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AP WORLD HISTORY Review Session 6

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Title: AP WORLD HISTORY Review Session 6


1
AP WORLD HISTORYReview Session 6
  • 1900 Present
  • The Modern Era

2
The 20th Century
  • MAJOR THEMES
  • World conflict the decline of empires
  • Decolonization and Nationalism
  • Cold War conflicts
  • Social Reforms
  • Globalization
  • Environmental Issues

3
WORLD WAR IThe Great War, 1914-1918
  • CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I
  • M -- Militarism
  • A -- Alliances
  • I -- Imperialism
  • N -- Nationalism

What is this?!
4
WORLD WAR I
  • Germany, Austria-Hungarian Empire, and the
    Ottoman Empire make up the Triple Alliance
    (Central Powers)
  • Britain, France, Russia and eventually the U.S.
    make up the Triple Entente, or Allies
  • Fighting was concentrated in Europe between
    France and Germany, in trenches, with very little
    progress made in 3 years
  • Between 16 and 28 million people died as a result
    of World War I

5
Trench Warfare
6
EUROPE IN 1914
  • The Balkan region is the powder keg

7
WORLD WAR I
  • Promises of self-determination
  • Use of colonial soldiers
  • Machine guns, trench warfare, submarines, planes,
    tanks new technology with terrible causalities
  • Treaty of Versailles ends the war but will set
    the stage for World War II

8
THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES, 1919
  • Germany must take responsibility for starting the
    war and pay reparations to the victors
  • Germany had to disband its military and give up
    land they considered Germanic
  • Britain and France take the lands held by the
    Ottoman Empire (Iraq, Palestine, etc.)
  • League of Nations is created (President Wilsons
    idea but the U.S. does NOT join)

9
EUROPES NEW LOOK, 1919
10
THE 1920s
  • The U.S. becomes a recognized world power
  • Britain and France regain strength as Germany
    suffers
  • Russia is now in the Soviet Union after the
    Bolshevik (Communist) Revolution of 1917
  • Economic boom time until 1929 when a global
    depression hits

11
ACTS OF AGGRESSION lead to World War II
  • Japan invaded Manchuria/China and did not have
    any consequences
  • Italy is taken over by Fascists (Mussolini) and
    invades Ethiopia, promising a return of the Roman
    Empire
  • Germany takes Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland
    in the 1930s while the European leaders watch
    (policy of appeasement)
  • An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping
    it will eat him last.
  • -Winston Churchill

12
GERMANY AND ITALY
  • Hitler and Mussolini were both Fascists (a
    militaristic nationalism that would stop at
    nothing to make the country powerful)

13
WORLD WAR II, 1939-1945
  • CAUSES Increased nationalist uprisings following
    WWI and the problems of the global depression
  • Fighting took place in Europe, Northern Africa
    (colonies of European powers), Southeast Asia,
    and the Pacific Ocean
  • Total Warfare destruction of entire cities with
    firebombing much deadlier weaponry than in World
    War I

14
THE END OF THE WAR
  • Germany surrendered in 1945 but Japan refused to
    surrender
  • The U.S. dropped two nuclear bombs (a new
    technology only America had) on Hiroshima and
    Nagasaki
  • Finally Japan surrendered, ending World War II
  • At least 65 million deaths from World War II

15
The Impact of World War II
  • Empires no morecolonies fight for independence
    and gain it
  • India, China, Vietnam, Israel, Afghanistan, and
    African nations all begin the struggle for
    freedom from western domination

16
IMPACT OF WORLD WAR II (continued)
  • The Cold War begins with the U.S. and the
    U.S.S.R. beginning an arms race, a space race,
    fighting proxy wars around the globe
  • The Domino Theory
  • The Containment Theory
  • Détente

17
POST WORLD WAR II
  • The United Nations begins and is headquartered in
    New YorkAmerican isolationism is over and a new
    era of global involvement begins
  • The U.N. has the goal of keeping peace between
    nations by promoting free trade and attempting to
    negotiate conflicts rather than fight wars

18
20th Century Revolutions
  • After World War II, colonies and developing world
    nations struggle for independence and change
  • Issues confronting these nations
  • The need to industrialize rapidly
  • Corrupt and unresponsive political systems
  • Harsh living and working conditions
  • Foreign intervention
  • Need for land reform

19
The Mexican Revolution, 1910
  • Mexico had a second revolution after the initial
    one to gain independence from Spain in the 19th
    century
  • This one forged a new government and a new
    constitution of 1917 with some real changes
  • Land reforms with limits on foreign ownership of
    key resources
  • Guaranteed rights of all workers
  • Restrictions on the power of the Catholic Church
  • Educational reforms (public schooling for all)

