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PROGRESSIVE ERA 1890s-1920

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Title: PROGRESSIVE ERA 1890s-1920


1
PROGRESSIVE ERA 1890s-1920
  • A21w
  • 9.2.13

2
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
  • Who were the Progressives?
  • What reforms did they seek?
  • How successful were Progressive Era reforms in
    the period 1890-1920?
  • Consider political change, social change
    (industrial conditions, urban life, women,
    prohibition)

3
ORIGINS OF PROGRESSIVE REFORM
4
Progressivism
WHEN? Progressive Reform Era
1920s
1890s
1901
1917
  • WHO? Progressives
  • urban middle-class managers professionals
    women
  • WHY? Address the problems arising from
  • industrialization (big business, labor strife)
  • urbanization (slums, political machines,
    corruption)
  • immigration (ethnic diversity)
  • inequality social injustice (women racism)

5
Progressivism
  • WHAT are their goals?
  • Democracy government accountable to the people
  • Regulation of corporations monopolies
  • Social justice workers, poor, minorities
  • Environmental protection
  • Address political corruption
  • HOW?
  • Government (laws, regulations, programs)
  • Efficiency
  • value experts use of scientific study to
    determine the best solution
  • Called Scientific Management
  • Question is HOW MUCH?????

6
Origins of Progressivism
  • Muckrakers investigative journalists
  • Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives (1890)
  • Ida Tarbell The History of the Standard Oil
    Co. (1902)
  • Lincoln Steffens The Shame of the Cities (1904)

HW Read only 1 and Answer ?s
Ida Tarbell
Lincoln Steffens
7
REFORMS
8
Well-known REFORMS
  • Workplace labor reforms

Example Event Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire -
1911
It is remembered as one of the most infamous
incidents in American industrial history, as the
deaths were largely preventable The tragedy
brought widespread attention to the dangerous
sweatshop conditions of factories, and led to the
development of a series of laws and regulations
that better protected the safety of workers
9
As we watchin your notebook
  • I. What were conditions like in the factory for
    the workers?
  • Who was working?
  • Work day?
  • Working conditions?
  • Safety?
  • II. What happened to start the fire?
  • III. Immediate Reaction of the workers
  • IV. During the firewhat was happening?
  • V. Problems that occurred battling the fire?
  • VI. Aftermath

10
Long-lasting Effects
  • Changed the regulation by government of business
  • Before government mostly stayed away from
    business
  • Felt had no power to legislate it
  • AFTERWARDS COULD NOT AVOID INSTITUTING LAWS TO
    PROTECT WORKERS

ONCE NEW YORK LEGISLATURE ENACTED SAFETY LAWS,
OTHER STATES FOLLOWED SUIT
11
LONG-LASTING EFFECTS
  • Workers also looked towards UNIONS to voice
    concern over safety and pay
  • Factory Commission (1911)
  • International Ladies Garment Workers Union
  • Led a march of 100,000 to tell NY legislature to
    move into action and address concerns

12
History Repeats Itself?
  • March 25, 1990
  • Happy Land Social Club (Bronx)
  • 87 Killed (customers, not workers)
  • Why?
  • NO

Sprinkler System
Fire Alarms
Exits
Windows - iron bars
One Exit Door
13
History Repeats Itself
  • Sept. 3 1991
  • North Carolina Poultry Factory
  • 25 Killed (workers)
  • Why?
  • EXITS

Not marked well
Or blocked
Or padlocked (to prevent theft)
14
Reforms into today
  • Countless state and federal laws
  • Unions gathered numerous new workers
  • Employers have a clear set of guidelines that
    need to be followed to ensure safety of their
    employees
  • Fire Drills and instructions posted
  • Firefighting equipment must be maintained and
    portable fire extinguishers
  • Fire Sprinklers
  • Employee training

