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The Progressive Era (1900


The Progressive Era (1900 1917) Chapter 9 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Progressive Era (1900

The Progressive Era(1900 1917)
  • Chapter 9

ProgressivismAn Introduction
  • A reform movement in response to
  • The depression of the 1890s and its social
  • And an attempt to soften the harsh impact of
    industrialization, urbanization, and immigration.
  • Progressivism varied.
  • The progressive movement represented the common
    spirit of an age rather than a single organized
    group or party.

  • What reformers shared was a common assumption
    that the complex social ills and tensions
    generated by the urban-industrial revolution
    required expanding the scope of local, state, and
    federal government authority as to elevate the
    public interest over private greed.
  • Such initiatives represented the first tentative
    steps toward what would become known during the
    1930s and after as the welfare state.

General Goals
  • Greater Democracy
  • Direct primaries
  • The initiative, referendum, and recall
  • Popular election of senators
  • Efficiencycalled for experts t o replace
  • Commission system
  • City managers
  • Championed by Robert LaFollette and the
    Wisconsin Idea

General Goals, cont.
  • Corporate regulation
  • Laissez-faire vs. regulation
  • Perhaps most controversial
  • Social Justice
  • Child labor
  • Working conditions
  • 10-hr workday
  • Prohibition

  • Most activist president since Lincoln
  • Most presidents believed that the Constitution
    set specific limits on their power. Roosevelt
    thought that the president could do anything not
    expressly forbidden in the document
  • Recognized the Executive Mansion as the White
  • Recognized the value of publicity
  • Created the press room in White House.
  • First president to ride in an automobile, fly in
    an airplane, and dive in a submarineand everyone
    knew it.

Roosevelts Plan
  • Committed to an expanding government.
  • Growth was natural but government needed to
  • Big labor would counterbalance big capital.
  • Big farm organizations would offset big food
    processors, and so on.
  • What he called in his reelection campaign the
    Square Deal.half loaf vs. whole loaf.
  • Anthracite (hard) Coal Strike of 1902
  • Workers struck for more pay and fewer hours.
  • Mine owners closed mines.
  • TR threatened to take over the mines, forcing
    owners to submit to arbitration panel.

Roosevelts Plan
  • Trusts
  • TR used his executive powers to enforce the
    Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
  • Conduct, not size was importantgood and bad
  • Hepburn Act of 1906
  • Gave the Interstate Commerce Commission power to
    set maximum rates (Railroad regulation)
  • Movement to regulate food processors and makers
    of drugs and patent medicines
  • The Meat Inspection Act (1906)
  • The Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
  • Conservation through planned management
  • Enlarged the national park system

William Howard Taft
  • Election of 1908
  • TR handpicked Secretary of War Taft
  • He defeats William Jennings Bryan (Dem)
  • Taft had great administrative skill and personal
    charm. But he disliked the political maneuvering
    of Washington and preferred conciliation to
  • Taft managed to alienate both conservatives and
  • Even TR had doubts On inauguration day he told
    a reporter Hes all right, but hes weak.

  • Despite his failures, Taft did
    enact a progressive program
  • Regulated safety standards for mines and
  • Created a federal childrens bureau.
  • Set an 8-hr workday for federal employees.
  • Supported a graduated income tax
  • Became the 16th Amend, in early 1913.
  • Considered one of the most important reforms of
    the century.
  • Supported the 17th Amend. (1913) which provided
    for the popular election of senators.
  • Set aside more public lands for conservation than
  • Impressive progressive record despite charges
    from TR and others.

Election of 1912
  • TR and Taft split
  • TR
  • New Nationalism
  • Recognized the value on consolidation in the
    economywhether big business or big laborbut
    insisted on protecting the interests of
    individuals through big government.
  • Advocated more daring reforms than he had as
    president. Ex. equal suffrage (blacks and
  • TR lost Rep. Nomination despite winning most of
    the primaries to Taft-- presidential patronage
  • TR formed Progressive Party
  • Im feeling like a bull moose!

Election of 1912
  • Woodrow Wilson (Dem)
  • Progressive governor of New Jersey
  • New Freedom
  • Rejected the economic consolidation that
    Roosevelt embraced.
  • Wanted to strictly limit the size of businesses
    to preserve the free market.
  • Wanted to keep government small to preserve
    individual freedom
  • Taft and TR split the Rep. vote and Wilson won.
  • Wilson in White House and Democrats controlled

The Election of 1912
Woodrow Wilson and the Politics of Morality
  • First southern president since Andrew Johnson.
  • Very self-righteous God ordained that I should
    be the next president of the United States.
  • Felt that a modern president should act as a
    prime minister, directing and uniting his
    party, molding legislation and public opinion,
    exerting continuous leadership.

Progressive Legislation
  • The Underwood-Simmons Tariff (1913) (lowered
  • In conjunction with 16th Amendment, this began a
    momentous shift in government revenue
  • 19th-century basepublic lands, alcohol taxes,
    and customs duties.
  • 20th century base personal and corporate
  • Federal Reserve Act of 1913
  • Federal Reserve System of 12 regional banks
    controlled by a central Federal Reserve Board in

Progressive Legislation
  • Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914
  • An executive commission to regulate commerce and
    enforce orderly competition.
  • Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914
  • Barred some of the worst corporate practices
    price discrimination, holding companies, and
    interlocking directorates.

Woman Suffrage Nineteenth Amendment
Conclusion to Progressivism
  • For all its claims of sweeping change,
    progressivism left the system of market
    capitalism in tact.
  • Neither the New Nationalism of TR, with its
    emphasis on planning and regulation, nor Woodrow
    Wilsons New Freedom, which promoted competition
    through limits on corporate size, aimed to do
    more than improve the system.
  • But the Gilded Age philosophy of laissez faireof
    giving private enterprise a free handhad clearly
    been rejected.
  • Both state and federal governments established
    their right to regulate the actions of private
    corporations for the public good. Under
    progressive leadership, the modern stateactive
    and interventionistwas born.

Significant Events
? 1890 General Federation of Womens Clubs
? 1899 National Consumers League founded
? 1900 Robert La Follette elected governor of
? 1901 Theodore Roosevelt elected president
? 1903 Department of Labor and Commerce created
? 1906 Upton Sinclairs The Jungle published
? 1910 Mann Act passed
? 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist fire
? 1914 Clayton Antitrust Act passed
? 1919 Nineteenth Amendment grants women suffrage
Chapter 22