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The Progressive Era

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Title: The Progressive Era


1
The Progressive Era
  • Reform shifts from the farm to the city and
    climbs the ladder of government from the local to
    the state and then to the national level.

2
I. The Problems of the 1890s
  • Huge Gap between rich and poor
  • Tremendous economic and political power of the
    rich
  • Wealthy were insensitively flaunting their wealth
    before a poorer public

3
I. Problems of the 1890s (cont.)
  • Industrial workers hideously poor, living in
    squalor and working in dangerous conditions
  • Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives (1890)
  • Little concern for Black America

4
Origins of Progressivism
  • Antimonopoly appealed to lower and middle class
    alike
  • Belief in social cohesion
  • Increasing faith in knowledge

5
II. Progressive Reformers
6
A. Streams of Reform
  • The Social Gospel movement salvation through
    reform
  • --Walter Rauschenbusch Christianity and the
    Social Crisis (1907) (Protestant)
  • Settlement House Workers
  • --Jane Addams, Hull House in Chicago (1889)
  • Americans of Old Wealth (Nurture)

7
A. Streams of Reform (cont.)
  • Young, socially-conscious lawyers
  • Investigative Journalists
  • -- Muckrakers
  • --Lincoln Steffens, Ida Tarbell, and Upton
    Sinclair
  • Small businessmen

8
B. Features of Progressive Reform
  • Desire to remedy problems through government
    initiative
  • Reliance on experts
  • -- Robert Lafollettes Wisconsin Idea
  • Wanted reform not revolution
  • Stressed the importance of efficiency in reform
  • --Frederick W. Taylor

9
B. Features of Progressive Reform (cont.)
  • Want to bring order out of chaos
  • --Creation of NCAA in 1910
  • --Federal Budget (1921)
  • Desire to make politics more democratic
  • Desire to make businessmen more responsible for
    problems

10
B. Features of Progressive Reform (cont.)
  • Desire to make society more moral and more just
  • Desire to distribute income more equitably
  • Desire to broaden opportunities for individual
    advancement
  • Women were active in progressivism
  • --Suffragettes like Susan B. Anthony

11
B. Features of Progressive Reform (cont.)
  • Infiltrated both political parties
  • -- Republican insurgents
  • Middle-class reform movement
  • Operated on all three levels of government

12
III. Sample Progressive Reforms
13
African Americans and Reform
  • Booker T. Washington Work on self improvement
  • W.E.B. Dubois Demand more, mainly for talented
    African Americans (The Souls of Black Folk)
  • Marcus Garvey Advocated a global African pride
    movement. Eventually inspired Rastafarianism,
    Nation of Islam

14
African American Migration 1910-1930
  • To escape the Jim Crow South
  • Boll weevil infestation ruined crops
  • Northern industrial war economy jobs
  • WWI and Immigration Act of 1924 halted flow of
    new, immigrant labor
  • About 1.6 million African-Americans moved to
    north to industrial, urban areas

15
Civil Rights Organizations
  • NAACP formed in 1905 Dubois led it
  • Used the courts to advance civil rights, attack
    segregation laws, and to overturn voting
    restrictions
  • Used the talented 10th to gain positions of
    full equality for accomplished blacks

16
A. Political Reforms
  • Tried to put more power into the hands of the
    people
  • Innovative changes in city government
  • --city managers and commission model
  • The Direct Primary
  • Initiative, Referendum and Recall
  • The Secret Ballot
  • Direct Election of Senators and the Vote for Women

17
B. Social Reforms
  • Child labor laws
  • Ten-hour work days
  • --The Brandeis brief
  • --Muller v. Oregon (1908)
  • --Bunting v. Oregon (1917)
  • Prohibition initiatives
  • Moral Purity campaigns
  • --Mann Act (1910)

18
B. Social Reforms (cont.)
  • Minimum safety standards on the job
  • Minimum standards for housing codes
  • City Beautification movement
  • Immigration Restriction
  • Eugenics
  • --Buck v. Bell (1927)
  • Little Help for Blacks
  • --NAACP (1909)
  • -- Birth of a Nation

19
The Dream of Socialism
  • Anti-corporate forces challenged capitalism
  • Some sought to own utilities, regulate RRs and
    even own some major corporations
  • 1912, Eugene Debs received 1 million votes
  • Socialists won 1,000 state and local offices
  • Varied widely in approach on how radical
  • IWW (Wobblies) were radicalstrikes

20
Centralia Massacre
21
IV. Progressive Amendments to the Constitution
  • Progressive reliance on the law
  • 16th Amendment (1913)federal income tax
  • 17th Amendment (1913)direct election of senators
  • 18th Amendment (1919)prohibition
  • 19th Amendment (1920)vote for women

22
V. Presidential Progressivism Theodore Roosevelt
  • Great drive, energy and exciting personality
  • TRs interests and early years
  • NYC police commissioner
  • Spanish-American War experience
  • -- Rough Riders
  • Political Rise from NY Governor to Vice-President

23
A. First Term as President (1901-1904)
  • McKinleys assassination
  • Offered energetic national leadership
  • Cast every issue in moral and patriotic terms
  • --The Bully Pulpit
  • Master Politician
  • Modest goals for his accidental presidency

24
B. Trust-Buster?
  • TRs attitude toward Big Business
  • Wants to regulate in order to get businesses to
    act right
  • The Square Deal (1902)
  • Making an example of the Northern Securities Co.
  • The Elkins Act (1903) and the Bureau of
    Corporations

25
C. Second Term as President (1905-1909)
  • More vigorous progressivism
  • Hepburn Act (1906)
  • Federal Meat Inspection Act (1906)
  • Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
  • Conservation Policy
  • --Preservation vs. Conservation

26
VI. A Tough Act to Follow The Presidency of
William Howard Taft (1909-1913)
  • The Election of 1908
  • Tafts political experience
  • Tafts weight
  • Not a dynamic politician
  • Never completely comfortable as President

27
VI. Presidency of Taft (cont.)
  • Controversy over the Tariff
  • More conservative than TR, but also more trust
    suits
  • The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
  • Growing tension with Teddy Roosevelt

28
VII. The Election of 1912
  • Growing split within the Republican Party
  • Creation of the Bull Moose Party
  • Progressive Party Platform New Nationalism
  • Democrats drafted Woodrow Wilson
  • Results of the Election

29
VIII. Democratic Progressivism The Presidency
of Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)
  • Wilsons early life and political career
  • True progressive and dynamic speaker
  • Sympathetic to small businessmen
  • Could be a stubborn, moral crusader and ideologue

30
A. New Freedom
  • Wilsons brand of progressivism
  • Wants to recreate the golden age of small
    American businesses
  • Wilson wants to open channels for free and fair
    competition
  • Historic Jeffersonian approach to federal power

31
B. Key Wilsonian Legislation
  • Underwood Tariff Act (1913)
  • Federal Reserve Act (1913)
  • Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)
  • Federal Trade Commission (1914)

32
C. Congressional Progressivism After 1914
  • Wilson was not a strong progressive when it came
    to social reform
  • Congress takes over the progressive agenda
  • Appointment of Brandeis to Supreme Court
  • Examples of congressional progressive legislation
    after 1914
  • --Federal Highways Act (1916)

33
IX. The Waning of the Progressive Movement
  • Progressive movement peaks by 1917
  • Success of the movement led to its decline
  • Advent of World War I also hurt progressive
    activism
  • Progressives themselves began to weary of their
    reform zealas did the nation as a whole
  • Ironically, voter participation has steadily
    declined since the election of 1912
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