Look Around You
15
Well-known SOCIAL REFORMS
  • Additional Workplace labor reforms
  • eight-hour work day
  • improved safety health conditions in factories
  • workers compensation laws
  • minimum wage laws
  • unionization

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, 1913
16
State Social Reform Child Labor
Breaker Boys Pennsylvania, 1911
Child Laborers in Indiana Glass Works, Midnight,
Indiana. 1908
Shrimp pickers in Peerless Oyster Co. Bay St.
Louis, Miss., March 3, 1911
Child Laborer, Newberry, S.C. 1908
17
SOCIAL/LABOR REFORMS cont
  • One of the most persistent causes of Progressive
    Era reformers was
  • child labor reform.
  • Children (ten to fifteen years old) worked in
    America.
  • The 1890 census ? more than one million
  • The 1910 census ?increased to two million
  • Industries employed children as young as five or
    six to work as many as eighteen to twenty hours a
    day.

18
Why so many children?
  • Industrialization did not create child labor, but
    it did contribute to the need for child labor
    reform.
  • The replacement of skilled artisans by machinery
    and the growth of factories and mills made child
    labor increasingly profitable for businesses.
  • Why - Children cost less to employ than adults,
    and were paid only a fraction of what an
    adult worker would make (or sometimes,
    nothing)
  • about 5 pence (penny) a day or
  • 1.50 for 16 hours of work (25 now)
  • Many employers preferred hiring children because
    they were quick, easy to train, could fit in
    small places, small fingers, and were willing to
    work for lower wages.

19
Lets hear about some history
  • Camella Teoli Testifies about the 1912 Lawrence
    Textile Strike
  • Background
  • 30,000 largely immigrant workers walked out of
    the Lawrence, Massachusetts, textile mills in
    January 1912
  • The strike began because of unsafe working
    conditions in the mills
  • Also Massachusetts had passed a law requiring a
    shorter work week? textile mill owners responded
    by reducing workers' wages

20
Lets hear some history
  • She went before a U.S. Congressional hearing in
    March 1912.
  • Testified about losing her hair when it got
    caught in a textile machine she was operating.
  • Gained national headlinesin part because
  • Helen Taft, the
  • wife of the President
    Taft,
  • was there

The resulting publicity helped secure a strike
victory
21
Where the Progressives came in
  • Believed that child labor was detrimental to
    children and to society.
  • Children should be
  • Protected from harmful environments so that they
    would become healthy, productive adults.
  • Their goals were to develop programs that would
  • eliminate children's participation in industry
  • increase their involvement in education and
    extracurricular activities.

22
Child Labor Laws enacted
  • The Keating-Owen Act (1916) would have freed
    children from child labor only in industries that
    engaged in interstate commerce

Supreme Court declared law unconstitutional in
1918 on the grounds that Congress could not
regulate local labor conditions
23
Child Labor Laws enacted
  • President Woodrow Wilson approved and signed into
    law the "Tax on Employment of Child Labor (1919)
  • This placed a 10 tax on net profits of
    businesses that employed children under age
    fourteen or made them work more than eight hours
    a day, six days a week.
  • The Supreme Court declared this law
    unconstitutional.

24
Still a great deal of opposition to a national
amendment against child labor
  • Opponents labeled the proposed amendment a
    communist idea that government would control the
    nation's businesses
  • Yet the initial passage of bills may have had
    some effect on businesses
  • Number of working children (10 15) declined by
    almost fifty percent between 1910 and 1920.

25
Some laws did make it onto the books
  • The Smith-Hughes Act (1917)
  • Provided one million dollars to states that
    agreed to improve their public schools by
    providing vocational education programs.
  • Why?
  • Would offer children an alternative to work.
  • By 1929 every state had a provision banning
    children under fourteen from working

26
Keating-Owen Act
  • In February 1941 the Supreme Court overruled the
    1918 decision
  • As a result, businesses that shipped goods out of
    state had to abide by the ruling that children
    could only work outside of school hours and that
    children under eighteen were unable to work in
    jobs that were hazardous to their health.

