur Takes Command
  • A. Chester Arthur becomes President
  • 1. Underestimated but soon people began to see
    his intelligence as he had graduated from Union
    College, had become a lawyer and had political
    experience under Conkling.
  • 2. The Pendleton Act of 1883 ? Magna-Carta of
    Civil Service reform
  • a. prohibited financial assessments on
    jobholders
  • b. established merit system to be appointed to
    office rather than pull.
  • c. set up a Civil Service Commission to
    examine applicants for posts in classified
    government services
  • By 1884 he had classified 10 or 14,000 of the
    posts
  • d. divided politics from patronage, but it
    drove politicians into marriages of convenience
    with business leaders.
  • 3. Reforms offended powerful republicans? his
    own party betrayed him.

13
The Blaine-Cleveland Mudslingers of 1884
  • A. Presidential Campaign of 1884
  • 1.James G. Blaine was the republican candidate
  • 2.Grover Cleveland was the democratic candidate
  • a. democrats dubbed mugwumps meaning great
    man or holier than thou
  • 3.Campaigns for both parties used extreme
    mudslinging
  • 4.Cleveland won the election
  • a. swept in the South, received 219 electoral
    votes and 4,879,507 popular votes

14
Old Grover Takes Over
  • A. Presidency of Grover Cleveland
  • 1.supporter of Laissez-Faire governing.
  • a. appealed to business owners and bankers.
  • 2. Dismissed nearly two-thirds of the 120,000
    federal employees.
  • 3. People abused military pensions
  • a. Cleveland vetoed a bill that would add
    hundred thousands more people to the pension
    list.
  • Cleveland Battles for a Lower Tariff
  • A. High Tariffs of Civil War
  • 1. Treasury had a surplus of 145 million
  • a. most of the governments income came from
    tariffs.

15
Harrison Ousts Cleveland in 1888
  • Democrats were dismayed Republicans were
    rejoicing when they nominated their candidate,
    Harrison.
  • Launched one of the worst mud slinging
    campaigns ever.
  • Cleveland......
  • 1. Called Beast of Buffalo
  • 2. Married a 21 year old woman 27 years his
    junior.
  • 3. Accused of Alcoholic/Domestic Abuse
  • 4.(Major) Had an Illegitimate Child
  • 5. According to Britain, a vote for him
    lowered tariffs.
  • Note The North was concerned with their
    industry high tariffs success. The Irish in
    New York eventually didnt support Cleveland (a
    crucial vote lost).

16
Harrison Ousts Cleveland in 1888 continued
  • 233 to 168- electoral votes (Harrison won)
  • 5,537,857 (Cleveland) to 5,447,129(Harrison)
    popular vote

17
Conclusion
  • Most of the Forgettable presidents have left
    blanks- or blots- on the Nations political
    record.
  • Economic gains took away the good to-be
    politicians
  • However, the politics wasnt the greatest, yet
    economy experienced a boom.
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