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WORLD WAR ONE THE TRENCH WARFARE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

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Title: WORLD WAR ONE THE TRENCH WARFARE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES


1
WORLD WAR ONETHE TRENCH WARFARE AND ITS
CONSEQUENCES
  • CONTEXT AND STRATEGIES
  • TACTICS AND IDEOLOGIES
  • TRAUMAS

2
I. MOVEMENTS OF TROOPS AND BATTLEFRONTS
  • Three fronts Western, Russian (or Eastern),
    Balkanic and Turkish.
  • Strategic spots the straits, the seas (the
    routes to the colonies, trade with the US), the
    Channel ports (Dunkirk).
  • Psychological targets Paris, London, Moscow and
    civilians everywhere.

3
  • Three main phases on the Western Front
  • Plans and races to the sea failed 1914
  • end of the war of movement
  • Trench warfare 1915-17
  • soldiers and armies dug themselves
  • Troops moved again 1917-18

4
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5
The example of the first phase of the war
The German Schlieffen Plan The French Plan 17
September 1914 Battle of the Marne.
6
The formation of the first trench frontline
October-November 1914.
To avoid being skirted round / bypassed
(contourné) / cut from reinforcements.
Both armies moved northwards and met in a bloody
battle at Ypres. After a month the fight ended.
20,000 of Germanys finest troops were killed,
80,000 wounded. GB lost 8,000 men (BEF British
Expeditionary Force).
7
THERE WAS NO BREAKTHROUGH, THERE WAS STALEMATE.
Stalemate impasse.
Major battles
8
Major battles on the Western Front
Verdun, Feb-June 1916
Ypres, Oct-Nov 1914.
The Somme, summer to autumn 1916.
9
II. WHAT THE COMBATS AND THE TACTICS REVEALED
ABOUT STATES AND THE MILITARY MIND-SET
10
German side
No permanent retreat Occupy the land, consolidate
the front, adapt technologies Liberate Germany
from blockade
French side
Never surrender Never retreat Never wait and see
British side
Never lose the control of seas
Adapt technologies
11
The trench system
12
Permanent victories and withdrawals the
inefficiency of the trench tactics
T R E N C H
Artillery
No Man's Land
Infantry
13
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14
Cheshire Regiment trench, Somme, 1916.
15
A French WWI bunker soldier.
16
What was this war effort made for?
17
To experience new economic models?
 Technology experienced a great boost after the
war, as the production of automobiles, airplanes,
radios and even certain chemicals, skyrocketed.
The advantages of mass production and the use of
machinery to perform former human labor tasks,
along with the implementation of the eight hour
work day, proved to stimulate the economy .
18
To imply civilians at any cost?
Verdun, the Somme, Ypres the war of attrition
(usure). It consisted in obliging the enemy to
exhaust its human supplies by defending a place
it did not want to lose. The goal was not to
take the place but to bleed French army white
(saigner à blanc larmée française to bleed
the French dry) and to weaken the morale of
troops if France was crushed down, it would
isolate Britain and force this country to seek
peace.
19
To summon the populations in a collective destiny?
Censorship Propaganda
Enrolment
War loans
20
Document analyzis US Army recruitment
poster Harry R. Hopps, 1917
Present (context, author, intentions) Observe
then describe the composition interpret on the
meaning
21
Present (context, author, intentions)
Document analyzis US Army recruitment
poster Harry R. Hopps, 1917
Enlistment poster, to recruit new soldiers /
fresh meat  1917 year of US military involvement
(arrive in France in April) Tense year of the
tide for the Entente members loss of hundreds of
thousands of men in the Dardanelles, larger
discontent among the troops, first severe soldier
disregards at the front US army needs to
mobilize, to make US public opinion aware with
the necessity of war and to warn it about the
enemys intentions ? To what extent does it talk
about state war efforts? Is it about peace or
propaganda?
22
Observe Describe - Interpret
Document analyzis US Army recruitment
poster Harry R. Hopps, 1917
  • Foreground
  • giant letters giving orders
  • giant terrifying ape bloody bludgeon ironic
    writing of  Kultur  German spiked helmet with
    the caption  militarism 
  • abducted innocent woman clothes are taken off,
    ripped / torn, sliced and diced like a rape
    onto a maiden
  • Dark colours predominate
  • Background
  • Dark atmosphere (the sunset swallows the light)
    feeling of desolation inspired by the havoc
    wrecked in European cities (all in ruins)
  • Tends to maximize the evil side of the German
    ambitions
  • Caricatures the desolation that may touch the US
    land ( America )
  • Warns people and affects them in an emotional way
    to convince to go fighting

23
III. TRAUMAS
24
Many soldiers suffered from shell shock. The
intensity of the battles ? neurotic cracks
appeared in mentally stable soldiers.
War veterans with severe facial injuries Maimed
people Disabled veterans Men with broken faces
and lives
25
Incendiary shells on Verdun
26
Warfare was terrible artillery shells, poison
gas (which was used for the first time by Germans
in April 1915), flame thrower, hand-to-hand
fight.
Casualties From Gas - The Numbers
Country Total Casualties Death
Austria-Hungary 100,000 3,000
British Empire 188,706 8,109
France 190,000 8,000
Germany 200,000 9,000
Italy 60,000 4,627
Russia 419,340 56,000
USA 72,807 1,462
Others 10,000 1,000
Brutality was within the minds and retaliatory
feelings still persisted after 1918
27
Poisoned shells
28
The living conditions on the front line were
really dreadful (épouvantable), appalling
(effroyable) soldiers floundered (patauger) in
mud and when it rained, they could be up to their
knees in water. There was a lack of hygiene. In
such unhygienic conditions, diseases were common.
The epidemics germs in food and water led to
typhus, cholera, dysentry. Everyone had lice.
Rats ran everywhere. The smell from corpses and
sewage was terrible. Amputations were frequent.
The food was cold and often polluted with dust,
mud or something worse sometimes. Rotting
bodies, corpses, horse carcasses... direct
contact with death.
29
Death could happen at any time and took many
forms Soldiers were not anxious only, they were
traumatized Here, a vision of the No-Mans
Land... What do you feel in front of it?
Cannon fodder
30
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31
IV. IMPACTS OF THE WAR ON THE INTERWAR PERIOD
  • Increased frustrations, lost
    generations.
  • Anger and agressivity
  • ? to avenge.
  • The addiction to violence disturbed people and
    paved the way for fascist regimes

The undefeated army
F RANCE
GERMANY
The war to end all wars
32
  • A German machine gun squad
  • Patriotism a culture

Beyond pride and comic, what was the
result? Brainwashed people, indoctrination of the
youth Belief in fatality.
33
Otto Dix Dismembered veterans and
people Half-mechanic, half human Half-living,
half-dead
34
The heavy-metal band Metallica released a song
( ONE ) in tribute to WW1 soldiers and a
reference to 1971 Dalton Trumbos film  Johnny
got his gun 
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