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The Progressive Era 1900-1917


The Progressive Era 1900-1917 The Americans, Chapter 9 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Progressive Era 1900-1917

The Progressive Era 1900-1917
  • The Americans, Chapter 9

The Roots of Progressivism
  • Throughout the 1800s there were organized efforts
    to reform specific problems in society
  • The abolitionist movement worked to end slavery.
  • Temperance activists sought to ban alcohol
  • The suffrage movement championed womens right to
  • Individuals worked to improve conditions in our
    prisons and mental health facilities.
  • Volunteers established settlement houses in
    cities to provide services to poor immigrants.

  • During the Gilded Age in the late 1800s,
    muckraking journalists called attention to
    corruption in government, poor working
    conditions, and poverty in our cities.
  • By the turn of the century, the growing middle
    class had come to believe that the government
    could play an active role in improving our
  • Under the umbrella of the Progressive Movement,
    they pursued a variety of reforms.

The Progressive Umbrella
  • Economic Ending Expansion of
    Moral Protecting
  • Reform Corruption Democracy
    Issues Workers
  • ? in State
    ? ? ?
  • Anti-Trust and Local Womens
    Temperance Child
  • Legislation Governments Suffrage
    ? Labor Laws

  • ? Prohibition

  • Direct Election

  • of Senators

The Issue of Trusts
  • Theodore Roosevelt, the first President of
    the Progressive Era, liked to be known as a
  • The Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 was later
    reinforced by the Clayton Anti-Trust Act of
    1914, which outlawed specific types of trusts.

  • The Grange- this club was to serve as a social
    club for farmers but it later developed into an
    organization that fought for economic and
    political reforms for farmers.
  • The Interstate Commerce Act- this act prohibited
    railroads from charging more for short hauls than
    for long hauls over the same route. This marked a
    change from laissez-faire policies of the past.

The Populist Platform
  • Like the Grangers before them, the Populists
    wanted government interference in business and
    society. They wanted the following
  • A) Government Ownership of railroads
  • B) Graduated income tax so that wealthy
    individuals paid a higher rate
  • C) Immigration Restrictions with quotas
  • D) Shorter Work day of 8 hours

William Jennings Bryan
  • In 1896, the Democratic Party nominated William
    Jennings Bryan for President after he delivered
    His Cross of Gold speech. The speech praised
    farmers and denounced bankers for Crucifying
    mankind on a Cross of Gold.
  • Bryan narrowly lost the election to
  • William McKinley, a pro-business candidate.

Cross of Gold Speech
The 16th and 17th Amendments
  • The Sixteenth Amendment made it
    legal for the national
    government to collect income
  • The Seventeenth Amendment changed the way our
    U.S. Senators are chosen. They are now directly
    elected by the citizens of their states, not by
    their state legislatures, as they had been
  • (See underlined memory hints above.)

The Temperance Movement
  • Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s,
    reformers worked to ban the sale of alcohol
    (pictured in the banner as a snake). They
    believed that most social problems were caused or
    compounded by alcohol use.
  • The 18th Amendment was passed in 1919 and the
    Prohibition Era began.

The Womens Suffrage Issue
  • Susan B. Anthony was one of many famous
    suffragists who worked throughout the second
    half of the 19th Century and the Progressive Era
    to win women the right to vote.
  • The 19th Amendment finally gave women the right
    to vote in national elections in 1920.

Social Gospel Movement
  • Social Gospel Movement- called for social reforms
    like the abolition of child labor and safer
    working conditions
  • Jane Addams- Founder of Hull House a settlement
    house created to aid new American immigrants in
    crowded cities.

The Issue of Child Labor
  • Child labor laws varied from state-to-state.
  • Some states continued to allow children as young
    as 5 or 6 years old to work long days in the
    factories. Many poor families chose to send
    their kids to work instead of school.

  • At this time, the U.S. Constitution was
    interpreted to mean that
    only state governments,
    not the national government,
    could pass ? laws related to
    child labor.
  • Many progressive state governments set
    minimum age laws or mandatory
    school attendance laws
    during the Progressive Era.

  • Muckrakers were journalists that exposed the
    muck or dirt of American life.
  • Upton Sinclair exposed the Meat Industry in his
    book, The Jungle

Conservation Issues
  • The conservation movement began during
    Progressive Era
  • 1903- First national wildlife refuge (in Florida)
  • 1905- U.S. Forest Service created
  • Altogether, Roosevelt set aside 16 national
    monuments, 51 wildlife refuges and 5 new national
    parks (including the Grand Canyon, Mesa Verde,
    and Yosemite National Park)

The Issue of Civil Rights
  • Despite the serious problems with racial
    discrimination during this time period, race
    relations and the rights of minorities were not
    considered major issues by the typical
    progressive reformer. This issue was not under
    the Progressive umbrella.
  • However, a major accomplishment during this
    period was the establishment of the NAACP by
    W.E.B. DuBois and others.

The Progressive Era and WWI
  • Americans went off to war in 1917 with a
    progressive zeal, believing that they would make
    the world safe for democracy and that this might
    be the last war of all time.
  • Despite the Allied victory in 1918, the
    brutality of the war and the harsh terms of the
    Treaty of Versailles, damaged the progressive
    spirit in America and turned public attention
    away from reform.