27
Progressive Reforms today
  • For example
  • Child Labor Laws do not permit employees younger
    than 18 to work with or repair, adjust, or clean
    power-driven machinery like meat/deli slicers or
    bakery mixers

28
  • Who was he?
  • Grew up in wealthy family
  • Began his career as a journalist at the New York
    Evening Post.
  • - Later became an editor of McClure's
    magazine (worked with other muckrakers)
  • - He and McClures took on corporate monopolies
    and political machines (corruption) , the awful
    conditions most Americans lived and worked in,
    the tainted food and water they ate and drank.

Cities began to use city commissions and city
managers see later
Lincoln Steffens
The commercial spirit is the spirit of profit,
not patriotism of credit, not honor of
individual gain, not national prosperity of
trade and dickering, not principle. "My business
is sacred," says the businessman in his heart.
"Whatever prospers my business, is good it must
be. Whatever hinders it, is wrong it must be. A
bribe is bad, that is, it is a bad thing to take
but it is not so bad to give one, not if it is
necessary to my business. Lincoln Steffens
The Shame of The Cities
29
  • Protect
  • Social Welfare

30
  • A hundred thousand people lived in rear tenements
    in New York City last year. Here is a room
    neater than the rest. The spice of hot soapsuds
    is added to the air already tainted with the
    smell of boiling cabbage, of rags and
    uncleanliness all about. It makes an
    overpowering compound.
  • How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis

Jacob Riis
Who was he? Social reformer, "muckraking"
journalist and social documentary
photographer Worked as a police reporter whose
work appeared in several New York newspapers -
documented the living and working conditions of
the poor
As a result of his work - NYC passed building
codes to promote safety and health.
Lets take a look
31
Social Welfare Reformers
  • Early Reform Program
  • Social Gospel movement
  • Preached salvation through service to the poor
  • Leaders encouraged churches erected in poor
    communities
  • Persuaded some business leaders to treat workers
    more fairly
  • Target
  • Relieving the poverty of immigrants and other
    city dwellers

32
MUNICIPAL REFORM
  • municipal reform
  • utilities - water, gas, electricity, trolleys
  • council-manager plan (Dayton, 1913)

Shoe line - Bowery men with gifts from ward boss
Tim Sullivan, February, 1910
33
MUNICIPAL REFORM
strong mayor system
MAYOR
COUNCIL MEMBER
COUNCIL MEMBER
COUNCIL MEMBER
COUNCIL MEMBER
COUNCIL MEMBER
CITY SERVICES
  • council-manager plan (Dayton, 1913)

COUNCIL MEMBER
COUNCIL MEMBER
COUNCIL MEMBER
COUNCIL MEMBER
COUNCIL MEMBER
CITY MANAGER
CITY SERVICES
34
STATE POLITICAL REFORM
  • secret ballots
  • direct primary
  • Robert M. LaFollette
  • Seventeenth Amendment (1913)
  • initiative
  • referendum
  • recall

Robert M. LaFollette, Wisconsin Governor 1900-06
35
Well-known SOCIAL REFORMS
  • The Settlement House Movement
  • Community Centers in slum neighborhoods
  • Provided- education (ex English classes),
    culture (ex crafts, drama plays, music
    painting), day care
  • Also the YMCA and Salvation Army took on service
    roles
  • Way to address some of the ongoing problems of
    urbanization

Butler YMCA when established?
36
Famous Settlement House
  • Chicago Hull-House Jane Addams

Jane Addams (1905)
Hull-House Complex in 1906
37
Background on Jane Addams
  • Was the daughter of a well-to-do Illinois
    businessman
  • Jane often went with her father on his trips to
    the mills that he owned.
  • One day in 1867, her father had business in the
    town of Freeport.
  • The mill next to the poorest section of town.
  • Rows of run-down houses crowded one beside the
    other
  • Children dressed in ragged, dirty clothing played
    in the streets.
  • "Papa, why do these people live in such horrid
    little houses so close together?" she asked.
  • "Because they have no money to live in better
    places," he replied.
  • "Well, when I grow up, I shall live in a big
    houseBut it will not be built among the other
    large houses, but right in the midst of horrid
    little houses like these."

