Gilded Age Politics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Gilded Age Politics PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 6c62dd-YTIxM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Gilded Age Politics

Description:

Title: Politics, Immigration, and Urban Life Author: Lincoln Public Schools Last modified by: LPS Lincoln Public Schools Created Date: 10/9/2006 6:12:14 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:67
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 37
Provided by: Lincol94
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Gilded Age Politics


1
Gilded Age Politics
  • National politics and influence of corporate
    power
  • Agrarian discontent and political issues of the
    late nineteenth century

2
Politics in the Gilded Age
  • Gilded Age - covered with a thin layer of gold
  • Wealth and prosperity and progress
  • VS.
  • Urban, labor, and farming problems and big
    business corruption

3
Gilded Age Politics
4
The Business of Politics
  • Laissez-faire
  • Government should play a very limited role in
    business
  • Favored high tariffs on imports (to protect
    American businesses)
  • Government subsidies
  • payment by government to encourage development of
    certain businesses and/or industries (I.e. RR)

5
Credit Mobilier Scandal 1873
  • Govt awarded Union Pacific (UP) RR loans and
    land to build Transcontinental RR
  • Credit Mobilier company - hired to build RR
  • Credit Mobilier charged UP way too much .
  • In order for Congress to keep funding, Credit
    Mobilier offered cheap shares of stock to
    Congressmen who agreed to support continued
    funding
  • Investigated in 1872 - both parties, lots of
    indivuduals - guilty

Every Public Question With an Eye Only to the
Public Good
Harper's Weekly March 15, 1873
6
Spoils System - Patronage system
  • Started in American politics with Andrew Jackson
    (1828)
  • To the victor, go the spoils of war
  • Giving of jobs as a reward for loyalty - even to
    unqualified people

7
Political Parties in the Gilded Age
  • Republicans
  • Appealed to industrialists, bankers, and eastern
    farmers
  • Strongest in N and upper Midwest
  • Favored tight money supply backed by GOLD
  • High tariffs
  • High pensions for Union soldiers
  • Govt aid to RR
  • Strict limit on immigration
  • Enforcement of blue laws - prohibited private
    activities many considered immoral
  • Democrats
  • Attracted those less privileged
  • Northern immigrant workers, laborers, southern
    planters, western farmers
  • Claimed to represent ordinary people
  • Favored increased money supply backed by SILVER
  • Lower tariffs
  • Higher farm prices
  • Less govt aid to big business
  • Fewer blue laws

8
Waving the Bloody Shirt
  • Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) organization of
    northern Civil War veterans
  • Campaigned for Republicans
  • Called on former Union generals as candidates

9
Ethnic Divisions and Gilded Age Politics
  • Democrats
  • Family tradition Irish, immigrants
  • Religious affiliation Catholic
  • Appealed to common city laborers
  • Local issues prohibition
  • Republicans
  • Family tradition Protestant, old-stock
    northerners,
  • Religious affiliation Protestant
  • African-Americans
  • Local issues against vices and for
    Prohibition in most cases

10
Well-Defined Voting Blocs
DemocraticBloc
RepublicanBloc
  • White southerners (preservation of white
    supremacy)
  • Catholics
  • Recent immigrants (esp. Jews)
  • Urban working poor (pro-labor)
  • Most farmers
  • Northern whites (pro-business)
  • African Americans
  • Northern Protestants
  • Old WASPs (support for anti-immigrant laws)
  • Most of the middle class

11
  • Figure 18.1 Ethnocultural Voting Patterns in the
    Midwest, 18701892 (p. 521)

12
  • Intense Voter Loyalty to the Two MajorPolitical
    Parties
  • High Levels of Political Participation

13
The Money Supply
  • Most in gold and silver coinage or U.S.
    Treasury notes
  • Bankers limit supply
  • Debtors expand supply
  • Panic of 1873
  • Greenback Party of 1877 - expanded supply

14
Money Supply - continued
  • Silver demonetized in 1873
  • Silver discovered in huge quantities in 1873 in
    Nevada (Comstock Lode)
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890
  • Treasury to buy silver monthly
  • Issue Treasury notes
  • Increased supply some but not enough for
    farmers and other debtors

15
The Silver Issue
  • Crime of 73 - demonetization of silver (govt.
    stopped coining silver).
  • Bland-Allison Act (1878) - limited silver
    coinage to 2-4 mil. per mo. (based on the 161
    ratio of silver to gold).
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
  • The US Treasury must purchase 4.5 mil. oz. of
    silver a month.
  • Govt. deposited most silver in the US Treasury
    rather than circulation.

