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The Progressive Reform Era (1890

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Title: The Progressive Reform Era (1890


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Presidents of the Progressive Era
  • William McKinley
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • William Taft
  • Woodrow Wilson

5
How do you measure Progress in your life?
  • How does a society or nation measure its progress?
  • In what ways could our country make progress
    today?

6
  • Historians call the period from about 18901920
    the Progressive Era.

7
Why did the Progressive Era Occur?
  • Industrialization, Urbanization, and immigration
    brought many benefits to America.BUT
  • The rapid growth also caused poverty,
    unemployment, horrible working conditions and
    political corruption.
  • Many Progressives believed that political action
    and reform, not private charities, were the
    methods to bring about progress in society.

8
A Monday Afternoon Washing, 107th Street, 1900
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Family in Attic Home, Drying Their Laundry, ca.
1900-1910
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Video America in the 20th Century Early
Voices of Reform
12
The Progressives Their Goals and Beliefs
  • Progressives were not a single unified movement.
    They fell into four categories
  • Social
  • Moral
  • Economic
  • Political

13
Common Beliefs of Progressives
  • 1.The Government should be more accountable to
    its citizens.
  • 2.Government should curb the power and influence
    of wealthy interests
  • 3.Government should be given expanded powers so
    that it could become more active in improving the
    lives of its citizen.
  • 4.Governments should become more efficient and
    less corrupt so that they could competently
    handle an expanded role.

14
Igniting Reform Writers, Journalists and
Muckrakers
  • The ideas of many writers and journalists
    influenced public opinion about how to reform
    society.
  • Journalists investigated and publicized
    conditions in certain industries, slums, tenement
    houses, and sweat shops.

15
  • Muckrakers
  • Theodore Roosevelt called the journalists
    muckrakers. Roosevelt was concerned that
    exposing poverty and corruption could lead to
    rebellion.

16
Lincoln Steffens
  • Published stories about political corruption

17
Jacob Riis
  • Photographed pictures of urban slums

18
Frank Norris and Upton Sinclair
19
Video The Jungle A View of Industrial America
  • Questions from the Video
  • What role did journalists play in the Progressive
    Era?
  • Which Progressive reforms do you think had the
    greatest effects on society?

20
An Expanded Role for Government
  • Progressives sought more social welfare programs
    to help ensure a minimum standard of living.
  • Many of the earliest Progressive reforms were
    made at the municipal, or city, level.
  • Some municipal reformers worked for home rule, a
    system that gives cities a limited degree of
    self-rule.
  • Municipal reformers opposed the influence of
    political bosses.
  • Reformers made efforts to take over city
    utilities such as water, gas, and electricity.
  • Some reform mayors led movements for
    city-supported welfare services such as public
    baths, parks, work-relief programs, playgrounds,
    kindergartens, and lodging houses for the
    homeless (settlement house).

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Video American in the 20th Century Progressive
Programs
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Theodore Roosevelt
  • War hero, seasoned politician, and dedication
    reformers became president in 1901.
  • He quickly pushed Congress to approve the Square
    Deal, a program of reform aimed at stopping the
    wealthy and powerful from dominating small
    business owners and the poor.

24
Roosevelt's Square Deal
  • Hepburn Act-limited what railroads could charge
    for shopping. This helped farmers in the West who
    had been at the mercy of the railroads.
  • Meat Inspection Act-gave the government the power
    to inspect meat and meat-processing plants to
    ensure the meat was safe to eat.
  • Pure Food and Drug Act-banned interstate shipment
    of impure food and the mislabeling of food and
    drugs.

25
Roosevelt's Square Deal
  • National Reclamation Act- gave the government the
    power to build and manage dams and to control
    where and how water was used.

26
Video American in the 20th Century
Progressivism at the National level
27
Think About
  • How did the reformers of recall and initiative
    help fight political corruption?

28
Taft vs. Roosevelt
  • After two terms in office Roosevelt wanted
    William Howard Taft to follow him because Taft
    shared his belief in regulating business and
    Roosevelt became disappointed and, later, angry.
  • He began to speak out against Taft, promoting
    what he called New Nationalism.
  • As another election neared, the Taft-Roosevelt
    battle split the Republican Party. A group of
    Progressives created the Progressive Party and
    nominated Roosevelt as its candidate for
    President

29
Tafts Presidency
  • Taft was endorsed by Roosevelt and pledged to
    carry on the progressive program.
  • However, he did not even appoint any Progressives
    to his Cabinet.
  • He campaigned on a platform to lower tariffs
    (taxes), but ended up signing a bill that added
    some highly protective tariff increases.

