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Gilded Age Politics

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Title: Gilded Age Politics


1
  • Gilded Age Politics
  • C. 18761900

2
Gilded Age Politics
  • The Gilded Age by Mark Twain and Charles Warner
    (1873)
  • Political equilibrium
  • Civil service reform, currency, and the tariff

3
Gilded Age Politics
  • Strict Constructionists
  • Commander in Chief
  • Enforcer of laws passed by Congress
  • Head of political party

4
Gilded Age Politics
  • High Voter Participation Why?
  • (1) People believed that the issues were
    important
  • (2) People believed that their votes counted
  • (3) Politics Entertainment

5
Gilded Age Politics
  • Involved electorate, but what determined how it
    voted?
  • Republicans Protestants of English and German
    descent, Southern Blacks, and Union Civil War
    Veterans. Ohio River Valley, the West, and New
    England

6
Gilded Age Politics
  • Democrats Southern Whites, Roman Catholics,
    Jewish people, immigrants under the influence of
    party bosses.
  • CampaignsRepublicans
  • The Bloody Shirt
  • Veterans Pensions

7
Gilded Age Politics
  • Nativism
  • CampaignsDemocrats
  • Republicans will take your booze away
  • Played to Race in the South
  • Maintained that Republicans were corrupt

8
Gilded Age Politics
  • Why the push for Civil Service Reform?
  • President Ulysses S. Grant (R) (1822-1885)
    (1869-1877)

9
Gilded Age Politics
  • Patronage
  • Roscoe Conkling
  • Stalwart
  • James Blaine
  • Half-Breed

10
Gilded Age Politics
  • President Rutherford B. Hayes (R) (1822-1893)
    (1877-1881)

11
Gilded Age Politics
  • President James A. Garfield (R)
    (1831-1881) (1881)

12
Garfield was shot on 2 July 1881 and died on 19
September
13
Gilded Age Politics
  • A disgruntled patronage seeker, Charles J.
    Guiteau (1840?-1882), assassinated Garfield

14
Gilded Age Politics
  • President Chester A. Arthur (R) (1830-1886)
    (1881-1885)

15
Gilded Age Politics
  • Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883) Merit-based
    system
  • Put approximately 14 of Federal Jobs under
    classified services jobs were obtained through
    competitive examinations.

16
Gilded Age Politics
  • The Tariff
  • By 1888, over 4,000 items imported into the US
    had duties of roughly 45.
  • Protectionism
  • Created tensions between industry and agriculture

17
Gilded Age Politics
  • Arthur appointed a special Tariff Commission
    (1882)
  • Recommended lowering the tariff 20-25
  • Riders
  • Mongrel Tariff (1883)

18
Gilded Age Politics
  • The Underwood Tariff (1913)
  • Income Taxes (XVI Amendment 1913)
  • Currency
  • debtors vs. creditors

19
  • Legal TenderUS can require creditors to
    accept paper money as payment for debt. The
  • Fed printed 450,000,000

Greenbacks
20
Gilded Age Politics
  • Hepburn v. Griswold (1870)
  • Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase (1808-1873)
  • Specie Resumption Act (1874)

21
  • Coinage Act (1873)
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)required
    Federal Government to buy 4.5 million ounces of
    silver each month with Federal Bank Notes

22
The Agrarian Revolt
  • (1) High railroad rates in farming regions
  • (2) Overcharged and ripped off by middlemen
  • (3) Hurt by high tariff
  • (4) Victimized by eastern bankers
  • (5) Not enough money

23
The Agrarian Revolt
  • The Grange
  • The Farmers Alliance
  • Cooperatives
  • Crop Sub-Treasuries
  • The Populists

24
The Agrarian Revolt
  • Populist Platform endorsed at the Party
    Convention, Omaha, Nebraska 4 July 1892
  • (1) Crop sub-treasury
  • (2) Free and unlimited coinage of silver at 16 to
    1
  • (3) Graduated income tax

25
The Agrarian Revolt
  • (4) Nationalization of railroads, telegraphs, and
    telephones
  • (5) Eight-hour workday
  • (6) Immigration restrictions
  • (7) Initiative, Referendum, and Recall

26
The Agrarian Revolt
  • (8) Australian Ballot
  • (9) Direct election of United States Senators
  • (10) At least 50.00 in circulation per capita

27
The Agrarian Revolt
  • Presidential Election of 1892
  • James B. Weaver (1833-1912) (P)
  • Carried Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, and Nevada

28
The Agrarian Revolt
  • Presidential Election of 1896
  • William Jennings Bryan (D) (1860-1924)

29
The Agrarian Revolt
  • William McKinley (R) (1843-1901) (1897-1901)

30
The Agrarian Revolt
  • Exuded Protestant evangelism
  • Republicans would not join the Populist/Democrat
    fusion
  • Many believed he was communistic or anarchistic
    American labor did not join the American farmer

31
Legacies of the 1896 Election
  • A new campaigning style
  • Ascendancy of the industrial over the
    agricultural
  • Beginning of the end of American mass political
    participation
  • Decline of Party and the rise of Special Interest
    Groups

32
The Progressive Era
  • The desire to use government as an agency of
    human welfare
  • Antecedents of Progressivism
  • (1) Movement owed a great deal to Populism
  • (2) Social Critics and Writers

33
The Progressive Era
  • Individuals described by Theodore Roosevelt as
    the lunatic fringe of muckrakers
  • a. Henry Demarest Lloyd used articles to attack
    monopoly including, Story of a Great Monopoly
    in Atlantic Monthly (1881)

34
The Progressive Era
  • b. Ida M. Tarbell also targeted John D.
    Rockefeller with her History of the Standard Oil
    Co.