16
Spoils System Reform
  • 1877 - President Rutherford B. Hayes refused to
    use patronage system
  • Began attempt at CIVIL SERVICE reform
  • Split his party (Republicans) in 1878

17
Rutherford B. Hayes and Civil Service Reform
18
Republican split
  • Stalwarts - Sen. Conkling - defended spoils
    system
  • Half-Breeds - Sen. Blaine - reform spoils system
    but maintain party loyalty
  • Independents - opposed spoils system entirely
    (Mugwumps)

19
James Garfield 1880-1881
  • Elected 1880
  • Half-Breed faction - to reform spoils system but
    maintain party loyalty
  • Assassinated by Stalwart supporter - Guiteau -
    (who expected a job from Garfield and didnt get
    it)

20
Garfield and the Pendleton Act
21
Chester Arthur
  • VP w/ Garfield
  • Became president after assassination
  • Beneficiary of patronage in NY
  • Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883

22
Pendleton Civil Service Act
  • Civil Service Commission set up
  • Tested applicants
  • Fed employees not required to contribute campaign
  • Could not be fired for political reasons

23
Pendleton Act (1883)
  • Civil Service Act.
  • The Magna Carta of civil service reform.
  • 1883 - 14,000 out of 117,000 federal govt.
    jobs became civil service exam positions.
  • 1900 - 100,000 out of 200,00 civil service
    federal govt. jobs.

24
Election of 1884 - Grover Cleveland
  • Grover Cleveland - Democrat
  • Cleveland heavily criticized
  • Issues
  • Favored tight money policies
  • Opposed high tariffs
  • Took back 80 million acres from RR
  • Supported more govt regulation of RR

25
  • Map 18.1 Presidential Elections of 1880, 1884,
    and 1888 (p. 517)

26
RR Regulation
  • Many complaints of questionable RR practices
  • Rebates - partial refunds to favored customers
  • 1877 - Munn v. Illinois - Supreme Court decision
    allowed states to regulate certain businesses
    (including RR)
  • 1886 - decision limited state control in Wabash
    v. Illinois (interstate commerce still
    unregulated)
  • The Wabash decision led to the creation in 1887
    of the first modern regulatory agency, the
    Interstate Commerce Commission.
  • 1887 - Interstate Commerce Act set up Interstate
    Commerce Commission (ICC)
  • ICC usually had to file suit against RRs and
    until 1905, lost 15 of 16 cases before the
    Supreme Court

27
Cleveland lost bid in 1888 to Republican James
Garfield
  • Bandanna, 1888 Election (p. 514)

28
The Tariff Issue
  • After the Civil War, Congress raised tariffs to
    protect new US industries.
  • Big business wanted to continue this consumers
    did not.
  • 1885 - tariffs earned the US 100 million - In
    surplus!
  • Mugwumps (branch of Republican Party) opposed it
    -
  • President Clevelands view on tariffs
  • Tariffs too high and needed to be reduced
  • Tariffs became a major issue in the 1888
    presidential election.

29
President Benjamin Harrison - 1888
  • Republican - supported business interests
  • Favored an increase in tariffs
  • Awarded huge pensions to dependents of Civil War
    soldiers
  • Hurt the economy in the long run
  • Major Achievement
  • Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890

30
  • Map 18.1 Presidential Election 1888 (p. 517)

31
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
  • Outlawed any combination for companies that
    restrained interstate trade or commerce
  • Supposed to limit the formation and function of
    trusts and monopolies
  • Proved ineffective for over 15 years
  • Vague wording - enforced rarely
  • Courts ruled pro-business

32
Clevelands second term - 1893-1897 (unpopular)
  • Panic of 1893
  • Millions of workers lost jobs or had wages
    slashed
  • 1894 - Coxeys army demanded govt create jobs
    for unemployed
  • Repealed Sherman Silver Purchase Act
  • Sent federal troops to Chicago during the Pullman
    strike of 1894

33
Election of 1896
  • Populists - Democrats William Jennings Bryan
  • Working class and farmers
  • Free silver
  • Labor reform
  • Cross of Gold speech
  • Republicans William McKinley
  • New tariff bill (raised)
  • Stronger gold standard
  • A Full Dinner Pail

34
Election of 1896
35
  • Map 18.5 The Election of 1896 (p. 540)

36
Election of 1896 Realignment
About PowerShow.com