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The Progressive Era: 1900-1917

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Title: The Progressive Era: 1900-1917


1
The Progressive Era 1900-1917
  • Chapter 21

2
What is Progressivism?
  • New feeling that liberalism of founding fathers
    never counted on massive growth of private wealth
    in Gilded Age.
  • Laissez-Faire government exacerbated inequalities
    of class, race, and gender
  • Progressives
  • Christian mission
  • Remove social evils
  • Concern about growing power of wealthy and trusts
  • Feared immigrant poor

3
Progressivism
  • Strength lay in cities
  • Progressives
  • Journalists
  • Academics
  • Social theorists
  • Urban dwellers
  • Importance of Science
  • All problems could be solved
  • through careful study and organized effort

4
Intellectuals
  • Thorstein Velben
  • Conspicuous consumption 1899
  • William James
  • Pragmatism 1907
  • Herbert Croly
  • Promise of American Life 1909
  • Activist government
  • Jane Addams
  • Democracy and Social Ethics 1902
  • Twenty Years at the Hull House 1910
  • John Dewey
  • Schools engine of change
  • Democracy and Education 1916
  • Oliver Wendell
  • The Common Law 1881
  • Law must change as society changes

5
Novelists, Journalists, and Artists
  • Novelists
  • Frank Morris
  • The Octopus 1901
  • Theodore Dreiser
  • The Financier, The Titan 1912
  • Lincoln Steffans
  • The Shame of Cities 1904
  • Journalists
  • McClures, Colliers
  • Lincoln Steffans
  • muckrackers
  • exposes
  • Artists
  • Aschan School NY
  • Photographed harshness of Slums
  • Lewis Hine (1911-1916)

6
Political Reformers
  • Early Efforts 1880s, 1890s
  • NYC protestant clergy vs. Tammany Hall
  • Mayor Hazen Pingree
  • Lowered transit faire
  • Fairer tax structure
  • Services for the poor
  • Mayors
  • Thomas Johnson (Cleveland, Ohio)
  • Copied Pingree with streetcar fares
  • Fought for fairer taxation
  • Municipal owned public facilities
  • Samuel M. Golden Rule Jones (Toledo, Ohio)
  • Social Gospel follower
  • Profit-sharing in factory
  • Playgrounds, free kindergarten, lodging for
    homeless
  • Robert Fighting Bob La Follette (Wisconsin)
  • Brought scientist and academics to his
    administration
  • Lowered railroad rates
  • Raised railroad taxes
  • Improved education
  • laboratory of democracy
  • 1903 Direct Primary
  • State Reforms
  • Secret Ballots
  • Copied Australia
  • 1910 all states used
  • Initiatives
  • Referendums
  • Recall
  • New procedures weakened party loyalty and voter
    decline

7
Regulating business, protecting workers
  • Difficulties
  • Entire family worked
  • 1.6 million children
  • Long hours/ hazards
  • Efficiency
  • Frederick Taylor
  • Scientific Management
  • Laws/reforms
  • Triangle shirtwaist fire
  • Florence Kelley
  • Conditions in factories
  • Alice Hamilton
  • Industrial hygiene
  • Corporate consolidation continued into 1900s
  • United States Steel Company 1901 (J.P. Morgan)
  • International Harvester Company
  • General Motors Company 1908
  • Workers benefit
  • Annual real wages increase
  • Purchasing power

8
Making Cities More Livable
  • Human warehouses
  • Lacked
  • Adequate parks
  • Municipal services
  • Public Health resources
  • Recreational facilities
  • Reforms
  • City Planning
  • Daniel Burnham
  • NY Tenement reforms 1911
  • Regulation of milk and food handlers
  • Improved sewage and water systems
  • vaccinations

9
Moral Control in the Cities
  • Lower-class amusements immoral
  • Amusement parks
  • Nickelodeons
  • Charlie Chaplin
  • nickel madness
  • Tin Pan Alley
  • Ragtime
  • Attempts at reform
  • Anti-Saloon League
  • 1895, Protestant Clergy
  • Womens Christian Temperance Movement (WCTM)
  • Targeted prostitution
  • social evil
  • 1910 Mann Act
  • Natives vs. Immigrants
  • Temperance targeted
  • Irish
  • Germans
  • Italians
  • Importance of taverns to immigrant communities
  • Drug-use Campaigns
  • Opium, Cocaine widely used
  • Cocaine in Coca-Cola
  • Cough Medicine
  • 1912 treaty banning Opium trade
  • 1914 Narcotics Act

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13
Immigration Restriction
  • Use of science
  • 1911 study, Edward A Ross
  • Proved immigrants degeneracy
  • Low browed, big faced, low mentality
  • Henry Cabot Lodge
  • Literacy Tests, vetoed
  • Eugenics
  • Controlled reproduction
  • Madison Grant
  • Denounced southern Europeans, Jews, and Africans
  • Bogus data
  • Racial segregation, forced sterilization
  • 1927 Buck v. Bell
  • Upheld laws to sterilize criminals, sex
    offenders, mental deficient
  • Laws
  • Alien Land Law 1913- CA