38
In 1889Pursuing a dream
  • Addams and her friend Ellen Gates Starr, rented a
    run-down mansion that once had belonged to a man
    named Charles Hull.
  • Location in one of Chicago's industrial areas.
  • Many European immigrants lived in the
    neighborhood.
  • Spoke little, if any, English
  • Lived in crowded, dirty tenements.
  • Most worked in nearby factories
  • earning barely enough money to feed their
    families.
  • Addams and Starr hoped that Hull House would
    bring some light into these people's lives

39
Regarding Hull House
The Settlement ... is an experimental effort to
aid in the solution of the social and industrial
problems which are engendered by the modern
conditions of life in a great city. It insists
that these problems are not confined to any one
portion of the city. It is an attempt to relieve,
at the same time, the overaccumulation at one end
of society and the destitution at the
other. Jane Addams "20 Years at Hull House",
1910
40
Many services offered
  • Kindergarten class/daycare for children left at
    the settlement while their mothers worked in the
    sweatshops
  • Established the citys first public playground,
    bathhouse, and public gymnasium
  • Provided nutritious food for the sick
  • Offered courses
  • Became well known for its success in aiding
    American assimilation, especially with immigrant
    youth

41
Stepped up to help
  • For example, one Italian bride had lost her
    wedding ring and in turn was beaten by her
    husband for a week. She sought shelter at the
    settlement and it was granted to her.
  • In another case, a woman was about to give birth
    to an illegitimate baby, so none of the Irish
    nurses would touch it.
  • Addams and Starr stepped in and delivered the
    baby
  • Starr and Addams volunteered as on-call doctors
    when the real doctors weren't available (studied
    medicine)
  • Acted as midwives
  • Saved babies from neglect
  • Prepared the dead for burial
  • Nursed the sick
  • Gave shelter to domestic violence victims.

42
Her Legacy
  • won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 for her work
  • When she died in 1935, Hull House filled an
    entire city block.
  • It had inspired the creation of hundreds of
    similar houses across the U.S.

43
Progressive Journalism
  • Focus on Corruption and social injustice
  • Raise the consciousness of America
  • Muckrakers
  • Upton Sinclair
  • and The Jungle 1906

44
Background
  • Born in Baltimore
  • Grew up poor though money on his mothers side
    (stayed with grandparents due to mother-son
    relationship)
  • Gave him insight into how both the rich and the
    poor lived

45
Background cont
  • He graduated in 1897 ? Columbia University
  • Major - Law, but he was more interested in
    writing, and he learned several languages
    including Spanish, German and French.
  • He supported himself through college by writing
    boys' adventure stories and jokes
  • Love for reading (5 yrs old)
  • read every book that his mother owned for a
    deeper understanding of the world.
  • Entered City College of New York (14 yrs old)
  • He wrote jokes, dime novels and magazine articles
    in boy's weekly
  • and pulp magazines to pay for his
  • tuition.

46
Investigative work
  • In 1904, Sinclair spent seven weeks in disguise,
    working undercover in Chicago's meatpacking
    plants to research his political fiction exposé
  • When it was published two years later, it became
    a bestseller

47
Excerpt from The Jungle
Audio Online
ExtraVideo
48
Upton Sinclairs The Jungle Aftermath
  • Consumer Protection
  • Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
  • Halted the sale of contaminated foods and
    medicines and called for truth in labeling
  • Meat Inspection Act (1906)
  • The Act mandated cleaner conditions for
    meatpacking plants

Chicago Meatpacking Workers, 1905
"A nauseating job, but it must be done"
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