20
THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION, 1917
  • The Czar was seen as corrupt and selfish by most
    Russian people, who were poor and powerless
  • The Bolsheviks, a Communist rebel group led by
    Vladimir Lenin (aided by Stalin and Trotsky)
    overthrew the Czars regime and took over (after
    a long war)
  • The Soviet Union was formed in 1922 with Russia
    being the key nation in the new Communist
    powerhouse
  • Authoritarian rule with new political, economic,
    and cultural structure in place

21
COMPARING REVOLUTIONS
  • MEXICO
  • Sought the end of corrupt government
  • Land reform to help the peasants gain a better
    life as well as the working class
  • RUSSIA
  • Sought the end of corrupt government
  • Centered more on improving the lot of industrial
    workers (Proletariat) along with some land reform

22
CHINA in the 20th Century
  • Qing Dynasty falls in 1911
  • Japan invades and brutalizes China for decades
  • Nationalists led by Chang Kai-shek fight against
    the Communists led by Mao Zedong
  • Mao wins and China becomes a Communist nation in
    1949 Nationalists flee to Taiwan
  • Mao promised land redistribution, rights for
    women, education access, tax reform, and
    cooperative farming

23
Cuban Revolution, 1959
  • Fidel Castro and Che Guevara lead rebel forces
    against dictator (Batista) in Cuba for years
  • Batista is backed by the U.S. because he allowed
    American business interests to control his
    nations resourcesand he wasnt a Communist
    (remember how the Cold War made the U.S. operate
    in a very black/white fashion)
  • Castro seizes control in 1959 and executes
    opponents, nationalizes industries, and creates a
    Socialist nation just miles from the coast of
    Florida
  • He threatened to spread Communism to other Latin
    American nations which will create a lot of Cold
    War tension.just what we needed!

24
IRANIAN REVOLUTION, 1979
  • Also known as the Islamic Revolution
  • 1953 Shah Reza Pahlavi came to power in Iran with
    the help of the CIA he repressed all opposition
    and violated their constitution and promoted
    western values, angering his conservative Muslim
    population
  • 1979 the Ayatollah Khomeini led a revolution and
    overthrew the Shah, creating a new constitution
    based on Islamic law
  • 55 American hostages were taken and held for 444
    days
  • 1980-1988 Iran fought a war with Iraq over oil
    fields

25
Patterns of Decolonization and Nation-Building
  • THREE PATTERNS
  • Violent Revolutions and Civil War (China,
    Algeria, Vietnam, Palestine)
  • Non-violent, negotiated independence (India,
    Ghana, Turkey)
  • Both violent and non-violent methods (Kenya,
    Egypt, South Africa)

26
Palestine and Israel
  • Zionism led thousands of Jews to migrate to
    Palestine, controlled by Britain after World War
    I (Balfour Declaration helped)
  • Palestinians living there (Arab Muslims) resented
    the flood of immigrants and began fighting
  • The UN promised nationhood to both groups but
    only delivered for Israel in 1948
  • Israel had to fight several wars to defend
    herself against neighboring nations who resented
    a Jewish state in their region (Israel won all of
    these wars thanks to the support of the U.S.)
  • Israel took more land after victories

27
ALGERIA vs. FRANCE
  • Algeria broke away from French colonial rule
    after a war lasting from 1954-1962
  • Arab nationalism vs. French colonialism
  • 300,000 lives lost

28
INDIA
  • Indian National Congress formed in 1885 which got
    nationalist sentiment started
  • Gandhi and other nationalist leaders tried to
    prevent violent uprisings and concentrated
    instead on non-violent resistance
  • Boycotts, marches, hunger strikes were designed
    to make the British realize their policies in
    India were immoral and India deserved
    independence
  • 1947 India is partitioned and becomes 3 nations
    (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh)
  • Many died as a result of religious violence
    between Muslims and Hindus after partitioning

29
Decolonization in AfricaGHANA
  • 1957 - Ghana (the Gold Coast) gained
    independence, led by western educated Kwame
    Nkrumah
  • Used non-violent methods like Gandhi
  • Developed a parliamentary democracy similar to
    the British model
  • By 1963, all of British African colonies except
    for Rhodesia were independent

30
KENYA
  • Presence of many British settlers prevented a
    smooth transition of power
  • Jomo Kenyatta used non-violent protests
  • Mau-Mau Revolt of 1952 led by tribal group known
    as Kikuyus was suppressed by the British
  • Finally in 1963 Kenya was granted independence
    and Kenyatta was the new leader of the new nation

31
SOUTH AFRICA
  • Small white minority ruled over large black
    majority using system of Apartheid (separateness)
  • No protests tolerated and leaders and members of
    the African National Congress were imprisoned or
    executed
  • 1990 ANC becomes legalized and Apartheid
    finally ends after 80 years
  • Nelson Mandela is freed from prison and becomes
    the president of the new South Africa