30
The Presidents William Taft
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The Election of 1912
A Four-Way Election
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Women Make Progress!
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Florence Kelley
  • Believed that unfair prices for household goods
    hurt women and their families, so she helped
    found the Nationalism Consumers League (NCL).

35
Temperance-Womens Christian Temperance Union
(WCTU)
  • Women tried to reduce the consumption of alcohol.

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Margaret Sanger
  • Sought a different change. She thought that
    family life and womens health would improve if
    mothers had fewer children. Opened the nations
    first birth control clinic.

38
Ida B. Wells
  • Established the National Association of Colored
    Women, which helped African Americans families by
    providing childcare and education.

39
National American Women Suffrage Association
(NAWSA)
  • Formed by Carrie Chapman Catt, the group lobbied
    Congress for the right to vote and used the
    referendum process to try and get women the vote
    in individual states.
  • By 1918, this strategy had helped women get the
    vote in several states.

40
National Womens Party (NWP)
  • Staged protest marches and hunger strikes and
    even picketed the White House to demand the right
    to vote.
  • When the United States Entered World War I in
    1917, the NAWSA supported the war effort.
  • Its actions and those of the NWP convinced a
    growing number of legislators to support a woman
    suffrage amendment.

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Women gain the right to vote!
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African Americans and Civil Rights
  • Like most other progressives- Roosevelt failed to
    support the civil rights of African-Americans,
    although, he did support of few individual
    African-Americans.
  • Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington to the
    White House as a symbolic gesture.

43
Segregation
  • Many Progressives shared the same prejudices
    against non-whites and other Americans.
  • They also supported segregation, or separation of
    the races, and laws to limit minority voting.

44
Supreme Court Cases Plessy vs. Furgeson
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Booker T. Washington
  • -Washington was respected by powerful whites, but
    faced opposition from other African-Americans
    such as W.E.B. Du Bois, for his accommodation of
    segregationists and for blaming black poverty on
    blacks and urging them to accept discrimination.

46
W.E.B. Du Bois
  • Believed that blacks should demand immediately
    all the rights guaranteed by the Constitution.
  • Du Bois was part of the Niagara Movement, a group
    that called for rapid progress and more education
    for blacks.

47
NAACP-National Association for the Advancement of
Colored Peopled.
  • Planned to use the court system to fight for
    civil rights of African Americans, including the
    right to vote.

48
The Presidents Woodrow Wilson
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Wilsons Policies as President
  • Wilson was reformer who thought government she
    play an active role in the economy.

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  • Wilsons Policies and President
  • 1-Wilson tried to prevent manufactures from
    charged unfairly high prices. He cut tariffs on
    imported goods, which made foreign goods more
    competitive in the United States and forced U.S.
    producers to charge fair prices.

51
  • Wilsons Policies as President
  • He also pushed for the creation of an income tax,
    which the 16th Amendment gave Congress the power
    to do.
  • This tax more than made up for the money the
    government lost by lowering tariffs.

52
Federal Reserve Act
  • This law gave the government authority to
    supervise banks by placing national banks under
    the control of a Federal Reserve Board.

53
Federal Trade Commission
  • Monitored business practices to watch out for
    false advertising and dishonest labeling.
  • Congress also passed the Clayton Antitrust Act,
    which strengthened earlier antitrust laws by
    spelling out which business activities were
    illegal.

54
The Limits of Progressivism
  • The changes made by Progressives were limited to
    certain groups in the United States.
  • Progressives championed municipal reforms, but
    did little for tenant or migrant farmers.
  • Progressive Presidents took little action to
    pursue social justice reforms.

55
  • Wilson continued the Jim Crow practice, begun
    under Taft, of separating the races in federal
    offices.
  • At the 1912 Progressive Party convention,
    Roosevelt declined to seat black delegates from
    the South for fear of alienating white Southern
    Progressives.
  • By 1916, the reform spirit had nearly died.
  • It was replaced by American concerns about World
    War I.

56
Why the Progressive Era Was So Important
  • Because Child Labor was banned!

Lewis Hine, the celebrated photographer
dedicated social reformer, captured the sad faces
of the children in the following photos.
Captions and quotes are from Hines published
works.
57
Faces of Lost Youth
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Some boys and girls were so small they had to
climb up on to the spinning frame to mend broken
threads and to put back the empty bobbins.
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Furman Owens, 12 years old. Cant read, doesnt
know his ABCs. Said, Yes, I want to learn, but
cant when I work all the time.
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