14
Racism and Progressivism
  • Racism peaking in the south
  • Politically
  • Democrats push disenfranchisement as reform
  • Tensions in the North
  • Migration to north 1890-1910
  • Only slightly better conditions
  • Birth of a Nation 1915
  • Hostility
  • Atlanta Riots 1906
  • Response
  • Strong social institutions

15
Black Organization
  • William Monroe Trotter
  • 1902, Criticizes Booker T. Washington, too slow
  • Ida Wells-Barnett
  • Anti-lynching campaign
  • W.E.B. Du Bois
  • Attacked Tuskegee Machine
  • The Souls of Black Folk 1903
  • Demanded full racial equality
  • Niagara Movement 1905
  • Universal male suffrage
  • Civil rights
  • NAACP 1909

16
Woman Suffrage Movement
  • 1910
  • 4 western states allow women to vote
  • Grass-Roots Campaign
  • California triumph 1911
  • National Movement
  • Susan B. Anthony
  • Carrie Chapman Catt
  • Lobbied legislation
  • Media blitz, fundraisers
  • 1917 NY Victory
  • Civil Disobedience
  • Alice Paul
  • Too passive
  • Picketed President Wilson

17
Womans New Sphere
  • Charlotte Perkins Gilman
  • Women and Economics 1898
  • Roots of female subordination
  • Advocated economic independence
  • Herland 1915
  • Margaret Sanger
  • Coined term birth control
  • Social movement for social change
  • Also Mary Ware Dennett

18
Workers Organization
  • Labor Unions expand 20
  • 1908 Danbury Hatters Case
  • Forbade unions for organizing boycotts
  • Ladies Garment Workers Union
  • Success strikes 1909, 1911
  • Women of all classes participated
  • Industrial Workers of the World, Chicago 1905
  • Wobblies
  • Less mass strikes of gold miners
  • 1912 bitter Textile mill strike
  • Reputation for violence

19
Socialism
  • Socialist Party of America
  • Hybrid of Karl Marx theories
  • Eugene V. Debs
  • Ran in 5 Presidential Elections
  • Championed end of Capitalism and public ownership
    of railroads, utilities, etc.

20
Theodore Roosevelt
  • Now that damned Cowboy is President Mark
    Hanna
  • Progressive Reformer
  • White house a bully pulpit for reforms
  • Worked to shift power from wall street to
    Washington
  • Trustbuster
  • 1902 United Mine Workers Union Strike
  • 1902 State of the Union
  • Trustbusting
  • Suit against Northern Securities
  • 1903 Elkins Act
  • Created Department of Labor and Commerce
  • Hepburn Act of 1906
  • Empowered Interstate Commerce Commission

21
T.R. Reforms
  • Pure Food and Drug Act 1906
  • The Jungle 1906
  • Meat Inspection Act 1906
  • Environmentalism
  • Boy Scouts 1910, Girl Scouts 1912
  • National Reclamation Act 1902
  • Money from public lands for water management in
    arid regions
  • 16 million acres of national forest
  • National Park Service Act 1906
  • Gilford Pinchot
  • Planned development
  • US Forrest Service

22
William Howard Taft
  • Handpicked by T.R.
  • Presidency marked by progressive stalemate,
    bitter break with T.R., and a schism in the
    Republican Party
  • T.R.s Legacy
  • Mann-Elkins Act 1910
  • More trustbusting than T.R.
  • Insurgents
  • Sen. La Follette
  • Issue over the tariff
  • Payne-Aldrich Tariff
  • Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
  • T.R.s Return
  • Sides with Insurgents

23
The Greatest Presidential Election
  • Republicans
  • Taft
  • conservative
  • Democrats
  • Woodrow Wilson
  • New Freedom
  • Small government, small business, free
    competition
  • Progressives
  • Roosevelt, Bull Moose Party
  • New Nationalism
  • Federal planning and regulation
  • Increases in power of government
  • Tariff regulation, Womens suffrage
  • Socialist
  • Eugene V. Debs

24
Woodrow Wilson
  • Owed victory to democratic machine, turned his
    back
  • Democratic congress ready to do his bidding
  • Tariff
  • Spoke directly to Congress
  • Underwood-Simmons Tariff
  • Reduced rates by average of 15, included income
    tax
  • Banking and Currency Reform 1913
  • Panic of 1907
  • Federal Reserve Act 1913
  • 12 regional Federal reserve banks
  • Most imp. Legislation
  • The Fed

25
Wilson Reforms
  • Federal Trade Commission Act 1914
  • Watchdog agency
  • Clayton Anti-Trust Act 1914
  • Improved Sherman act
  • Magna Carta of labor
  • 1916 Reforms
  • Keating-Owen Act
  • Barred Child labor
  • Adamson Act
  • 8 hr workday
  • Workers Compensation Act
  • Federal Farm Act
  • Use land or crops to get low-interest federal
    loans
  • Federal Warehouse Act
  • Federal Highway Act

26
Constitutional Amendments
  • 16th Amendment
  • Income tax authority 1913
  • Max of 7
  • 17th Amendment
  • Direct election of US Senators by voters rather
    than state legislatures
  • Populist influence
  • Wisconsin
  • 18th Amendment
  • Prohibition
  • 19th Amendment
  • Womens right to vote

27
Progressive loses steam
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