32
Challenges of Independence
  • Ethnic disputes
  • Weak economies still dependent on industrialized
    nations (that used to own them)
  • Growing debt (constant loans from IMF and World
    Bank)
  • Widespread social unrest
  • Military responses to restore order
  • High population growth
  • Resource depletion
  • Education deficit and Brain Drain as a result
  • Neo-Colonialism through economic debt

33
THE COLD WAR, 1945-1991
  • The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. in a tense ideological
    standoff pitting democracy and capitalism against
    Communism
  • Both sides were nuclear by the 1950s so the Cold
    War was very tense indeed
  • Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 looked like the
    start of World War III and the end of the world
  • Proxy wars were fought all over the world in
    Africa, Latin America, and Asia

34
NATO and the Warsaw Pact
  • After World War II, the democratic western
    nations (Britain, U.S., France) joined NATO (the
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization) to form a
    united front against the spread of Communism in
    Europe
  • The Soviets and their allies formed the Warsaw
    Pact to promote Communism in Europe and the world

35
U.S. Cold War Policies
  • Containment block Soviet influence and prevent
    the spread of Communism
  • Truman Doctrine monetary support given by the
    U.S. to nations that resisted Communism
  • Marshall Plan post WWII assistance program to
    give food, aid, industrialization support to war
    torn nations of Europe to keep Soviets out

36
THE SOVIET RESPONSE
  • The Berlin Wall built in 1961 to keep East
    Germans inside the Communist controlled section
    of East Berlin
  • The Iron Curtain controlled satellite nations
    under Communism like Poland, Romania, Bulgaria,
    Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia

37
The Korean War, 1950-1953
  • Soviets aided North Koreas new Communist
    government and the South was aided by the United
    Nations, led by the U.S.
  • Stalemate was the norm, and an armistice was
    signed in 1953
  • There are still two nations and North Korea is an
    example of a Communist dictatorship today, while
    South Korea has done very well as an economic
    tiger in the global economy

38
VIETNAM
  • French colony since the 1880s
  • During World War II, Japan took over
  • Nationalist leader Ho Chi Minh formed the Viet
    Minh to fight France for independence
  • France asked for help from the U.S. in 1954 and
    then pulled out as Vietnam was divided into two
    nations with Communists in control of the North
    under Ho Chi Minh

39
VIETNAM
  • Viet Cong Communists fought against the South
    (who were aided by the U.S.)
  • 500,000 U.S. soldiers were unable to defeat the
    Viet Cong due to many factors
  • Limited war strategy of the U.S. (fear of
    bringing China into the war)
  • Dedicated insurgency (refusal to be colonized
    again)
  • Guerilla war by the Viet Cong
  • Corrupt government in South Vietnam supported by
    the U.S. made America unpopular with the
    Vietnamese
  • 1973 the U.S. leaves Vietnam and in 1975 Vietnam
    is united under one Communist government

40
The Arms Race The Space Race
  • The Cold War was all about defense spending, with
    both the Soviets and the U.S. spending trillions
    of dollars developing the newest, deadliest
    weaponry
  • The Space Race was also evidence of Cold War
    competition, with the Soviets winning the first
    round by launching the satellite Sputnik in 1957
    (making Americans panic that they were falling
    behind the Russians) but the U.S. won the Space
    Race by being the first to land a man on the moon
    in 1969

41
A NEW WORLD ORDER
  • Communism fell in Europe in 1989 and in the
    Soviet Union in 1991
  • Most of the transitions were non-violent, but
    Romania was pretty bloody
  • Reasons for collapse of Communism in Europe
  • Food shortages (and everything else)
  • Corruption in government
  • Nationalist yearnings
  • Terrible and inefficient economies

42
GLOBALIZATION
  • In the 1990s, the global economy became even
    more global
  • NAFTA, EU, and WTO
  • Consumerism
  • Interdependence of the global economy
  • Recession in Greece impacts the EU which impacts
    the United States which impacts the entire world
  • Many large companies are multinational
  • The World is Shrinking
  • Cultural imperialism (McDonalds everywhere)

43
THE RISE OF MILITANT ISLAM
  • In the 1990s, Global Terror networks like
    al-Qaeda take the place of Communism as the major
    threat to the west

44
SOCIAL REFORMS
  • Rise of feminism and womens rights
  • Civil rights movements
  • Anti-Apartheid movement in S. Africa
  • Class, religious, racial, gender, sexual reforms
    worldwide but of course in many places there is
    still resistance to these changes

45
HUMAN ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTION
  • Continued urbanization
  • Green Revolution (improved agricultural yields in
    developing world)
  • Deforestation
  • Ozone depletion and other environmental concerns
  • Rapid population growth in one century, now at 7
    billion people
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