35
The Progressive Era
  • c. Lincoln Steffens wrote about municipal
    corruption in Minneapolis, Philadelphia,
    Pittsburgh, and St. Louis for McClures,
    Everybodys, and Cosmopolitan

36
The Progressive Era
  • Four features of Progressivism
  • Democratic
  • Direct primaries
  • Initiative, referendum, and recall
  • Income Taxes (XVI Amendment 1913)

37
The Progressive Era
  • Direct election of US Senators (XVII Amendment
    1913)
  • Government efficiency
  • City Manager
  • Staunton, Virginia (1908)
  • National Association of City Managers

38
The Progressive Era
  • Governor Robert M. Fighting Bob La
    Follette (R) (1855-1925)
  • Legislative Reference Bureau
  • Wisconsin idea

39
The Progressive Era
  • Regulation
  • Increased tendency to direct some business
    activities through federal regulations
  • Social Justice
  • Settlement House movement

40
The Progressive Era
  • Jane Addams (1860-1935)

41
The Progressive Era
  • Hull House Chicago, Illinois (1889)

42
The Progressive Era
  • The National Child Labor Committee (1904)
  • By 1914, 35 state legislatures had passed laws
    prohibiting children under age fourteen from
    working

43
The Progressive Era
  • Florence Kelly (1859-1932)
  • National Consumers League
  • Sociologist Louis D. Brandeis

44
Triangle Shirt Waist Company fire , New York (25
March 1911)
45
The Progressive Era
  • Liquor Prohibitionmanufacture, sale, or
    transportation of intoxicating liquors . . .
    prohibited. (XVIII Amendment 1919)

46
The Progressive Era
  • Presidential Election of 1900
  • William Jennings Bryan (D) (1860-1924)

47
(No Transcript)
48
The Progressive Era
  • Leon F. Czolgosz (1873-1901) assassinated
    William McKinley (1901)

49
The Progressive Era
  • President Theodore Roosevelt (R) (1858-1919)
    (1901-1909)

50
The Progressive Era
  • Roosevelt wished to avoid socialism and a return
    to laissez faire
  • Used the carrot and the stick approach
  • Anthracite Coal Strike (May-October 1902)

51
The Progressive Era
  • John Mitchell (1870-1913)
  • United Mine Workers Union

52
The Progressive Era
  • 20 wage increase
  • Eight-hour workday
  • Union recognition

53
The Progressive Era
  • George F. Baer (1842-1914) led the mine operators

54
The Progressive Era
  • Binding arbitration
  • Everybody got something
  • 10 pay increase
  • Nine-hour workday
  • Operators not required to recognize the United
    Mine Workers Union

55
The Progressive Era
  • Roosevelt the Trust Buster
  • Northern Securities Company

56
The Progressive Era
  • Northern Securities Company v. United States
    (1904)
  • US Supreme Court ruled that the NSC was an
    unreasonable restraint of trade and ordered it
    dissolved

57
The Progressive Era
  • Bureau of Corporations within the newly
    created Department of Commerce and Labor (1903)
    to collect statistics and investigate the
    activities of corporations.

58
The Progressive Era
  • Presidential Election of 1904
  • Alton B. Parker (D) (1852-1926)

59
The Progressive Era
  • President Roosevelt speaking in Hannibal,
    Missouri

60
The Progressive Era
  • Upton Sinclairs The Jungle (1906)

61
LTC Roosevelt and the 1st US Volunteer Cavalry
Regiment (Rough Riders), San Juan Hill, Cuba 1898
62
The Progressive Era
  • In the Spanish-American War (1898), 5,462
    Americans died, but only 379 in combat

63
The Progressive Era
  • Meat Inspection Act (1906)
  • Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)

64
The Progressive Era
  • In 1905, by the authority of the Forest
    Reserve Act (1891), TR placed 172 million acres
    under Federal protection

65
  • Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act (1906)
  • As Roosevelts Administration progressed, he
    favored
  • Income tax
  • Inheritance tax
  • Greater regulation of Business
  • Industrial Safety Regulations

66
The Progressive Era
  • Presidential Election of 1908
  • William Jennings Bryan (D) (1860-1924)

67
The Progressive Era
  • William Howard Taft (R)
    (1857-1930) (1909-1913)

68
Tafts specially designed White House bathtub
69
The Progressive Era
  • Roosevelt assumed that Taft would continue his
    activist progressive policies, but he was badly
    disappointed

70
The Progressive Era
  • Presidential Election of 1912
  • Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive or
    Bull Moose Party

71
The Progressive Era
  • Woodrow Wilson (D) (1856-1924) (1913-1921)

72
The Federal Reserve System
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